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Dwarkanath Vidyabhusan

Dwarkanath Vidyabhusan
Statue:Dwarkanath Vidyabhusan
Born 1820
Chingripota, South 24 Parganas
Died 22 August 1886(1886-08-22)
Satna, Madhya Pradesh
Occupation Scholar, editor, founder

Dwarkanath Vidyabhusan (}

}}: দ্বারকানাথ বিদ্যাভূষণ) (1820 - 22 August 1886) was an Indian scholar, editor and publisher of the trend-setting weekly Bengali newspaper Somprakash.

Contents

  • Father 1
  • Early life 2
  • Somprakash 3
  • Later life 4
  • Works 5
  • References 6

Father

His father, Harachandra Bhattacharya (better known as Nyayratna) was a scholar. He had studied under Kashinath Tarkalankar, who had a popular traditional centre of education at Hatibagan in north Kolkata, Nyayratna taught in the traditional centres of Sanskrit-based education called tol-chatuspatis and also taught some boys in his spare time at his home. Amongst his renowned students were Ishwar Chandra Gupta and Ramtanu Lahiri.[1]

Early life

After initial education in the traditional centre of village education, the pathsala, Dwarkanath joined Sanskrit College, Kolkata in 1832, and studied there up to 1845, winning many prizes and earning fame as a scholar.[1] He won the title of Vidyabhusan in his last examination. He had a short stint as a teacher in Fort William College and then joined Sanskrit College as a librarian. He later rose to the position of a professor and also assisted Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, when he was principal of the college.[2]

A strong supporter of the women's education, Dwarkanath Vidyabhusan joined other liberals to support Bethune School (established by John Elliot Drinkwater Bethune) for twenty years.[3]

In 1856, his father established a printing press.[1] It must be mentioned that it was an age when publishers concentrated on an incongruous double bill of religion and erotica but tastes had started changing. In 1857, forty-six Indian-owned printing presses put out 322 books for sale. Although religion still held sway, erotica had started ebbing out.[4] However, his father fell ill and died shortly after establishing the printing press. Vidyabhusan inherited the press and published in Bengali two volumes on the history of Greece and history of Rome, he had written. That was possibly the first time that fat volumes of history written in easy flowing Bengali language was published and it immediately established Vidybhusan as a writer.[1][5]

Somprakash

Front Page Of Somprakash

Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar proposed the publication of a weekly newspaper Somprakash partly with the objective of providing employment for a deaf scholar. The newspaper hit the stands in 1858 but the deaf scholar never joined it. The entire responsibility of editing and publishing the newspaper vested in Vidyabhusan. At that time, Bengali newspapers such as Sambad Prabhakar and Sambad Bhaskar were 'defiling the moral environment in Bengal'.[1] With its dignified tastes, lucid language and fearless criticism, Somprakash occupied the top position in the field of Bengali newspapers.[2]

Initially, Somprakash was published from a lane in Champatala in Kolkata. When the railway was extended to Canning in 1862, he shifted the printing press to his native village Chingripota (renamed as Subhasgram), now in South 24 Parganas.[1]

It strongly criticised the powerful indigo planters and landlords. In his evidence before the Indigo Enquiry Committee, Rev. James Long emphatically stated, "These periodicals play a significant role as the mouthpiece of the Indian public."[6] In 1878, when the viceroy, Lord Lytton, introduced the Vernacular Press Act, specially targeting the Bengali press, Vidyabhusan closed down Somprakash, rather than sign an undertaking about it, agreeing to follow the dictates of the authorities.[2][6]Sir Richard Temple, lieutenant governor, called him to his house and requested him not to close down the newspaper. Later, when the Act was withdrawn, he resumed publication of Somprakash, but it never regained its past form and glory.[1]

Later life

He established an English school in his native place called Harinavi DVAS High School(Harinavi Dwarkanath Vidyabhusan Anglo Sanskrit High School) and bore the expenses of running the same. A man of high moral standards he stood by the down trodden in society. With advancing age, his health started faltering. He published a monthly magazine Kalpadrum for sometime. Once he went and stayed in Varanasi for sometime and was shocked by the wretched state of affairs of religion and morals. He died at Satna where he had gone to recoup his health.[1]

Sivanath Sastri was his sister's son.[2]

Works

History: History of Greece, History of Rome (both in Bengali).[1] Text books: Nitisar, Pathamrita, Chhatrabodh, Bhusansar Byakaran.[2] Poetry: Prakrito Prem, Prokrito Sukh, Biseswar Bilap.[2]

References


-- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Sastri, Sivanath, Ramtanu Lahiri O Tatkalin Bangasamaj, (Bengali)1903/2001, p167-170, New Age Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Sengupta, Subodh Chandra and Bose, Anjali (editors), 1976/1998, Sansad Bangali Charitabhidhan (Biographical dictionary) Vol I, (Bengali), p223, ISBN 81-85626-65-0.
  3. ^ Kopf, David, The Brahmo Samaj and the Shaping of the Modern Indian Mind, 1979, p34, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-03125-8.
  4. ^ Sarkar, Nilhil, "Printing and the Spirit of Calcutta" in "Calcutta, the Living City", Vol I, edited by Sukanta Chaudhuri, p135, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-563696-1.
  5. ^ Majumdar, Swapan, Literature and Literary Life in Old Calcutta in "Calcutta, the Living City", Vol I, edited by Sukanta Chaudhuri, p. 113, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-563696-1.
  6. ^ a b Sengupta, Nitish (2001) History of the Bengali-speaking people, p238-239, New Delhi : UBS Publishers' Distributors. ISBN 978-81-7476-355-6.
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