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Fondaparinux

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Fondaparinux

Fondaparinux
Clinical data
Trade names Arixtra
AHFS/Drugs.com
Licence data EMA:, US FDA:
Legal status
Routes of
administration
subcutaneous
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability N/A
Protein binding 94%
Metabolism renally excreted unchanged
Biological half-life 17-21 hours
Identifiers
CAS Registry Number  Y
ATC code B01
PubChem CID:
DrugBank  Y
ChemSpider  Y
UNII  Y
ChEMBL  N
Chemical data
Formula C31H43N3Na10O49S8
Molecular mass 1726.77 g/mol
 N   

Fondaparinux (trade name Arixtra) is an anticoagulant medication chemically related to low molecular weight heparins. It is marketed by GlaxoSmithKline. A generic version developed by Alchemia is marketed within the US by Dr. Reddy's Laboratories.

Contents

  • Structure and mechanism 1
  • Administration 2
  • Comparison to other agents 3
  • Uses 4
  • Chemical structure 5
    • Abbreviations 5.1
  • References 6
  • External links 7

Structure and mechanism

Fondaparinux is a synthetic pentasaccharide factor Xa inhibitor. Apart from the O-methyl group at the reducing end of the molecule, the identity and sequence of the five monomeric sugar units contained in fondaparinux is identical to a sequence of five monomeric sugar units that can be isolated after either chemical or enzymatic cleavage of the polymeric glycosaminoglycans heparin and heparin sulfate (HS). Within heparin and heparin sulfate this monomeric sequence is thought to form the high-affinity binding site for the anti-coagulant factor antithrombin III (ATIII). Binding of heparin/HS to ATIII has been shown to increase the anti-coagulant activity of antithrombin III 1000 fold. In contrast to heparin, fondaparinux does not inhibit thrombin.

Administration

Fondaparinux is given subcutaneously daily. Clinically, it is used for the prevention of deep vein thrombosis in patients who have had orthopedic surgery as well as for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.

Comparison to other agents

One potential advantage of fondaparinux over LMWH or unfractionated heparin is that the risk for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is substantially lower. Furthermore, there have been case reports of fondaparinux being used to anti-coagulate patients with established HIT as it has no affinity to PF-4. However, its renal excretion precludes its use in patients with renal dysfunction.

Unlike direct factor Xa inhibitors, it mediates its effects indirectly through antithrombin III, but unlike heparin, it is selective for factor Xa.[1]

Uses

Fondaparinux is similar to enoxaparin in reducing the risk of ischemic events at nine days, but it substantially reduces major bleeding and improves long-term mortality and morbidity.[2]

It has been investigated for use in conjunction with streptokinase.[3]

Chemical structure

Abbreviations

  • GlcNS6S = 2-deoxy-6-O-sulfo-2-(sulfoamino)-α-D-glucopyranoside
  • GlcA = β-D-glucopyranuronoside
  • GlcNS3,6S = 2-deoxy-3,6-di-O-sulfo-2-(sulfoamino)-α-D-glucopyranosyl
  • IdoA2S = 2-O-sulfo-α-L-idopyranuronoside
  • GlcNS6SOMe = methyl-O-2-deoxy-6-O-sulfo-2-(sulfoamino)-α-D-glucopyranoside

The sequence of monosaccharides is D-GlcNS6S-α-(1,4)-D-GlcA-β-(1,4)-D-GlcNS3,6S-α-(1,4)-L-IdoA2S-α-(1,4)-D-GlcNS6S-OMe, as shown in the following structure:

Fondaparinux

References

  1. ^ "Medscape.com". Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  2. ^ "NEJM -- Comparison of Fondaparinux and Enoxaparin in Acute Coronary Syndromes". Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  3. ^ Peters RJ, Joyner C, Bassand JP, et al. (February 2008). "The role of fondaparinux as an adjunct to thrombolytic therapy in acute myocardial infarction: a subgroup analysis of the OASIS-6 trial". Eur. Heart J. 29 (3): 324–31.  

External links

  • Arixtra home page
  • Alchemia home page
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