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Fall of Philadelphia

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Title: Fall of Philadelphia  
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Subject: Siege of Nicomedia, Battle of Bapheus, Siege of Nicaea (1328–31), Siege of Bursa, Siege of Constantinople (1411)
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Fall of Philadelphia

Fall of Philadelphia
Part of the Byzantine-Ottoman Wars
Date c. 1378 - 1390
Location Alaşehir, Asia Minor
Result Ottoman victory
Belligerents
Ottoman Sultanate and
Byzantine Empire (as vassals)
Byzantine Greeks of Philadelphia
Commanders and leaders
Bayezid the Thunderbolt
Manuel II Palaiologos (vassal)
John VII Palaiologos (vassal)
Unknown
Strength
Unknown, but much more powerful Unknown

The Fall of Philadelphia marked the fall of the last independent Christian Greek settlement in western Asia Minor to the Muslim Turks of the Ottoman Sultanate. Ironically, the besieging army included a contingent from the Byzantine Empire, which was a vassal of the Ottomans.

Prior to its fall, the city had evaded the fate of her neighbours by paying tribute to the numerous fanatical ghazis, whose bands robbed and pillaged any who did not pay protection money (Jizya), although the city was not officially under Islamic law. In theory, the city was under the Byzantine Empire, but cut off by a sea of hostile land ensured that in reality the city remained independent.

In 1378 Manuel II Palaiologos promised to hand over the city of Philadelphia to the Turks in return for the Ottoman Sultan's aid in a disastrous Byzantine civil war. However, the Philadelphians appeared to have refused surrender, since it was not until 1390 that Bayezid summoned the two leaders of the civil war, John VII and Manuel II and ordered them to accompany the besieging force. The city was taken by the Turks that year.

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