World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Disinhibited attachment disorder

Article Id: WHEBN0015555654
Reproduction Date:

Title: Disinhibited attachment disorder  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Emotional and behavioral disorders, Mental disorders diagnosed in childhood, Adoption, Stereotypic movement disorder, Speech disorder
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Disinhibited attachment disorder

Disinhibited attachment disorder
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 F94.2

Disinhibited attachment disorder of childhood (DAD) according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10), is defined as:

"A particular pattern of abnormal social functioning that arises during the first five years of life and that tends to persist despite marked changes in environmental circumstances, e.g. diffuse, nonselectively focused attachment behaviour, attention-seeking and indiscriminately friendly behaviour, poorly modulated peer interactions; depending on circumstances there may also be associated emotional or behavioural disturbance." – F94.2 of the ICD-10.

Disinhibited attachment disorder is a subtype of the ICD-10 category F94, "Disorders of social functioning with onset specific to childhood and adolescence". The other subtype of F94 is reactive attachment disorder of childhood (RAD – F94 .1).

Synonymous or similar disorders include Affectionless psychopathy and Institutional syndrome.

Within the ICD-10 category scheme, disinhibited attachment disorder specifically excludes Asperger syndrome (F84.5), hospitalism in children (F43.2), and hyperkinetic disorders (F90.-).

Comparison with the DSM-IV

The DSM-IV distinguishes two categories of RAD: an inhibited subtype and a disinhibited subtype (in the DSM it is listed as 313.89 under infant diagnoses). The ICD-10 describes the former, emotionally withdrawn subtype as RAD and the latter subtype as Disinhibited Attachment Disorder (DAD) (Zeanah et al., 2004).

Generally, the DSM-IV criteria for the inhibited subtype of RAD were generated by studies done on children who were maltreated or abused. Criteria for the DSM-IV disinhibited subtype of RAD were based on research on children raised in institutions (Zeanah, 1996). This is largely based on the fact that inhibited subtype of RAD is more prevalent in maltreated children, and the disinhibited subtype of RAD is more prevalent in children raised in institutions (Zeanah, 2000).


In a study by Zeanah, (Zeanah et al., 2004) on reactive attachment disorder in maltreated toddlers, the criteria for DSM-IV disinhibited RAD (i.e. disinhibited attachment disorder) were:

  1. not having a discriminated, preferred attachment figure,
  2. not checking back after venturing away from the caregiver,
  3. lack of reticence with unfamiliar adults,
  4. a willingness to go off with relative strangers.

For comparison, the criteria for DSM-IV inhibited RAD were:

  1. absence of a discriminated, preferred adult,
  2. lack of comfort seeking for distress,
  3. failure to respond to comfort when offered,
  4. lack of social and emotional reciprocity, and
  5. emotion regulation difficulties.

The authors found that these two disorders were not completely independent; a few children may exhibit symptoms of both types of the disorder.

See also


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.