World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Dissociative drug

Article Id: WHEBN0023925435
Reproduction Date:

Title: Dissociative drug  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Recreational use of dextromethorphan, Nitrous oxide, Psychedelic drug, Rolicyclidine, Eticyclidine, A Boy in a Tree
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Dissociative drug

This article is about the class of hallucinogen. For the psychological state, see Dissociation (psychology). For the Australian band, see The Dissociatives. For other uses, see Dissociation.

Dissociatives are a class of hallucinogen, which distort perceptions of sight and sound and produce feelings of detachment - dissociation - from the environment and self. This is done through reducing or blocking signals to the conscious mind from other parts of the brain.[1] Although many kinds of drugs are capable of such action, dissociatives are unique in that they do so in such a way that they produce hallucinogenic effects, which may include sensory deprivation, dissociation, hallucinations, and dream-like states or trances.[2] Some, which are nonselective in action and affect the dopamine [3] and/or opioid[4] systems, may be capable of inducing euphoria. Many dissociatives have general depressant effects and can produce sedation, respiratory depression, analgesia, anesthesia, and ataxia, as well as cognitive and memory impairment and amnesia.

Classes of dissociatives

NMDA receptor antagonists

κ-opioid receptor agonists

Main article: Opioid

Effects

The effects of dissociatives can include sensory dissociation, hallucinations, mania, catalepsy, analgesia and amnesia.[9][10][11] The characteristic features of dissociative anesthesia were described as catalepsy, amnesia and analgesia.[9] According to Pender (1972), "the state has been designated as dissociative anesthesia since the patient truly seems disassociated from his environment."[12] Bonta (2004) described dissociative anaesthesia as "... a peculiar anaesthetic state in which marked sensory loss and analgesia as well as amnesia is not accompanied by actual loss of consciousness."[13] Both Pender (1970) and Johnstone et al. (1959) reported that patients under anesthesia due to either ketamine or phencyclidine were prone to purposeless movements and had hallucinations (or "dreams"[14]) during and after anesthesia. Some patients found the hallucinations euphoric while others found them disturbing.

At sub-anesthetic doses, dissociatives alter many of the same cognitive and perceptual processes affected by other hallucinogenic drugs such as mescaline, LSD, and psilocybin; hence they are also considered hallucinogenic, and psychedelic.[15][16][17][18] Perhaps the most significant subjective differences between dissociatives and the classical hallucinogens (such as LSD and mescaline) are the dissociative effects, including: depersonalization, the feeling of being unreal, disconnected from one's self, or unable to control one's actions; and derealization, the feeling that the outside world is unreal or that one is dreaming.[19]

See also

References

fr:Hallucinogène#Les hallucinogènes dissociatifs
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.