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Father of Confederation

 

Father of Confederation

The Fathers of Confederation are the people who attended the Charlottetown and Quebec Conferences in 1864 and the London Conference of 1866 in England, preceding Canadian Confederation. The following lists the participants in the Charlottetown, Quebec, and London Conferences and their attendance at each stage.[1][2]

There were 36 original Fathers of Confederation. Hewitt Bernard, who was the recording secretary at the Charlottetown Conference, is considered by some to be a Father of Confederation.[3] The later "Fathers" who brought the other provinces into Confederation after 1867 are also referred to as "Fathers of Confederation."[1] In this way, Amor De Cosmos who was instrumental both in bringing democracy to British Columbia and in bringing his province into Confederation, is considered by many to be a Father of Confederation.[4] As well, Joey Smallwood referred to himself as "the Last Father of Confederation", because he helped lead Newfoundland into Confederation in 1949. Many feel that Louis Riel is a father of Confederation as well because he brought Manitoba into Confederation in 1870 after the Red River Resistance, but is excluded because of racial prejudice.[5]

Table of participation

Participant[2] Portrait Province (Current) Charlottetown Quebec City London
Sir Adams George Archibald
Nova Scotia
George Brown
Ontario
Sir Alexander Campbell
Ontario
Sir Frederick Carter
Newfoundland and Labrador
Sir George-Étienne Cartier
Quebec
Sir Edward Barron Chandler
New Brunswick
Sir Jean-Charles Chapais
Quebec
Sir James Cockburn
Ontario
George Coles
Prince Edward Island
Robert B. Dickey
Nova Scotia
Charles Fisher
New Brunswick
Sir Alexander Tilloch Galt
Quebec
Sir John Hamilton Gray
Prince Edward Island
Sir John Hamilton Gray
New Brunswick
Sir Thomas Heath Haviland
Prince Edward Island
William Alexander Henry
Nova Scotia
Sir William Pearce Howland
Ontario
John Mercer Johnson
New Brunswick
Sir Hector-Louis Langevin
Quebec
Andrew Archibald Macdonald
Prince Edward Island
Sir John A. Macdonald
Ontario
Jonathan McCully
Nova Scotia
William McDougall
Ontario
Thomas D'Arcy McGee
Quebec
Peter Mitchell
New Brunswick
Sir Oliver Mowat
Ontario
Edward Palmer
Prince Edward Island
William Henry Pope
Prince Edward Island
John William Ritchie
Nova Scotia
Sir Ambrose Shea
Newfoundland and Labrador
William H. Steeves
New Brunswick
Sir Étienne-Paschal Taché
Quebec
Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley
New Brunswick
Sir Charles Tupper Nova Scotia
Edward Whelan
Prince Edward Island
Robert Duncan Wilmot
New Brunswick

Historic photographs

See also

History of Canada portal
Canadian politics portal

References

Further reading

External links

  • Fathers of Confederation - Library and Archives Canada

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