World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Disputed territories of Northern Iraq

Article Id: WHEBN0033670368
Reproduction Date:

Title: Disputed territories of Northern Iraq  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Foreign relations of Iraqi Kurdistan, Prime Minister of Iraqi Kurdistan, Kurdistan List, Halabja Governorate, Yazidis
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Disputed territories of Northern Iraq

Disputed areas in Iraq

  Disputed and part of the Kurdish Regional Government since 1991.
  Disputed and formerly under the control of the Iraqi central government until the 2014 Northern Iraq offensive and now part of the Kurdistan region.
Map showing the claimed borders of Southern Kurdistan.

The Disputed territories of Northern Iraq, or Disputed internal Kurdish-Iraqi boundaries, are regions defined by the article 140 of the Constitution of Iraq as being Arabised during the Baath Party rule in Iraq. Most of these regions had previously been inhabited by non-Arab minorities, most notably Kurds, and were later arabised by transferring and settling Arab tribes in those areas.

The disputed areas have been a core concern for Arabs and Kurds, especially since the US invasion and political restructuring in 2003. Kurds gained territory to the south of Iraqi Kurdistan after the US-led invasion in 2003 to regain what land they considered historically theirs.[1] Currently, in addition to the four governorates of Iraqi Kurdistan, Kurds control parts of Nineveh Province, Kirkuk Governorate, Salah ad Din Governorate and Diyala Governorate, which are also claimed by the Iraqi government; on the other hand, Iraqi government controls parts of those four provinces, some parts of which are also claimed by the Kurds.

Tensions between Iraq and Iraqi Kurdistan


Tensions between Iraqi Kurdistan and the central Iraqi government mounted through 2011-2012 on the issues of power sharing, oil production and territorial control. On April 2012, the president of Iraq’s semi-autonomous northern Kurdish region demanded that officials agree to their demands or face consequences of a secession from Baghdad by September 2012.[2]

Iraqi Diyala command crisis

On September 2012, Iraqi government ordered the KRG to transfer its powers over Peshmerga to the central government and the relations strained further by the formation of a new command center (Tigris Operation Command) for Iraqi forces to operate in a disputed area over which both Baghdad and the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) claim jurisdiction.[3] On 16 November 2012, a military clash between the Iraqi forces and the Peshmerga resulted in one person killed.[3] CNN reported that 2 people were killed (one of them an Iraqi soldier) and 10 wounded in clashes at the Tuz Khurmato town.[4]

On the night of November 19, clashes between security forces of the central Iraqi government and the KRG forces in Tigrit left 12 Iraqi soldiers and one civilian dead, according to Doğan news agency.[5] The clash erupted when Iraqi soldiers attempted to enter northern Iraq; peshmargas tried to prevent the Iraqi soldiers from entering the area upon Barzani’s instructions.[5] On November 25, it was reported that Iraqi Kurdistan sent reinforcements to a disputed area where its troops are involved in a standoff with the Iraqi army, despite calls on both sides for dialogue to calm the situation.[6]

Territories included

The Committee for implementing article 140 defines the disputed territories as those areas arabised and whose border modified between 17 July 1968 and 9 April 2003. Those areas include parts of four governorates of pre-1968 borders.[7]

One of the major problems in trying to implement Article 140 was a discrepancy in the definition of 'disputed area'.[1] The article only refers to regions that would go through this normalization process as "Kirkuk and other disputed area".[1] In 2003, Kurdish negotiator Mahmud Othman suggested that Kurdish majority areas below the Green line be attached to the KRG immediately, and 'mixed areas' should be questioned on a case-by-case basis.[1] Sunnis felt as if Kurds should gain no additional land as a result of the US invasion.[1] Reattaching Kirkuk districts to reflect the 1975 boundaries posed many problems to Iraqis and brought along unintended consequences.[1]

Nineveh Governorate

Includes Aqra District which have been under Kurdish control since 1991 and the three districts of Nineveh Plains of Assyrian, Yazidi and Shabak population as well as Sinjar town and Tel Afar District of mixed Arab and Yazidi population.

Arbil Governorate

The disputed territories include the Makhmur District which has been separated from the rest of the governorate since 1991.

Makhmur District is Arab majority with Kurdish minority and currently lies in province of Nineveh.

Kirkuk Governorate

Districts of Kirkuk Governorate

Kirkuk Governorate is defined by its pre-1968 borders, including Chamchamal and Kalar districts of Sulaymaniyah Governorate and Tooz District of Salah ad Din and Kifri District of Diyala.

Kirkuk province borders were altered, the Kurdish dominated districts were added to Erbil and Sulamaniya provinces. the Arab districts were added to Kirkuk province. Turkmen villages were added to Diyala and Salahuddin provinces.[8]

Census results for Kirkuk Governorate[9]
Mother tongue 1957 Percentage 1977 Percentage 1997 Percentage
Kurds 187,593 48.2% 184,875 38% 155,861 21%
Arabs 109,620 28.2% 218,755 45% 544,596 72%
Turkmens 83,371 21.4% 80,347 17% 50,099 7%
Assyrians 1,605 0.4%
Jews 123 0.03%
Other 6,545 1.77% 0 0% 2,189 0.3%
Total 388,829 100% 483,977 100% 752,745 100%

Diyala and other Governorates

Disputed territories include Khanaqin, Kifri and Baladrooz districts of Diyala Governorate, Tooz District which is currently part of Salah ad Din Governorate, and Badra District which is currently part of Wasit Governorate.

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f Bartu, Peter (2010). "Wrestling With the Integrity of A Nation: The Disputed Internal Boundaries in Iraq". International Affairs. 6 86. 
  2. ^
  3. ^ a b Iraqi Kurdish leader says region will defend itself | Reuters
  4. ^ Two dead, 10 wounded after Iraqi, Kurdish forces clash in northern Iraq -
  5. ^ a b Iraq tensions added to regional turmoil - MIDEAST
  6. ^ Iraqi Kurdistan send more troops into standoff with Iraq Arab-led army
  7. ^ نبذة عن لجنة تنفيذ المادة (140) من دستور جمهورية العراق (Arabic)
  8. ^ Dagher, Sam (25 April 2008). "Can the U.N. avert a Kirkuk border war?". CS Monitor. Retrieved August 2, 2012. 
  9. ^ Anderson, Liam D.; Stansfield, Gareth R. V. (2009), Crisis in Kirkuk: The Ethnopolitics of Conflict and Compromise, University of Pennsylvania Press, p. 43,  
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.