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ER2 electric trainset

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ER2 electric trainset

ER2
Electric multiple unit ER2-1290 "Karelia"
Manufacturer Rīgas Vagonbūves Rūpnīca
Constructed 1962-1984
Number built 850 (modifications not included)
Formation 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 cars
Specifications
Car body construction steel, aluminium
Car length 19.60 m (64 ft 4 in)
Width 3,480 mm (11 ft 5 in)
Height 5,086 mm (16 ft 8.2 in)
Maximum speed 100 km/h (62 mph) (from January 2008)
Acceleration 0.6 m/s2 (2.0 ft/s2)
Deceleration 0.8 m/s2 (2.6 ft/s2)
Electric system(s) 3 kV DC Catenary
Current collection method Pantograph
Coupling system SA3
Track gauge 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 2732 in) Russian gauge

Beginning in 1962 the Railroad Machinery Plants of Riga and Kalinin started to release ER2 electric trainsets instead of ER1s. ER2 cars have footboards for low platforms, and aprons for high platforms, installed in the train yards. The presence of footboards caused body to be redesigned. The same time if compared with ER1 cars, front parts, edge walls, car end frames, and door places. The car improvement project was carried out by constructors from the Railroad Machinery Plants of Riga.

Electrical/mechanical specifications

In ER2 electric trainsets (their numbering starts with 300) DK-604B dynamotors, BVP-105A-1 fast switches are installed. These switches have diafragmatic lead. 40KN400 alkaline batteries are used instead of acid batteries.

ER2 motor car weighs 54.6 tonnes (53.7 long tons; 60.2 short tons), Cab car - 40.9 tonnes (40.3 long tons; 45.1 short tons), trailer car - 38.3 tonnes (37.7 long tons; 42.2 short tons). The ER2 motor car weight is slightly higher than the ER1, because the plant used aluminum doors and wiring channels in order to reduce cars' weight.

It is necessary to point out the following from the most significant construction improvements.

In electric trainsets released in 1965 N. E. Galakhov's amortizers are changed by cylindrical springs. The same time hydraulic amortizers are installed between trolley frame edges, and upper beam above the amortizer. The static deformation of amortizing system is increased from 95 mm (3.74 in) up to 120 mm (4.72 in). The body weight is transmitted to improved trolleys through edge sliders, while ______ serves only for transmitting horizontal forces.

In 1964 one electric trainset was released with rubber clutches instead of ______ clutches between shafts of motor and speed reduction couple. By the end of 1965 five more trainsets with such clutches were released.

In 1964 URT-110A traction engines had been installed on electric trainsets. (unified traction engines from Riga) In difference of DK-106B engines collectors are plastic, the isolation of coil, electrode, and rotor is made of escapon. Brush holders are plastic. The electromechanical features of motor remained the same.

In 1965 due to installation of more stable pantograph isolators (made of plexi glass AG-4), the relay system developed by N. A. Lapin was excluded from trains' construction.

In 1963 one of electric trains (ER2a-413) was released with "auto-engineer." It entered Moscow - Klin segment of October railroad for experimental testing.

While speed reduction ratio is 1:3.17, wheel diameter is 1,050 mm (41.34 in), and electric engine clamp voltage is 1500 volts, ER1 and ER2 electric trainsets have following traction data:

The speed is __ km/h, the traction force is __ kg, increased field - 51.8 5270, normal field 71.2 4040. In long timing mode increased field - 59 3530, normal field 82.4 2790.

The constructional speed of train is 130 km/h (81 mph). The acceleration up to 60 km/h (37 mph) 0.6–0.7 m/s2 (2.0–2.3 ft/s2). In case of a 2.5 km (1.6 mi) distance between stops the speed is up to 95 km/h (59 mph). In case of 5 km (3.1 mi) - 110 km/h (68 mph). The minimum radius of curvature is 100 m (328 ft) at a speed of 5 km/h (3.1 mph).

In 1966-1975 period the railcar manufacturing plant of Riga continued the release of ER2 suburban electric trainsets, for 3000 V DC. They started to be built already in 1962. Basic electric equipment for these trains was manufactured by Electric Machinery plant of Riga. The majority of electric trainsets was released in 10 car versions (five countable sections), part in 8-car edition (four countable sections). The separate section edition was accepted too. (?) Electric trainsets can be used in 12-car, 6-car, as well as 4-car compositions. Railcars' length is 20.10 m (65 ft 11 in) including auto-couplers.

ER2 mechanical construction

The construction of body is solidly frameless, welded, made of bent and stamped profiles. Spine beams for auto-couplers are short, and placed only between stamped buffers, beam, and buffer beams. During the bend, stress, and strain of body all of its elements participate. They are metal roof, lower frame, and edge walls. The length of body is 19.600 m (64 ft 3.7 in), width - 3,480 mm (11 ft 5 in). The cars have SA-3 auto-couplers.

Passenger doors

The passenger doors have two sections; they are sliding, and feature electro-pneumatic control. For high level platforms the footboards are covered by aprons. The ventilation is driven (?). The hot air is given in cold seasons. The heating is electrical.

Electrical and mechanical details

Original ER2 in Pasažieru vilciens livery, Riga
Refurbished ER2T in the Riga Central Station

Motor and trailer cars feature two double-axed bogies with two-section amortizer suspensions. The body is supported on beam over the amortizers, equipped by rubber dowel, through edge sliders; while ____ serves only for transmitting horizontal forces. The beam over the amortizer is supported on four cylindrical springs (2 sections per each). they are installed on ____, and suspended ______ to bogie's frame. ... The static deformation of motor car suspension is 105 mm (4.13 in). Such bogies are in use since ER2-514 trainset (1965). Bogie frames feature stamped & welded construction; they are H-shaped. They consist of four beams. They are 2 longitudinal, 2 transverse, and 4 ____ beams. Bogie frames are connected with the beam over the amortizer, using hydraulic amortizers, which balance the oscillations above the amortizers.

The wheel pairs of motor cars are made with spoke and bandage centers; new bandage diameter is 1,050 mm (41.34 in). One of wheel pair centers have plate-like _____. The cogged gear is attached to it by bolts. Two cylindrical friction reducers are placed on the "neck" of a wheel pair. Their diameter is 130 mm (5.12 in). Reduction couple's body is supported on a wheel pair through a pair of friction reducers. Reducers' diameter is 200 mm (7.87 in). From the other side reducer's body is linked to a bogie by a pitched pin.

The speed reduction ratio is 23:73 (1:3.17). Transmission coefficient is 10. Traction engine rotor is connected with a gear train through the rigid clutch (rubber cord shell). The wheelbase of the motor car bogie is 2,600 mm (102.36 in), the distance between ____ axis is 13,300 mm (43 ft 7.62 in). The trailer car bogies have the same suspension scheme, like motor cars. the wheel diameter of trailer car is 950 mm (37.40 in). The wheels are solid. The wheelbase is 2,400 mm (94.49 in). The braking is double-sided; it's made using brake shoes - two for each wheel. On motor car bogies two braking cylinders are installed. Their diameter is 10 inches (250 mm).

URT-110A four pole electric traction engines are installed in ER2 trains since March 1964. The main poles (electrodes) are placed on horizontal and vertical spokes, while additional poles with 45 degree angle to them. The anchor is manufactured with a wave coil; class C isolation is in use on poles and anchor. The fan features welded construction, and attached to a back coil holder. The maximal revolving frequency of engine is 2080 rpm, the engine weight 2,150 kg (4,740 lb).

Every motor car has one pantograph. In case of doing wrong the rest four motor cars can lead the train to the closest terminal. According to the same way of reasoning there are not disconnectors for separate motor groups, in the power circuitry; and when one electric engine is damaged, entire motor car turns off.

VVP-105 quick switch with a diafragmatic lead is in use for protecting circuitry from short circuit currents. It brakes electric engine circuit when the current gets over 600 A. Differential relay can serve for the protection purpose, in case of overthrows and fan-outs (?) on the ground when the current does not rich 600 A. The overloading relay has no effect on disconnecting devices; it liquidates overloading in starting mode, by lowering switching conditions and adding the additional resistor in a circuit.

KSP - 1A power controller, developed by L. N. Reshetov, features electro-pneumatic control and 12 contactor elements. the controller features 18 working positions.

Position # 1: Maneuvering mode.

Positions # 2 .. 18: Rheostatic starting with serial connection of all four engines.

Position # 9: Serial connection of electric engines, Rheostats are excluded.

Position # 10: Transitional step of excitement weakening (67%)

Position # 11: Excitement brought down to (50%)

Position # 12: Electric traction engines are connected in parallel, rheostats are added, and the excitement is 50%.

Position # 13 .. 15 Rheostatic starting, engines connected in parallel, 100% excitement

Position # 16 Engines are connected in series of two, and excitement is 100%

Position # 17 Transitional step of excitement (67%)

Position # 18 50% excitement, engines connected in parallel.

Engineer's controllers are mounted in control panels. They have two handles, (reversive, and main) Reversive features three positions: Drive, 0, and Reverse. The main handle features 8 positions. They are 0, Maneuvering, 1st running (9th of KSP,) 2nd running (11th of KSP,) 2A and 3a for manual starting, 3rd running (16th of KSP,) and 4th running (18th of KSP.)

Switching from parallel to serial engine connection is done by bridge method. .... PK-305 electric locomotive contacts are installed as linear and bridge contacts in ER2 motor cars. PK-305 are manufactured by the Electric Locomotive Plant of Novocherkassy.

In order to unload the power source of cab car, and decrease the voltage drop in train wires, the part of supplementary contactors and withholding coils of quick switches are powered by power source of their own section (neighboring trailer car)

The power controller is under the acceleration relay in case of manual starting. In case of automatic starting controller's shaft is turned to a next position, and the current in electric engine is brought down to 170 to 180 amperes. The starting with less transfer currents is possible for a next position 125 A. For this purpose, an engineer must push "Decreased Acceleration Button". In case of one wheel pair boxing, the boxing relay acts on acceleration relay, and the current becomes 70 A.

DK604-B aggregates are installed on cab and trailer cars. They consist of bicollector voltage divider, (dynamotor) and current generator for control circuits. In case of 3000 volts, the divider has a normal power of 12 kW (16 hp) (5.3 A, 1000 rpm,) the generator has a power 10 kW (13 hp), 50 V, and 10 A.

EK-7A motor compressors are installed in cab and trailer cars. The feature 0.62 m3/min (22 cu ft/min) air providing speed. They use DK409-B electric engines (5 kW or 6.7 hp, 1500 V, 4.4 A). 40KN-100 rechargeable batteries are located in trailer and cab cars.

ER2 motor car weighs 54,600 kg (120,400 lb), cab car - 40,000 kg (88,000 lb), trailer car - 38,000 kg (84,000 lb).

In process of ER2 production, the manufacturing plants have introduced a lot of changes in trainset construction. These changes were intended for increasing the stability of train use, and riders' comfort. Since August 1968 instead of P-1V or P1-U pantographs, TL13-U pantographs (with carbon insertions) and TL13-M with cooper insertions are being installed on trainsets.

In October 1968 the braking relay is introduced in the scheme. It provides electro-pneumatic braking along with linear contactor shut-off. The same year DK-406 electric engines were changed by DK-409B engines in compressors. And the compressor was improved into EK-7B.

Since May 1970, 40NK-125 batteries are installed instead of 40KN-100.

Since January 1971, URT-110B electric traction engines are in use instead of URT-110A. URT-110B features collector with an arc-like design.

In September 1972, the adjustable (?) brush holder compression are used in URT-110B electric traction, and well as DK-604B voltage divider.

Starting with ER2-982, the lid strengthening, and under-car drawer locks are improved

Face redesign

ER2-1223 in 2009 at Volokolamsk.

In 1974, starting with ER2-1028 electric trainset, engineer's cab became more flat, and. (unified with other series like, ER22, ER9p.) The same time instead of KMR-2A3 engineer's controllers, 1 KU-021 controllers were installed. _____ heating of engineer's cab, and engineer's valve are introduced.

On ER2-906 electric trainset the "Auto-Engineer" (AM-CNII) system testing had started. It took place on Moscow segment of October Railroad in 1975.

12 car edition

In 1976 - 1984 period the Railcar, Manufacturing Plant of Riga continued the release of ER2 electric trainsets (Manufacturing Sign 62-61) They were encountered for 3000 V DC; and they construction began still in 1962. The basic equipment for these trains were produced by Electric Machinery Plant of Riga. The majority of trainsets was released in 10-car edition (five countable sections). Part was in 12-car edition (six countable sections). Separate sections were available (cab + motor + trailer). The electric trains can be used in twelve, ten, eight, and four -car compositions. In process of ER2 release various improvements were introduced in cars' construction. They were intended to improve interior, exterior outlook, as well as passengers' and crew's comfort. Particularly, the shape of engineer's cab; other pantographs were installed, as well as some other machinery.

Railcar numbering

ER2 railcar numbering consists of trainset number, and car number written consequently. The motor cars have following numbers: 02, 04, 06, 08, 10, and 12 (even), Cab cars are 01 and 09 (07 Cab is only in eight car edition, which was produced by plants of Riga and Kalinin at the end of 1969) The trailer cars are 03, 05, 07, and 11 (odd). Complete number of ER2-955 first cab car will be ER2-95501.

The number of seats in cab car is 88, in motor cars 110, and trailer cars 108.

Passenger scape redesign

On basis of constructing and using ER22 electric trainsets, starting with ER2-1112 electric trainset, the following improvements was made.

  • The number of arches on train's roof, and distance between them is made the same.
  • In passengers' salon (space) the cushioned seats are installed, aluminum profiles are used instead of wooden.
  • On trainsets starting with ER2-1228, the edge walls of body, and trans-window sheets are fabricated as one long part.

The same diiferences can be observed, comparing ER9M and ER9P subtypes of ER9 electric trainset

Conclusion

ER2-1348, the last ER2 electric trainset was built in September 1984. Er2 electric trainsets entered a lot of suburban districts, particularly in Moscow and Leningrad (St. Petersburg) Railway Networks. The long run of ER2 release, made these trains leading in serving suburban commuters. These trains became widespread in suburban, as well as local railroad traffic in 1960 - 1980 period.

See also

Bibliography

  • V. A. Rakov Locomotives and MU rolling stock of Soviet Union Railroads 1956-1965
  • All about Russian Electric Trains
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