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Epirus vetus

 

Epirus vetus

Provincia Macedoniae
Επαρχια Μακεδονιας
Province of the Roman Empire
146 BC–7th century
The province of Macedonia within the Roman Empire, c. 117
Capital Thessalonica
in Late Antiquity: Thessalonica (Macedonia Prima) and Stobi (Macedonia Salutaris)[1]
Historical era Antiquity
 -  Established after the Fourth Macedonian War 146 BC
 -  Balkan interior raided by Slavs 7th century
Today part of  Greece
 Albania
 Bulgaria
 Macedonia

The Roman province of Macedonia (Latin: Provincia Macedoniae, Greek: Ἐπαρχία Μακεδονίας) was officially established in 146 BC, after the Roman general Quintus Caecilius Metellus defeated Andriscus of Macedon, the last Ancient King of Macedon in 148 BC, and after the four client republics ("tetrarchy") established by Rome in the region were dissolved. The province incorporated ancient Macedonia, with the addition of Epirus, Thessaly, and parts of Illyria, Paeonia and Thrace. This created a much larger administrative area, to which the name of 'Macedonia' was still applied.

Description

Organization

After the reforms of Diocletian in the late 3rd century, Epirus Vetus was split off, and sometime in the 4th century, the province of Macedonia itself was divided into Macedonia Prima in the south and Macedonia Salutaris in the north. These provinces were all subordinate to the Diocese of Macedonia, one of three dioceses which were included in the praetorian prefecture of Illyricum, organized in 318. When the Prefecture was divided between the Western and Eastern Empires in 379, the Macedonian provinces were included in Eastern Illyricum. With the permanent division of the Empire in 395, Macedonia passed to the East, which would evolve into the Byzantine Empire.

Epirus Vetus

Epirus vetus or Old Epirus was a province in the Roman Empire that corresponded to the region of Epirus. Between 146 BC and 395, it was incorporated into the Roman province of Macedonia.The capital[2] of Epirus vetus was Nicopolis, a city founded by Octavian in memory of his victory over Antony and Cleopatra at Actium.

Epirus Nova

Epirus nova or New Epirus or Illyria Graeca[3][4][5] or Illyris proper was a province of the Roman Empire established by Diocletian (284-311) during his restructuring of provincial boundaries. The province, belonged to the Roman province of Macedonia.[6][7] Later it became a theme[8] of the Byzantine empire. Dyrrachium (or Epidamnus) was established as the capital of Epirus nova.[9] The region of Epirus Nova corresponded[10] to a part of Illyria that was now was "partly Hellenic and partly Hellenized".[11] The area was the line of division[12] between the provinces of Illyricum and Macedonia.The area suffered from terrible earthquakes.

The Ostrogoths led by Theodoric were stopped in Epirus nova by Sabinianus.[13] They entered in 479, where they remained until 482.[14]


Macedonia Prima

Macedonia Prima ("first Macedonia") was a province encompassing most of the kingdom of Macedonia, coinciding with most of the modern Greek region of Macedonia, and had Thessalonica as its capital.

Macedonia Salutaris

Also known as Macedonia Secunda ("second Macedonia") was a province encompassing partially Dardania and the whole of Paeonia, the second being most of the present-day Republic of Macedonia. The town of Stobi located to the junction of the Erigón and Axiós rivers, which was the former capital of Paeonia, arose later in the capital city of Macedonia Salutaris ("advantageous Macedonia").

Economy

The reign of Augustus began a long period of peace, prosperity and wealth for Macedonia, although its importance in the economic standing of the Roman world diminished when compared to its neighbor, Asia Minor.

The economy was greatly stimulated by the construction of the Via Egnatia, the installation of Roman merchants in the cities, and the founding of Roman colonies. The Imperial government brought, along with its roads and administrative system, an economic boom, which benefited both the Roman ruling class and the lower classes. With vast arable and rich pastures, the great ruling families amassed huge fortunes in the society based on slave labor.

The improvement of the living conditions of the productive classes brought about an increase in the number artisans and craftspeople to the region. Stonemasons, miners, blacksmiths, etc. were employed in every kind of commercial activity and craft. Greek people were also widely employed as tutors, educators and doctors throughout the Roman world.

The export economy was based essentially on agriculture and livestock, while iron, copper, and gold along with such products as timber, resin, pitch, hemp, flax and fish were also exported. Another source of wealth was the kingdom's ports, such as Dion, Pella, Thessalonica, Cassandreia.[15]


Notable individuals

Citizens

Saints and Clerics

Writers

Physicians

  • Athryilatus of Thasos
  • Alexander of Pella
  • Damian of Thessalonica
  • Anthemius of Edessa
  • Paul of Philippi
  • Theodorus of Kato Kleines,Florina
  • C. Iulius Nicetas of Lyke (Lyki) in Pella
  • Aurelius Isidorus of Thessalonica
  • Sextus Iulius Chariton of Amphipolis
  • Servia of Thessalonica
  • Pubicius Lalus and Publicius Hermias of Beroea
  • Aelius Nicolaus of Edessa
  • Aptus of Dion[17]

See also

References

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