World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Djer

Article Id: WHEBN0001249652
Reproduction Date:

Title: Djer  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: 30th century BC, Seth-Peribsen, List of ancient Egyptians, Djedkheperew, Neithhotep
Collection: Djer, Hor-Aha, Pharaohs of the First Dynasty of Egypt
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Djer

Djer is considered the third pharaoh of the First Dynasty of ancient Egypt in current Egyptology. He lived around the mid-thirty-first century BC[1] and reigned for c. 40 years. A mummified forearm of Djer or his wife was discovered by Flinders Petrie,[2] but was discarded by Emile Brugsch.[3]

Contents

  • Name 1
  • Length of reign 2
  • Reign 3
  • Family 4
  • Tomb 5
  • Gallery 6
  • See also 7
  • References 8
  • Bibliography 9
  • External links 10

Name

Iti, cartouche name of Djer in the Abydos king list.

The Abydos King List lists the third pharaoh as Iti, the Turin Canon lists a damaged name, beginning with It..., while Manetho lists Athothis.

Length of reign

While the Egyptian priest Manetho, writing in the third century BC, stated that Djer ruled for 57 years, modern research by Toby Wilkinson in Royal Annals of Ancient Egypt stresses that the near-contemporary and therefore, more accurate Palermo Stone ascribes Djer a reign of "41 complete and partial years."[4] Wilkinson notes that years 1-10 of Djer's reign are preserved in register II of the Palermo Stone, while the middle years of this pharaoh's reign are recorded in register II of Cairo stone fragment C1.[5]

Reign

The evidence for Djer's life and reign is:[6]

  • Tomb in Umm el-Qa'ab, Abydos
  • Seal prints from graves 2185 and 3471 in Saqqara
  • Inscriptions in graves 3503, 3506 and 3035 in Saqqara
  • Seal impression and inscriptions from Helwan[7]
  • Jar from Turah with the name of Djer[8]
  • UC 16182 ivory tablet from Abydos, subsidiary tomb 612 of the enclosure of Djer[9]
  • UC 16172 copper adze with the name of Djer[10]
  • Inscription of his name (of questioned authenticity, however) at Wadi Halfa, Sudan

The inscriptions, on ivory and wood, are in a very early form of hieroglyphs, hindering complete translation, but a label at Saqqarah may depict the First Dynasty practice of human sacrifice.[11] An ivory tablet from Abydos mentions that Djer visited Buto and Sais in the Nile Delta. One of his regnal years on the Cairo Stone was named "Year of smiting the land of Setjet", which often is speculated to be Sinai or beyond.

Manetho claimed that Athothes, who is sometimes identified as Djer, had written a treatise on anatomy that still existed in his own day, over two millennia later.

Family

Stone vase bearing the serekh of Djer, National Archaeological Museum (France).

Djer was a son of the pharaoh Hor-Aha and his wife Khenthap. His grandfather was probably Narmer, and his grandmother was Neithhotep. Djer fathered Merneith, wife of Djet and mother of Den. Women carrying titles later associated with queens such as Great One of the Hetes-Sceptre and She who Sees/Carries Horus were buried in subsidiary tombs near the tomb of Djer in Abydos or attested in Saqqara. These women are thought to be the wives of Djer and include:

  • Nakhtneith (or Nekhetneith), buried in Abydos and known from a stela.[12][13]
  • Herneith, possibly a wife of Djer. Buried in Saqqara.[13]
  • Seshemetka, buried in Abydos next to the king.[14] She was said to be a wife of Den in Dodson and Hilton.[13]
  • Penebui, her name and title were found on an ivory label from Saqqara.[12]
  • bsu, known from a label in Saqqara and several stone vessels (reading of name uncertain; name consists of three fish hieroglyphs).[12]

Tomb

Similarly to his father Hor-Aha, Djer was buried in Umm el-Qa'ab at Abydos. Djer's tomb is tomb O of Petrie. His tomb contains the remains of 318 retainers who were buried with him.[15] During later times, the tomb of Djer was revered as the tomb of Osiris, and the entire First Dynasty burial complex, which includes the tomb of Djer, was very important in the Egyptian religious tradition.

Several objects were found in and around the tomb of Djer:[16]

  • A stela of Djer, now in the Cairo Museum probably comes from Abydos.
  • Labels mentioning the name of a palace and the name of Meritneith.
  • Fragments of two vases inscribed with the name of Queen Neithhotep.
  • Bracelets of a Queen were found in the wall of the tomb.

In the subsidiary tombs excavators found:[16]

  • Stelae of several individuals
  • Ivory objects with the name of Neithhotep.
  • Ivory tablets.

Manetho indicates that the First Dynasty ruled from Memphis – and indeed Herneith, one of Djer's wives, was buried nearby at Saqqara.

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ Grimal, Nicolas (1994). A History of Ancient Egypt. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 528.  
  2. ^ W. M. Flinders Petrie: The Royal Tombs of the Earliest Dynasties, 1901, Part II, London 1901, p.16-17
  3. ^ Salima Ikram and Aidan Dodson, The Mummy in Ancient Egypt: Equipping the Dead for Eternity, Thames & Hudson, 1998, p. 109
  4. ^ Toby Wilkinson, Royal Annals of Ancient Egypt: The Palermo Stone and Its Associated Fragments, (Kegan Paul International), 2000. p.79
  5. ^ Wilkinson, Royal Annals of Ancient Egypt, p.258
  6. ^ King Djer page from digitalegypt.
  7. ^ Saad 1947: 165; Saad 1969: 82, pl. 94
  8. ^ Kaiser 1964: 103, fig.3
  9. ^ Petrie 1925: pl. II.8; XII.1
  10. ^ tomb 461 in Abydos, Petrie 1925: pl. III.1, IV.8
  11. ^ Rice, Michael The Power of the Bull Routledge; 1 edition (4 Dec 1997) ISBN 978-0-415-09032-2 p123 [2]
  12. ^ a b c W. Grajetzki: Ancient Egyptian Queens: a hieroglyphic dictionary
  13. ^ a b c Dodson and Hilton: The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, 2004
  14. ^ W. M. Flinders Petrie: The Royal Tombs of the Earliest Dynasties, 1901, Part II, London 1901, pl. XXVII, 96
  15. ^ Thomas Kühn: Die Königsgräber der 1. & 2. Dynastie in Abydos. In: Kemet. Issue 1, 2008.
  16. ^ a b B. Porter and R.L.B. Moss. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings, V. Upper Egypt: Sites. Oxford, 1937

Bibliography

  • Toby A. H. Wilkinson, Early Dynastic Egypt, Routledge, London/New York 1999, ISBN 0-415-18633-1, 71-73
  • Toby Wilkinson, Royal Annals of Ancient Egypt: The Palermo Stone and Its Associated Fragments, (Kegan Paul International), 2000.

External links

  • http://www.phouka.com/pharaoh/pharaoh/dynasties/dyn01/02djer.html
Preceded by
Hor-Aha
Pharaoh of Egypt Succeeded by
Djet
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.