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Elizabeth Kortright Monroe

Elizabeth Monroe
First Lady of the United States
In office
March 4, 1817 – March 4, 1825
Preceded by Dolley Madison
Succeeded by Louisa Adams
Personal details
Born (1768-06-30)June 30, 1768
New York, Province of New York
Died September 23, 1830(1830-09-23) (aged 62)
Richmond, Virginia
Spouse(s) James Monroe
Children Eliza Kortright Monroe Hay
James Spence Monroe
Maria Hester Monroe-Gouverneur
Occupation First Lady of the United States
Signature

Elizabeth Kortright Monroe (June 30, 1768 – September 23, 1830) was First Lady of the United States from 1817 to 1825, as the wife of James Monroe, fifth President, who held the office for two terms. When her husband was appointed United States Minister to France, they became close friends with the Bonapartes and were invited to Napoleon’s coronation.

Early Life and Marriage

Born in New York in 1768, Elizabeth was the daughter of Lawrence Kortright and Hannah Aspinwall, Continental Congress. James, age twenty-seven, married Elizabeth, age seventeen, on February 16, 1786, in New York City. After a brief honeymoon on Long Island, the newlyweds returned to New York to live with her father until Congress adjourned. Their first child, Eliza, was born in December 1786 in Virginia.

Ambassador's Wife

In 1794, James was appointed United States Minister to France by President George Washington. In Paris, as wife of the American Minister during the Reign of Terror, she helped secure the release of Madame La Fayette, wife of the Marquis de Lafayette when she learned of her imprisonment and threatened death by guillotine. The Monroes also provided support and shelter to the American citizen Thomas Paine in Paris, after he was arrested for his opposition to the execution of Louis XVI. While in France, the Monroes' daughter Eliza became friends with Hortense de Beauharnais, step-daughter of Napoleon, and both girls received their education in the school of Madame Jeanne Campan, who had been an advisor on court etiquette to Marie Antoinette. This association led to a friendship between the family of Napoleon Bonaparte and the Monroes.

James was recalled from his Ambassadorship in 1796, due to his support of France in the opposition of the Jay Treaty. The Monroes returned to Virginia where he became Governor. A son, James Monroe, Jr., was born in 1799 but died in 1801.

In 1803, President Jefferson appointed James to be United States Minister to Great Britain, and also the United States Minister to Spain. The Monroes' third child, a daughter whom they named Maria, was born in 1803, probably in England. In 1804, James was sent as a special envoy to France to negotiate the purchase of Louisiana, in addition to remaining the Ambassador to both Great Britain and Spain. In December 1804, he and Elizabeth were invited by Napoleon to attend his coronation in Paris, and were part of the official American delegation. The Monroes returned to Virginia in 1807.

Life in Virginia and Washington

James Monroe returned to the Virginia House of Delegates and was elected to another term as governor of Virginia in 1811 but served only four months. In April 1811 he became Secretary of State. He had little to do with the War of 1812, as President Madison and the War Hawks in Congress were dominant. The war went very badly, so Madison turned to Monroe for help, appointing him Secretary of War in September 1814. Monroe resigned as Secretary of State on October 1 but no successor was ever appointed so he kept doing the work. Thus from October 1, 1814, to February 28, 1815, Monroe effectively held both cabinet posts. Monroe formulated plans for an offensive invasion of Canada to win the War of 1812, but the peace treaty was ratified in February, 1815, before any armies moved north. Monroe therefore resigned as Secretary of War and was formally reappointed Secretary of State. Monroe stayed on at State until March 4, 1817, when he began his term as the new President of the United States. During the War of 1812, Elizabeth stayed primarily on the Monroe family estates near Loudon and Albemarle, Virginia.

First Lady of the United States

Elizabeth began her tenure as First Lady on March 4, 1817, when her husband commenced his first term as the fifth President of the United States. Her husband was re-elected to a second term in office in 1820, therefore she remained in her role of First Lady until March 3, 1825.

Children

James and Elizabeth had three children:

  • Eliza Kortright Monroe Hay (1787–1835): Eliza appeared to many a haughty, pompous socialite, quick to remind others of her good breeding and lofty station. In 1808 she married George Hay, a prominent Virginia attorney who had served as prosecutor in the trial of Aaron Burr. She alienated most of Washington society for her refusal to call on wives of the diplomatic corps, as was the custom, and caused another social furor in closing her sister's wedding to all but family and friends. For all her apparent vanity, however, she demonstrated genuine compassion during the fever epidemic that swept Washington during Monroe's term. She spent many sleepless nights selflessly caring for victims. Following the deaths of her husband and father, she moved to Paris, converted to Catholicism and lived in a convent. Her daughter, Hortense, was named in honor of her friend, Hortense de Beauharnais, step-daughter of Napoleon.
  • James Spence Monroe (1799–1801): The only son of the Monroes was sickly and he died in early childhood. His name is merely a speculation, as his grave reads "J.S. Monroe", and not this name.
  • Maria Hester Monroe-Gouverneur (1803–1850) was still a child when her father was elected president. Maria finished school in Philadelphia before moving into the White House in 1819. On March 9, 1820, she married her first cousin, Samuel L. Gouverneur, in the first wedding of a president's child at the White House.[2] Many in Washington criticized the Monroes for keeping the wedding private; just 42 members of the family and close friends were invited. Friction between Maria's husband and her outspoken sister strained family relations thereafter. The Gouverneurs moved to New York City. Former President Monroe, upon losing his wife in 1830, moved in with them. President John Quincy Adams appointed her husband postmaster of New York City.

Death and legacy

Although Elizabeth Monroe regained a measure of respect and admiration during her husband's second term, she compared poorly to her predecessor, Dolley Madison, who had captivated Washington society, setting a standard by which future First Ladies were measured.

Retiring sickly and suffering several long illnesses, Elizabeth died on September 23, 1830 aged 62, at her home, Oak Hill. She was interred at Hollywood Cemetery in Richmond, Virginia.

The First Spouse Program under the Presidential $1 Coin Act authorizes the United States Mint to issue 1/2 ounce $10 gold coins and bronze medal duplicates[3] to honor the first spouses of the United States. Elizabeth Monroe's coin was released in February 2008.

Relations

References

External video

External links

  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/firstladies/em5.html
  • Elizabeth Monroe at Findagrave
  • http://archive.org/stream/courtrightkortri00abbo/courtrightkortri00abbo_djvu.txt
  • C-SPAN's First Ladies: Influence & Image
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Dolley Madison
First Lady of the United States
1817–1825
Succeeded by
Louisa Adams

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