World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Fish hydrolysate

Article Id: WHEBN0016950771
Reproduction Date:

Title: Fish hydrolysate  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Fish products, Fish, Marine pollution, Aquaculture in South Africa, Organic aquaculture
Collection: Fish, Fish Products, Organic Fertilizers, Soil Improvers
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Fish hydrolysate

Fish hydrolysate, in its simplest form, is ground up fish transformed into a liquid phase, where the cleavage of molecular bonds occurs through various biological processes. Raw material choice; either whole fish or by-products, depends on the commercial sources of the fish. In some cases, the fillet portions are removed for human consumption, the remaining fish body (generally the guts, bones, cartilage, scales and remaining meat) is put into water and ground up. Some fish hydrolysate is ground more finely than others so more bone material is able to remain suspended. Enzymes may also be used to dissolve bones, scale and meat. If the larger chunks of bone and scales are screened out, calcium or mineral content may be lacking in the finished product form. If purchasing fish hydrolysate for agricultural applications, one should look at the label carefully for the concentration of mineral elements in the liquid. Some fish hydrolysates have been made into a dried product, increasing the potential for inclusion as an ingredient in other food or feed products. The oil is separated out in this process, which means the Omega 3 fatty acid would remain with the oil and not the hydrolysate.[1]

Contents

  • Uses of fish hydrolysate 1
  • Bycatch 2
  • Stabilizers 3
  • Comparison with fish emulsion 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6
  • Further reading 7

Uses of fish hydrolysate

There are many uses of fish hydrolysate - from fish-based fertilizer, to its use as an animal food, or new human consumption applications which are developing. A number of scientific journals have cited the antiproliferative activity of fish protein hydrolysate, which makes it eligible for listing as a nutriceutical.[2] Fish protein hydrolysates, particularly those developed from salmon, contain significant cancer growth inhibitors and those from sardines have gut health and anti-hypertension benefits. The nutritional benefits of hydrolyzing fish has spawned a new industry producing fish protein powder for food and nutritional applications which aims to capitalize on the value of the fish peptides produced as a result of enzymatic action on the fish protein.

Bycatch

New technologies that have increased fishing efficiency have also resulted in the taking of species or sizes not suitable for market, known as bycatch. An increased catch of unsaleable whole fish has resulted from the increased bycatch of the fishing industry. These fish are often dumped overboard at sea, but are also brought into port in the holds of fishing boats. This has spurred an incentive to find a market for the bycatch in order to lower the cost of production.

Stabilizers

The liquid fish hydrolysate process minces the whole fish, then enzymatically digests, then grinds and liquifies the resulting product, known as gurry. Because it is a cold process, gurry putrefies more rapidly than fish emulsion and needs to be stabilized at a lower pH, requiring more acid. Researchers have tried formic acid, sulfuric acid, and others. Formic acid had phytotoxic effects on plants. Phosphoric acid is the preferred stabilizer.[3]

Comparison with fish emulsion

If fish hydrolysate is heated, the oils and certain proteins can be more easily removed to be sold in purified forms. The complex protein, fish emulsion. The hydrolysate process has substantially lower capital and production costs compared to fish emulsion production.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, Volume 40, Issue 1 January 2000, pp. 43-81.
  2. ^ Picot, L, et al., 'Antiproliferative activity of fish protein hydrolysates on human breast cancer cell lines', Process Biochemistry. Vol. 41, no. 5, May 2006.
  3. ^ Brian Baker, Plant Nutrition from the Sea, Farmer to Farmer 16 (Sept./Oct. 1996), available online at [1].

External links

  • Fish Protein Hydrolysates: Production, Biochemical, and Functional Properties
  • Freshwater Fish Processing - Equipment and Examples of Technological Lines
  • Alaska Bounty - Plant Food From the Sea

Further reading

  • Hordur G. Kristinsson & Barabar A. Rasco, Fish Protein Hydrolysates: Production, Biochemical, and Functional Properties pp. 43–81, 40 Institute for Food Science and Technology 1(University of Washington 2000).
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.