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Duke of Atholl

Duke of Atholl, alternatively Duke of Athole, named after Atholl in Scotland, is a title in the Peerage of Scotland held by the head of Clan Murray. It was created by Queen Anne in 1703 for John Murray, 2nd Marquess of Atholl, with a special remainder failing his heirs male to those of his father, the 1st Marquess.

As of 2010 there were twelve subsidiary titles attached to the dukedom: Lord Murray of Tullibardine (1604), Lord Murray, Gask and Balquhidder (1628), Lord Murray, Balvany and Gask (1676), Lord Murray, Balvenie and Gask, in the County of Perth (1703), Viscount of Balquhidder (1676), Viscount of Balquhidder, Glenalmond and Glenlyon, in the County of Perth (1703), Earl of Atholl (1629), Earl of Tullibardine (1628), Earl of Tullibardine (1676), Earl of Strathtay and Strathardle, in the County of Perth (1703), Marquess of Atholl (1676) and Marquess of Tullibardine, in the County of Perth (1703). These titles are also in the Peerage of Great Britain. The dukes have also previously held the following titles: Baron Strange (Peerage of England 1628) between 1736 and 1764 and 1805 and 1957; Baron Murray, of Stanley in the County of Gloucester, and Earl Strange (Peerage of Great Britain 1786) between 1786 and 1957, Baron Glenlyon, of Glenlyon in the County of Perth (Peerage of the United Kingdom 1821) between 1846 and 1957 and Baron Percy (Peerage of Great Britain 1722) between 1865 and 1957. From 1786 to 1957 the Dukes of Atholl sat in the House of Lords as Earl Strange.

The Duke's eldest son and heir apparent uses the courtesy title Marquess of Tullibardine. The heir apparent to Lord Tullibardine uses the courtesy title Earl of Strathtay and Strathardle (usually shortened to Earl of Strathtay). Lord Strathtay's heir apparent uses the courtesy title Viscount Balquhidder. The Duke of Atholl is the hereditary chief of Clan Murray.

The Dukes of Atholl, as massive landowners, were initiators of and primary participants in the Highland Clearances, the eviction and forced removal of families from their homes, to be replaced by sheep.

Contents

  • Family history 1
  • Other family members 2
  • Traditional residence and military command 3
  • Earls of Tullibardine; First creation (1606) 4
  • Earls of Tullibardine; Second creation (1628) 5
  • Earls of Atholl (1629) 6
  • Marquesses of Atholl (1676) 7
  • Dukes of Atholl (1703) 8
  • Barons Glenlyon (1821) 9
    • Arms 9.1
      • Heraldry 9.1.1
  • Family tree 10
  • See also 11
  • Notes 12
  • References 13
  • External links 14

Family history

James Murray,
2nd Duke of Atholl, KT

The Dukes of Atholl belong to an ancient Scottish family. Sir William Murray of Castleton married Lady Margaret, daughter of John Stewart, 1st Earl of Atholl (see Earl of Atholl). Sir William was one of the many Scottish noblemen killed at the Battle of Flodden in 1513. His son Sir William Murray lived at Tullibardine in Perthshire. The latter's grandson, Sir John Murray, was created Lord Murray of Tullibardine in 1604 and Lord Murray, Gask and Balquhidder and Earl of Tullibardine in 1606. All three titles were in the Peerage of Scotland. He was succeeded by his eldest son, William, the second Earl. He married as his second wife Lady Dorothea, daughter of John Stewart, 5th and last Earl of Atholl. Charles I agreed to revive the earldom of Atholl in favour of Lord Tullibardine's children by Lady Dorothea. Tullibardine consequently resigned his titles in favour of his younger brother, Patrick Murray, who was created Lord Murray of Gask and Earl of Tullibardine in 1628, with remainder to his heirs male whatsoever and presumably with the precedence of 1606. John Murray, son of the second Earl of Tullibardine by Lady Dorothea Stewart, was created Earl of Atholl in the Peerage of Scotland in 1629. He was succeeded by his son, the second Earl of Atholl. In 1670 he succeeded his cousin James Murray, 2nd Earl of Tullibardine, as third (or fifth) Earl of Tullibardine. In 1676 he was created Lord Murray, Balveny and Gask, Viscount of Balquhidder, Earl of Tullibardine and Marquess of Atholl, with remainder to the heirs male of his body. All titles were in the Peerage of Scotland. Lord Atholl married Lady Amelia Anne Sophia, daughter of James Stanley, 7th Earl of Derby (and 1st Baron Strange).

On his death the titles passed to his eldest son, the second Marquess. He had already been created Lord Murray, Viscount Glenalmond and Earl of Tullibardine for life in the peerage of Scotland in 1696. In 1703 he was made Lord Murray, Balvenie and Gask, in the County of Perth, Viscount of Balwhidder, Glenalmond and Glenlyon, in the County of Perth, Earl of Strathtay and Strathardle, in the County of Perth, Marquess of Tullibardine, in the County of Perth, and Duke of Atholl, with remainder failing heirs male of his own to the heirs male of his father. All five titles were in the Peerage of Scotland. His eldest surviving son and heir apparent, William Murray, Marquess of Tullibardine, took part in the attainted for his participation in the Jacobite Rebellion of 1715), the same year he succeeded the House of Lords decided that he should be allowed to succeed in the titles despite his father's attainder. He married his first cousin, the aforementioned Charlotte Murray, Baroness Strange. They sold their sovereignty over the Isle of Mann to the British Crown for £70,000.

John Stewart-Murray,
7th Duke of Atholl, KT

The Duke and Duchess were both succeeded by their eldest son John, the fourth Duke. In 1786 he was created Baron Murray, of James Murray, 1st Baron Glenlyon, second son of the fourth Duke, who had been created Baron Glenlyon, of Glenlyon in the County of Perth, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1821. Lord Glenlyon married Lady Emily Frances Percy, daughter of Hugh Percy, 2nd Duke of Northumberland and 3rd Baron Percy.

The sixth Duke was succeeded by his only child, John, the seventh Duke. In 1865 he succeeded as sixth Baron Percy through his grandmother aforesaid. The same year he registered the additional surname of Stewart at the Lyon Court. In 1893 he resumed the original spelling of the title, "Atholl" instead of "Athole". He was succeeded by his second but eldest surviving son, John, the eighth Duke. He died childless in 1942 and was succeeded by his youngest brother, James, the ninth Duke. He never married and on his death in 1957 the baronies of Murray and Glenlyon and earldom of Strange became extinct, the barony of Percy was passed on to his kinsman Hugh Percy, 10th Duke of Northumberland, while the barony of Strange fell into abeyance (see Baron Strange).

The dukedom and remaining titles were passed on to the late Duke's fourth cousin twice removed, George Murray, the tenth Duke of Atholl. He was the grandson of Sir Bruce Murray, 12th Duke of Atholl.[1]

Other family members

Lt-Gen Lord George Murray.

Mungo Murray, second son of the first Earl of Tullibardine of the first creation, succeeded as second prospective parliamentary candidate Al Murray is the grandson of former British Ambassador, Sir Ralph Hay Murray.

James Arthur Murray (1790–1860), only son of Lord William Murray, third son of the third Duke, was a Sir Evelyn Murray was Secretary to the General Post Office between 1914 and 1934. Lord James Murray, second son of the fourth Duke, was a soldier and politician and was created Baron Glenlyon in 1821. Anne, Duchess of Atholl, VA, wife of the sixth Duke, was Mistress of the Robes to Queen Victoria. Dame Kitty Stewart-Murray, DBE, MP, wife of the eighth Duke, was Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Education from 1924 to 1929, the first woman to serve in a Conservative and Unionist government.[2]

Traditional residence and military command

The Dukes of Atholl's traditional residence is Blair Castle, though the family has owned several other residences and castles in the past, notably Huntingtower Castle, Balvenie Castle, Tullibardine Castle and Dunkeld House (the latter two demolished).

The holder of the title also commands the only legal private army in Europe, the Atholl Highlanders, which is headquartered at Blair Castle.[3]

Earls of Tullibardine; First creation (1606)

Earls of Tullibardine; Second creation (1628)

Earls of Atholl (1629)

Marquesses of Atholl (1676)

Dukes of Atholl (1703)

Other titles: Marquess of Tullibardine, Earl of Strathtay and Strathardle, Viscount of Balwhidder, Glenalmond and Glenlyonz and Lord Murray, Balvenie and Gask (Scotland, 1703); Marquess of Atholl, Earl of Tullibardine, Viscount of Balquhidder and Lord Murray, Balvany and Gask (Scotland, 1676); Earl of Atholl (Scotland, 1629); Earl of Tullibardine and Lord Murray, Gask and Balquhidder (Scotland, 1628); Lord Murray of Tullibardine (Scotland, 1604)
  • John Murray, 1st Duke of Atholl (1660–1724) (eldest son of the 1st Marquess)
    • John Murray, Marquess of Tullibardine (1684–1709) (eldest son of the 1st Duke; died unmarried)
    • William Murray, Marquess of Tullibardine (1689–1746) (second son of the 1st Duke; was a Jacobite who was attainted and executed, unmarried, for treason; excluded from the succession)
    • Lord Charles Murray (1691–1720) (fourth son of the 1st Duke; predeceased his third brother without issue)
Other titles (2nd and 4th through 9th Dukes): Baron Strange (England, 1628)
Other titles (6th through 9th Dukes): Earl Strange and Baron Murray (Great Britain, 1786, extinct 1957); Baron Glenlyon (United Kingdom, 1821, extinct 1957)
  • James Murray, 1st Baron Glenlyon; see below)
Other titles (7th through 9th Dukes): Baron Percy (Great Britain, 1722)
  • John James Hugh Henry Stewart-Murray, 7th Duke of Atholl (1840–1917) (only son of the 6th Duke)
    • John Stewart-Murray, Marquess of Tullibardine (1869–1869) (eldest son of the 7th Duke; died in infancy)
    • Major Lord George Stewart-Murray (1873–1914) (third son of the 7th Duke; predeceased his second brother without issue)
  • John George Stewart-Murray, 8th Duke of Atholl (1871–1942) (second son of the 7th Duke; died without issue)
  • James Stewart-Murray, 9th Duke of Atholl (1879–1957) (fourth and youngest son of the 7th Duke; died unmarried)
  • Rt. Rev. Lord George Murray, second son of the 3rd Duke; died unmarried)
  • John Murray, 11th Duke of Atholl (1929–2012)[1] (second cousin, once removed of the 10th Duke; great-great grandson of Rt. Rev. George Murray, eldest son of Rt. Rev. Lord George Murray, second son of the 3rd Duke)
  • Bruce George Ronald Murray, 12th Duke of Atholl (b. 1960) (elder son of the 11th Duke)

The heir apparent is the present holder's elder son, Michael Bruce John Murray, Marquess of Tullibardine (b. 1985).

Barons Glenlyon (1821)

  • James Murray, 1st Baron Glenlyon (1782–1837) (second son of the 4th Duke)
  • George Augustus Frederick John Murray, 2nd Baron Glenlyon (1814–1864) (succeeded as 6th Duke of Atholl in 1846)

see above for further succession

Arms

Arms of Duke of Atholl
Adopted
Matriculated at the Lyon Court
Coronet
That of a Duke
Crest
Dexter, on a Wreath Argent and Azure a Mermaid holding in her dexter Hand a Mirror and in her sinister a Comb all Proper Or (for Murray); centre, on a Wreath Or and Sable a Demi-savage Proper wreathed about the temples and waist with Laurel his arms extended and holding in the right hand a Dagger, in the left a Key all Proper (for Atholl); sinister, on a Wreath Argent and Azure a Peacock's head and neck Proper accompanied on either side by two Arms from the elbows Proper and vested in Maunches Azure doubled Argent.
Helm
That of a Duke
Escutcheon
Quarterly: 1st, Paly of six Or and Sable (for Atholl); 2nd, Or a Fess chequy Azure and Argent (for Stewart); 3rd, Argent on a Bend Azure three Stags' Heads cabossed Or (for Stanley); 4th, Gules three Legs in armour Proper garnished and spurred Or flexed and conjoined in triangle at the upper part of the thigh (ensigns of the Isle of Man); over all, an Inescutcheon en surtout Azure three Mullets Argent within a Double tressure flory Or ensigned of a Marquess's coronet (for Chiefship of Murray).
Supporters
Dexter, a Savage Proper wreathed about the temples and loins with Juniper his feet in Fetters the Chain held in his right hand Proper; sinister, a Lion rampant Gules armed and langued Azure gorged with a plain Collar of the Last charged with three Mullets Argent.
Motto
(Above the crests) Dexter, Tout prest ("Quite ready"); centre, Furth fortune and fill the fetters; sinister, Praite ("Ready").
Orders
Order of the Thistle circlet (displayed by the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 6th, 7th & 8th dukes (the 8th, who died 1942, also being GCVO)

Heraldry

Family tree

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b "The Duke of Atholl".  
  2. ^ www.burkespeerage.com
  3. ^ www.blair-castle.co.uk

References

  • Kidd, Charles, Williamson, David (editors). Debrett's Peerage and Baronetage (1990 edition). New York: St Martin's Press, 1990,
  • Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages
  • Anderson, Alan Orr, Early Sources of Scottish History: AD 500–1286, 2 Vols, (Edinburgh, 1922)
  • Roberts, John L., Lost Kingdoms: Celtic Scotland in the Middle Ages, (Edinburgh, 1997)

External links

  • Cracroft's Peerage page
  • European Heraldry page
  • Murray Clan Society of North America
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