Ejido in Cuauhtémoc
In Mexican system of government, an ejido (Spanish pronunciation: , from latin exitum) is an area of communal land used for agriculture, on which community members individually possess and farm a specific parcel. Ejidos are registered with Mexico's National Agrarian Registry (Registro Agrario Nacional). The system of ejidos was based on an understanding of the Aztec calpulli and the medieval Spanish ejido.
Reform and decline 2
See also 3
External links 5
During the colonial era and the 19th Century Liberal La Reforma and expansion of haciendas in the late 19th Century under Porfirio Díaz, landlessness was a serious issue in Mexico. It was one of the core problems that contributed to the outbreak of the Mexican Revolution, notably Morelos where Emiliano Zapata led revolutionary peasants seeking return of their lands. Tierra y libertad (land and liberty) was one of the slogans of the Revolution. Distribution of large amounts of land did not begin until Lázaro Cárdenas became president in 1934. The ejido system was introduced as an important component of the agrarian land reform in Mexico.
The typical procedure for the establishment of an ejido involved the following steps:
landless farmers who leased lands from wealthy landlords would petition the federal government for the creation of an ejido in their general area;
the federal government would consult with the landlord;
the land would be expropriated from the landlords if the government approved the ejido; and
an ejido would be established and the original petitioners would be designated as ejidatarios with certain cultivation/use rights.
Ejidatarios do not actually own the land, but are allowed to use their allotted parcels indefinitely as long as they do not fail to use the land for more than two years. They can pass their rights on to their children.
Reform and decline
As the country experienced rapid population growth since the 1960s, governments found it increasingly difficult to find land to allot to poor peasants. In time, this led to progressively smaller ejidos being parcelled out. The problem was compounded by the poor peasants' lack of access to credit For example, ejidos could not be legally used as collateral for loans. All this and the fact that there was no encouragement for farmers to improve the conditions of the land on their own initiative, meant that ejidos were often yielding well below their potential. Starting in the late 1960s, Mexico ceased being self-sufficient in food production.
In 1991, President Carlos Salinas de Gortari eliminated the constitutional right to ejidos, citing the low productivity of communally-owned land. Existing ejidos were not disbanded, however, and much of Mexico's rural land (especially in the south) is still part of the ejido system. The change came about largely as a result of the negotiation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which went into effect in 1994.
^ Kirsten Appendini, “Ejido” in ‘’The Encyclopedia of Mexico’’. Vol. 1, p. 450. Chicago: Fitzroy and Dearborn.
^ Gallup et al. (2003) Is Geography Destiny? Lessons from Latin America, Stanford University Press ISBN 978-0821354513
^ Ronald H. Schmidt, William C. Gruben: Ejido reform and the NAFTA.
Rural Development Institute: Ejidos and Communidades in Oaxaca, Mexico (pdf)
Centro de Investigacion y Documentacion de la Casa and Sociedad Hipotecaria: Current Housing Situation in Mexico 2005 (pdf)
David W. Connell at mexicolaw.com: CAN I BUY "EJIDO" LAND?
Help improve this article
Sourced from World Heritage Encyclopedia™ licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0
Help to improve this article, make contributions at the Citational Source
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.