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Foreign relations of Greece

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Title: Foreign relations of Greece  
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Foreign relations of Greece

This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Greece

Foreign relations of the Hellenic Republic are the Greek government's external relations with the outside world. As one of the oldest Euro-Atlantic member states in the region of Southeast Europe, Greece enjoys a prominent geopolitical role, due to its political and geographical proximity to Europe, Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. Its main allies are France, Italy, Bulgaria, United States, the other NATO countries like Albania, and the European Union. Greece also maintains strong diplomatic relations with Cyprus, Albania, Russia, Serbia, Armenia and Israel, while at the same time focuses at improving further the good relations with Egypt and the Arab World, Caucasus, and China. As member of both the EU and the Union for the Mediterranean, Greece is a key player in the eastern Mediterranean region and has encouraged the collaboration between neighbors, as well as promoting the Energy Triangle, for gas exports to Europe. Greece also has the largest economy in the Balkans, where it is an important regional investor.

Prominent issues in Hellenic foreign policy include the claims in the Aegean Sea and Eastern Mediterranean by Turkey, the Turkish occupation of Cyprus, and the dispute over the name of the Republic of Macedonia (recognized under the provisional denomination of "former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia").

Contents

  • Overview 1
  • The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 2
  • Turkey 3
    • Cyprus dispute 3.1
    • Aegean claims by Turkey 3.2
    • Turkey and the EU 3.3
    • Arson admission 3.4
  • Europe 4
  • Americas 5
  • Middle East and North Africa 6
  • Asia 7
  • Sub-Saharan Africa 8
  • Oceania 9
  • Terms 10
    • Northern Epirus 10.1
    • Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople 10.2
    • Black Sea 10.3
  • International organization participation 11
  • See also 12
  • References 13
  • Further reading 14
  • External links 15

Overview

Greece has diplomatic relations with almost all the countries in the world, as shown in the map below.

Representation through:[1]      embassy –      Greek embassy in another country
     general consulate –      liaison office –      no representation –      Greece

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Greece continues to reject the use of the term Macedonia or "Republic of Macedonia" to refer to its northern neighbour.[2] The Greek government opposes the use of the name without any qualification such as 'Republic of Northern Macedonia' to the post-1991 constitutional name of its northern neighbour,[2] citing historical and territorial concerns resulting from the ambiguity between the terms Republic of Macedonia, the Greek region of Macedonia and the ancient kingdom of Macedon,[2] which falls within Greek Macedonia. Greece also objects to the use of the terms "Macedonian" to denote ethnic Macedonians and the Macedonian language,[2] as these terms have a different meaning in Greece (inhabitants of the Greek region of Macedonia and the Macedonian dialect of Greek). The dispute has escalated to the highest level of international mediation, involving numerous attempts to achieve a resolution, notably by the United Nations.

The provisional reference the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM)[3] is still currently used in relations involving states which do not recognise the constitutional name, Republic of Macedonia. Nevertheless, all United Nations member-states have agreed to accept any final agreement resulting from negotiations between the two countries. The ongoing dispute has not prevented the two countries from enjoying close trade links and investment levels (especially from Greece), but it has generated a great deal of political and academic debate on both sides.

On 13 September 1995 the two countries signed the Interim Accord,[3] whereby Greece recognized the Republic of Macedonia under its provisional reference.[3] As of August 2011 negotiations aimed at resolving the dispute are ongoing. Under Greek pressure, the European Union and NATO agreed that in order for the Republic of Macedonia to receive an invitation to join these institutions the name dispute must be resolved first.[4][5][6] This resulted in a case at the International Court of Justice against Greece for violation of the Interim Accord.[7] The Court deemed Greece was wrong to block its neighbour's bid to join NATO.[8] No penalties were imposed[9] but it is now politically more difficult for Greece to object to its neighbour's any future application to either NATO or the EU.

Turkey

After more than a century of strained relations and intercepted fighting Greece and Turkey agreed under the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923 to a population exchange as an attempt to reduce tensions between the two countries in the future. A significant 300,000 strong Greek community in Istanbul and a 100,000 Muslim one in Western Thrace were excluded from the transfer, with each one supposed to be working as counter-weights to any anti-minority policy that either Turkey or Greece may sought to apply in the future. The good relations between the two neighbors lasted until the mid-1950s when the Cyprus problem surfaced. In 1955 an anti-Greek Istanbul pogrom was initiated by Turkish mobs against the Greek community of Istanbul, which led to the gradual extinction of the community. Similar policies occurred in the islands of Imbros and Tenedos. Up to late 1990s strained relations almost led to an open war in 1974, 1987 and 1996. Since the earthquake diplomacy in 1999 relations have once again begun improving.

Cyprus dispute

Embassy of Greece in Nicosia, Cyprus

As the island of enclaves. In 1974 the US-backed Greek junta - in power since 1967 - partly in a move to draw attention away from internal turmoil and partly unsatisfied with Makarios' policy in Cyprus, on 15 July attempted a coup to replace him with Nikos Sampson and declare union with Greece. Seven days later, Turkey launched an invasion of Cyprus allegedly to reinstate the constitution but which resulted in blooded conflict, partition of the island and mass ethnic cleansing. The overwhelming Turkish land, naval and air superiority against island's weak defenses led to the bringing of 37% of the land under Turkish control. 170,000 Greek Cypriots were evicted from their homes in the north with 50,000 Turks following the opposite path concluding the de facto division of Cyprus. In 1983 Turkish Cypriots proclaimed independence unilaterally with only Turkey recognizing them. As of today the north is under an embargo as a measure against the illegal partition of the island.

Ever since both countries along with the two communities of the island are engages into a vicious cycle of negotiations which led to little. In 2004 the Annan Plan for Cyprus was put to vote but whilst it was accepted by the north, it was rejected by the Greek-Cypriots as it meant in their eyes, endorsing a confederal state with a weak central government and considerable local autonomy. The Republic of Cyprus is a constitutional democracy which has reached great levels of prosperity, with a booming economy and good infrastructures, part of the United Nations, European Union and several others organizations by whom it is recognized as the sole legitimate government of the whole island.

Greece calls for the removal of Turkish troops from Cyprus and the restoration of a unified state. The Republic of Cyprus is receiving strong support from Greece in international forums with the latter maintaining a military contingent on the island, and Greek officers filling key positions in the Cypriot National Guard.

Aegean claims by Turkey

Other issues dividing Greece and Turkey involve the delimitation of the continental shelf in the Aegean Sea, territorial waters and airspace. In March 1987 a dispute concerning oil drilling rights, almost led to war between the countries with Greece advocating the dispute to be decided by the International Court of Justice. In early 1988, the Turkish and Greek Prime Ministers met at Davos, Switzerland, and later in Brussels. They agreed on various measures to reduce bilateral tensions and to encourage cooperation.

Tensions over the Aegean Sea surfaced again in November 1994, when Greece claimed under the Law of the Sea Treaty, which Turkey has not signed, that it reserved the right to declare an expansion of its continental shelf from 6 to 12 nautical miles (11–22 km; 7–14 mi) around its Aegean islands. Turkey which has itself expanded its continental shelf in the Black Sea shore, stated that it would consider any such action a cause for war. New technical-level bilateral discussions began in 1994 but soon fizzled-out.

In January 1996, Greece and Turkey came close to an armed confrontation over the question of which country had sovereignty over an NATO) summit in Madrid, Greek and Turkish leaders reached agreement on six principles to govern their bilateral relations. Within a few months, however, the two countries were again at odds over Aegean airspace and sovereignty issues. Tensions remained high for months, although various confidence-building measures were discussed to reduce the risk of military accidents or conflict in the Aegean, under the auspices of the NATO Secretary General.

Turkey and the EU

Greece has come out in support of Turkey's bid for European Union membership,[10] and supports its full integration to the union when conditions for its acceptance are met. On 6 May 2004, Turkey's Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan became the first Turkish leader to visit Greece in fifty years.[11] On 24 January 2008, Greece's premier Costas Karamanlis visited Turkey a full 48 years after the last Greek premier and uncle of his Constantine Karamanlis had visited the neighboring country.

Arson admission

On Monday 23 December 2011, in an interview on Turkish newspaper BirGün discussing secret budgets, former Turkish Prime Minister Crete and other parts of Greece and another which was responsible for starting the wildfires. An attack on an army camp in Lamia, central Greece, is also mentioned.[17]

Europe

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Albania 1912, 1971 and 1991 see Albania–Greece relations

Greece and Albania – even though diplomatic relations were restored in 1971[18][19] – normalized relations only in 1987 as till then both countries were officially – in a cease-fire – but nevertheless under the state of war since Albania and Italy had declared war on Greece on 28 October 1940. During rule of dictator Enver Hoxha relations were strained because of the part that Albania played during World War II against Greece and also because of the material help that they provided to Greek communists during the Greek civil war. In addition there was controversy about the treatment of the Greek minority in southern Albania and the Cham issue.

After the fall of the Albanian socialist regime in 1991, relations between the two countries got better but soon begun to deteriorate with accusations about mistreatment of minorities vice versa. To the latter problem it was added the widespread phenomenon of waves of illegal immigration from Albania towards Greece. High criminality numbers from one hand and alleged police brutality from the other became familiar subjects on the news of both neighbors, increasing eventually tensions. According to official Greek data around 450,000 Albanian immigrants work in Greece and it is believed the number will almost double if illegal immigrants are accounted too. This is a brand new situation, for both countries as Greece for the first time become a destination country for immigrants and Albanians for the first time got out of their country after the total isolation that the communist regime had imposed.

Today, relations between the two countries are very close and are regarded as excellent, and, at the Albanian Government's request, about 250 Greek military personnel are stationed in Albania to assist with the training and restructuring the Albanian Armed Forces. Albania's economy is overdependent to the money immigrants from Greece sent back home, while Greece is the second larger trading partner, with more than US$400 million worth of investments. Moreover, Greek products account for 21% of Albania's imports, with Greece absorbing 12% of its neighboring country's exports.[20] At the same time, low cost labor from Albania propelled the growth of the Greek economy, especially in the construction and agriculture sectors. Albania is home to 300,000 or more Greeks, with about 650,000 Greeks in total being linked to Albania[21] while between 400,000–600,000 Albanians live and work in Greece, the vast majority of them post-1991 economic migrants.

  • Albania is home to a considerable Greek community, both migrants and indigenous minority - number varies from 300-500,000 with 650,000 in total including North Epirus Greeks in Greece, USA and Australia.[22]
  • Greece is home to just under a million Albanians (some sources say 600,000, whilst other Greek organisations claim 900,000 with illegal migrants and overstayers).
  • The Arvanitika are an ethnolinguistic Albanian group who have historical, cultural and political relations and ground within Greece.
  • Greece is Albania's most important European Union ally and partner.[23]
  • Relations since the election victory of Edi Rama in 2013 have seen massive improvement and warming of relations between the two nations.[24]
  • Greece has a good proportion of Arvanitite ancestral MPs whilst Albania has up to 10 MPs of full or partial Greek ancestry.
  • The Archbishop of Albania is Greek,[25] and the Archbishop of Greece is Arvanite.[26]
  • There are many cultural, political, historical and biological similarities and shared kinship between the Albanian and Greek peoples.[27][28]
  • The Greek far right party Golden Dawn until the early 1990s heavily alluded to the same origin of Albanian and Greeks and considered the two brotherly nations.[29]
  • Greek is the second most spoken language in Albania, with a considerable size having knowledge of it.[30]
  • Albanian is the most common foreign/migrant language in Greece, although most Greeks do not have clear knowledge of it.[31]
  • Many organisations both political and societal exist in Albania and Greece promoting relations between the two nations.[32]
  • Albania is home to the largest amount of Greek diaspora political and cultural organisations; there are 5 political parties and over a dozen organisations.[33]
  • Both Albania and Greece have had a rocky past however the overall kinship even through DNA is extremely close and many academics in the two nations see the people as one, however this is often rebuffed by modern nationalistic feelings and immigration issues between the two nations.[34]
  • As of 2014 both nations have described their relations as 'excellent' and Albania considered Greece one of its 'strongest and most important allies', both NATO nations have close relations nowadays.[35]


 Armenia 21 September 1991 see Armenia–Greece relations

Greece was one of the first countries to recognize Armenia's independence on 21 September 1991 and one of those that have officially recognized the Armenian Genocide. Since the independence of Armenia the two countries have been partners within the framework of international organizations (United Nations, OSCE, Council of Europe, BSEC), whilst Greece firmly supports the community programs aimed at further developing relations between the EU and Armenia.

Continuous visits of the highest level have shown that both countries want to continue to improve the levels of friendship and cooperation (Visit by the President of Armenia Levon Ter-Petrossian to Greece in 1996, visit by the President of the Hellenic Republic Costis Stephanopoulos in 1999, visit by the President of Armenia Robert Kocharyan to Greece in 2000 and 2005 and visit by Greek president Karolos Papoulias to Armenia in June 2007).

Greece is, after Russia, the major military partner of Armenia. Armenian officers are trained in Greek military academies, and various technical assistance is supplied by Greece. Since 2003, an Armenian platoon has been deployed in Kosovo as part of KFOR, where they operate as a part of the Greek battalion of KFOR.

 Austria Both countries have had diplomatic relation since the 19th century, after Greece's independence. Greece has an embassy in Vienna and an honorary consulate in Salzburg. Austria has an embassy in Athens and six honorary consulates (in Heraklion, Hermoupolis, Korfu, Patras, Rhodos and Thessaloniki). Both countries are full members of the European Union. There is also a Greek community living in Austria.
  • List of bilateral treaties between both countries: Austria Ministry of Foreign Affairs (in German only)
  • Austrian embassy in Athens (in German and Greek only)
  • Greek Foreign Affairs Ministry about relations with Austria
  • Greek embassy in Vienna (in Greek and German only)
 Azerbaijan 1992 see Azerbaijan–Greece relations

Azerbaijan-Greece relations today are friendly. Each state maintains a full embassy, Azerbaijan in Athens and Greece in Baku. Recently in February 2009, Azerbaijani President Ilham Aliyev visited Greece in order to boost bilateral relations.[36] The leader met with Greek President Karolos Papoulias, as well as the Greek Prime Minister Costas Karamanlis.[36] At the meeting between the officials, the two nations agreed that they must work more closely to get Azeri gas into Greece to help ease recent security issues.[37][38]

In the past the two nations have made many deals related to the oil industry. In 2007 Greek Development Minister Dimitris Sioufas signed a "memorandum of cooperation" in the sectors of natural gas and oil while in Baku.[39][40] Sioufas referred to this memorandum as a "new page in economic and energy relations of the two countries."[40] Greece supports Azerbaijan's bid to join to European Union and is the first EU member that wanted directly gas important from Azerbaijan.[41]

 Belarus 1992
  • Belarus is represented in Greece through its embassy in Sofia (Bulgaria).
  • Until 2003, Greece had an embassy in Minsk, today it is represented through its embassy in Moscow (Russia).
  • Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Belarus
 Belgium 1874
  • Belgium has an embassy in Athens and seven honorary consulates in Corfu, Iraklion, Mytilini, Patras, Piraeus, Rhodos and Thessaloniki.[42]
  • Since 1945, Greece has an embassy in Brussels.[43]
  • Both countries are full members of NATO, of the European Union.
  • There are between 15,000 and 26,000 Greeks who live in Belgium.
  • Belgian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, International Trade and Cooperation for Development about relations with Greece (in French only)
  • Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Belgium
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 30 November 1995
  • Greece recognized Bosnia and Herzegovina's independence in 1992.
  • Since 1998, Bosnia and Herzegovina has an embassy in Athens.
  • Since 1996, Greece has an embassy in Sarajevo.
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe.
  • Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relation with Bosnia and Herzegovina
 Bulgaria 1908 see Bulgaria–Greece relations

Since the Second World War, relations between Greece and Bulgaria have been flourishing, and as the Greek President NATO in May 2004, Greek-Bulgarian relations have been developing on all fronts, and the Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs describes relations between Greece and Bulgaria as "excellent".[45]

 Croatia see Foreign relations of Croatia
 Cyprus see Cyprus–Greece relations
  • Relations are excellent, due to the shared national, historical and cultural heritage of both countries and common interests.
  • Cyprus has an embassy in Athens and a consulate-general in Thessaloniki.
  • Greece has an embassy in Nicosia.[46]
  • Both countries are full members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and of the European Union.
  • Cyprus Ministry of Foreign Affairs: list of bilateral treaties with Greece
  • Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relation with Cyprus
 Czechoslovakia 1 January 1993 see Czech Republic–Greece relations
  • Diplomatic relations between Greece and former Czechoslovakia were established in 1920 – after Czechoslovakia's foundation. * The Czech Republic and Greece establishes diplomatic relations on 1 January 1993.
  • Each country has an embassy in the other one capital.[47][48]
  • See also Greeks in the Czech Republic
 Denmark 21 May 1928 see Denmark–Greece relations
 Estonia see Foreign relations of Estonia
 France 1833 see France–Greece relations
  • The two countries share membership of the European Union and NATO and maintain Embassy level relations since 1833 (only three years after the Greek independence).[49][50][51][52]
  • They were allies during both World Wars, Korean War and have never been adversaries of each other.
  • See also Greeks in France
 Germany see Foreign relations of Germany
 Holy See 1980 see Greece–Holy See relations
  • The Holy See immediately set up its Apostolic Nunciature to Greece in Athens in 1980.
  • The Greek ambassador to the Holy See resided at first in Paris, where he was concurrently accredited to France; but in 1988 a separate Greek embassy to the Holy See, situated in Rome, was set up.
 Hungary 23 July 1956
  • Ambassadorial representation started on 24 August 1964.
  • Both countries are members of the European Union and NATO.
  • Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Hungary
  • Greek embassy in Budapest
  • Hungarian embassy in Athens
  • see also Greeks in Hungary
 Iceland see Greece–Iceland relations
  • Greece is represented in Iceland through its embassy in Oslo (Norway) and through an honorary consulate in Reykjavík.
  • Iceland is represented in Greece through its embassy in Oslo (Norway) and through an honorary consulate in Athens.
 Ireland see Greece–Ireland relations
  • Since 1977, Greece has an embassy in Dublin.
  • Since 1978, Ireland has an embassy in Athens.
  • Both countries are full members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and of the European Union.
 Italy 1861 see Greece–Italy relations
 Kazakhstan 1 October 1992
  • Greece opened an Embassy in Almaty in February 1997.
  • Kazakhstan opened an Embassy in Athens in 2005. Kazakhstan has an honorary consulate in Athens since 1998.
  • Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev visited Greece in July 2001 and Greek President Konstantinos Stephanopoulos visited Kazakhstan in June 2002. The Kazakh leader also attended the 2004 Summer Olympics opening ceremony.
  • Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Kazakhstan
  • Kazakh Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Greece
 Latvia 23 May 1922
  • Greece recognized the State of Latvia on 23 May 1922, and diplomatic relations between the two countries were restored on 2 September 1991. Greece has never officially recognized the annexation of the Baltic states by the USSR.
  • The Latvian embassy in Athens was established in 1998. Latvia also has two honorary consuls in Greece (one in Athens and one in Thessaloniki).
  • The Greek embassy in Riga was opened in January 2005.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO and the European Union.
  • Greek Foreign Affairs Ministry about relations with Latvia
  • Latvia Foreign Affairs Ministry about relations with Greece
 Lithuania 7 January 1922
  • Full diplomatic relations were re-established on 7 January 1992.
  • Lithuania has maintained an embassy in Athens since 1997 along with an honorary consulate in Thessaloniki.[53]
  • Greece has had an embassy in Vilnius since 2 January 2005.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO and the European Union.
  • The ambassador to Greece has been Artūras Žurauskas since 2006.
  • The ambassador to the Republic of Lithuania is Konstantinos Katsabis.
  • Greek Foreign Affairs Ministry about relations with Lithuania
  • Lithuanian Foreign Affairs Ministry about relations with Greece
  • Lithuanian Foreign Affairs Ministry: list of bilateral treaties with Greece
 Luxembourg
  • Greece has an embassy in Luxembourg.
  • Luxembourg has an embassy in Athens and three honorary consulates in Athens, Patras and Thessaloniki.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO and of the European Union.
  • Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Luxembourg
  • Luxembourg's Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Greece (in French only)
 Republic of Macedonia 13 September 1995[3]
  • Greece imposed a trade embargo on Macedonia between 1994 and 1995.
  • Formal relations between the two countries began when Greece recognized the Republic of Macedonia as the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia on 13 September 1995.[3]
  • Greece is represented in the Republic of Macedonia through its liaison office and its consulate in Skopje as well as its consulate in Bitola.[54]
  • The Republic of Macedonia is represented in Greece through its liaison office in Athens and its consulate in Thessaloniki.[55]
  • The two countries are involved in a naming dispute (see above).
 Malta
  • The two countries share membership of the European Union.
  • Since 2004, Greece has an Embassy in Valletta and accredited its first Ambassador to Malta. Before that date the Greek embassy in Rome was accredited for Malta.[56]
  • Malta has an embassy in Athens.
  • Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Malta
 Montenegro 18 December 2006
  • Greece recognized the Republic of Montenegro 13 June 2006.
  • Greece has an embassy in Podgorica.
  • Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Montenegro
 Moldova 27 March 1992 see Greece–Moldova relations
  • Diplomatic relations between Greece and Modlova were established 27 March 1992 after the collapse of the Soviet Union
  • Greece is represented in Moldova through its honorary consulate in Chișinău and its embassy in Kiev.
  • Modlova is represented in Greece through its embassy in Athens, opened in 2003.[57]
  • See also Moldovan Embassy, Athens
 Norway see Greece–Norway relations
  • Greece has an embassy in Oslo (since 1980) and an honorary consulate in Bergen.
  • Norway has an embassy in Athens, and six honorary consulates in Piraeus, Patras, Corfu, Crete, Rhodes and Thessaloniki.[58]
  • Both countries are members of NATO.
  • Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Norway
 Poland 1919
  • Both countries exchanged Ambassadors in 1922.
  • Greece has an embassy in Warsaw.[59]
  • Poland has an embassy in Athens.[60]
  • Today both countries are members of the European Union and NATO.
  • Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Poland
 Portugal
  • Both countries have a resident embassy in the other's capital.
  • Today both country are members of the European Union and NATO. Greece is pushing for Portugal to be admitted in the Mediterranean Games.
  • Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Portugal
 Romania see Greece–Romania relations Diplomatic relations were established on 20 February 1880, at the legation level, and were raised to embassy level on 1 January 1939. There has been a Greek presence in Romania for at least 27 centuries.
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe, of the European Union and NATO.
 Russia 1828 see [61]
 Serbia 1878 see Greece–Serbia relations The two nations are traditionally, historically, religiously and culturally close and their friendly relations are confirmed by a regular political dialogue. Greece is supporting quick implementation of the Stabilisation and Association Agreement (SAA) between the EU and Serbia and easing visa regime EU towards Serbia. Greece is among the states that have not recognized the Kosovo Unilateral Declaration of Independence. Greece is one of the most important economic investors in Serbia, mainly in financial, telecommunication, energy and construction sector. Greece will participate in financing construction of the Corridor 10 highway in Serbia with 100 mil. EUR in total which is a part of its Hellenic Plan for the Economic Reconstruction of the Balkans.
 Slovakia 1 January 1993
  • Greece opened its embassy in Bratislava in September 1996.[62]
  • Slovakia also has an embassy in Athens.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO and the European Union.
  • Greek Foreign Affairs Ministry about relations with Slovakia
  • Slovakian Foreign Affairs Ministry about relations with Greece
 Slovenia July 1992
  • Greece opened its embassy in Ljubljana in 1995.
  • Slovenia also has an embassy in Athens.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO and the European Union.
  • Greek Foreign Affairs Ministry about relations with Slovenia
 Spain
  • There is Embassy level representation in Athens and Madrid.
  • Greece also has a General Consulate in Barcelona, and Spain an honorary consulate in Thessaloniki.
  • Today both country are members of the European Union and NATO.
  • Both Queen Sophia of Spain and Domenikos Theotokopoulos are of Greek descent.
  • Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Spain
 Sweden
  • The first contact between the two countries can be traced back to the 11th century.
  • Both countries are members of the European Union.
  • Sweden has an embassy in Athens.[63]
  • Greece has an embassies in Stockholm and maintains two Honorary General Consulates in Sweden, in the cities of Malmö and Gothenburg.[64]
  • Sweden has eight honorary consulate in Greece (Thessaloniki, Rhodos, Piraeus, Patras, Kos, Corfu, Heraklion, Chania).
  • Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Sweden
 Turkey see above, and see Greco-Turkish relations
 Ukraine 1992
  • Following the setting up of the Greek Embassy in Kiev in 1993, General-Consulates were set up in Mariupol and Odessa.[65]
  • Ukraine has opened an Embassy in Athens and a Consulate-General in Thessaloniki.[66]
  • See also Greeks in Ukraine
  • Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Ukraine
 United Kingdom see Greece–United Kingdom relations
  • Greece has an embassy in London and Honorary Consulates in Belfast, Birmingham, Edinburgh, Gibraltar, Glasgow and Leeds.[67]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Athens and a Honorary Vice Consulate in Patras. The United Kingdom also has Honorary Consulates in Crete, Corfu, Rhodes, Thessaloniki and Zakynthos.[68][69]

The two countries were also allies during both World Wars and the Korean War, and they continue to maintain an overall cordial relationship to the present day.

Americas

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Argentina see Argentine–Greek relations Both countries are represented by an Embassy in the other one's capital. At least 30,000 persons of Greek descent live in Argentina with about 5,000 with Greek passports. The majority of Greeks live in Buenos Aires.[70]
 Brazil see Greco-Brazilian relations
  • In addition to its Embassy in Brasília, Greece has two General Consulates in (São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro) and four Honorary Consulates.
  • Brazil has an embassy in Athens.
 Canada 1937
  • The nations first exchanged ambassadors in 1942.
  • Both countries are members of the United Nations, the Human Security Network, the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe, and NATO.
  • Greece has an embassy in Ottawa, as well as a Consulate-General in Montreal, Toronto, and Vancouver.
  • Canada has an Embassy with a Consular Office in Athens and an Honorary Consulate in Thessaloniki.
  • Canadian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Greece
  • Greek Ministry of Foreign Affaires about relations with Canada
  • Greek embassy in Ottawa
  • Canadian embassy in Athens
 Chile see Foreign relations of Chile
 Colombia 1942
 Cuba see Cuba–Greece relations Cuba has an embassy in Athens and Greece has an embassy in Havana.[72]
 Mexico 17 May 1938 see Greece-Mexico relations
 Nicaragua see Greece-Nicaragua relations Greece–Nicaragua relations are foreign relations between Greece and Nicaragua. Diplomatic relations were officially established on 2 July 1965.[1] Greece is represented in Nicaragua through its embassy in Mexico City.[1] Nicaragua is represented in Greece through its embassy in Rome.
 United States see Republic of Macedonia in the naming dispute, evident in his recognition of the state as Macedonia in 2004 and in his full backing to the country's accession to NATO further tarnished America's image.

Middle East and North Africa

Greece has a special interest in Middle East and North Africa because of its geographic position and its economic and historic ties to the area. The country cooperated with allied forces during the 1990-1991 Gulf War. Since 1994, Greece has signed defense cooperation agreements with Israel and Egypt and in recent years, Greek leaders have made numerous trips to the region in order to strengthen bilateral ties and encourage the Middle East Peace Process. In July 1997, December 1997, and July 1998 Greece hosted meetings of Israeli and Palestinian politicians to contribute to the peace process. Greece also maintains diplomatic relations with the General Palestinian Delegation while enjoying cordial relations with Syria.

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Algeria
  • Relations between the two countries have been traditionally friendly since Algeria's first years of independence.
  • Greece maintains an embassy in Algiers[77]
  • Algeria is represented in Greece by its embassy in Athens.
  • Both countries are members of the Union for the Mediterranean.
 Bahrain 28 August 1973
  • Bahrain does not have any representation in Greece.
  • Greece has an honorary consulates in Manama.
  • Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs: direction of the Greek honorary consulate in Manama
 Egypt see Egypt-Greece relations Both countries share relations since the years BC with the creation of Alexandria by Alexander the Great. Egypt has had a sizable Greek community which is mostly centered around Alexandria, Egypt's second largest city and the seat of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria. In the modern era, both countries enjoy very good and warm diplomatic relations since 1833 and especially after the Greek War of Independence, and both countries have signed several defense cooperation agreements, with the heads of states visiting each other in a regular basis.
  • Egypt is represented in Greece by its embassy in Athens and General Consulate in Thessalonica.
  • Greece is represented in Egypt by its embassy in Cairo and General Consulate in Alexandria.
  • Sizable communities of Greeks live in Egypt (Alexandria) and Egyptians in Greece (Patras, Athens).
  • Greece and Egypt signed bilateral agreements for trade, tourism and defense cooperations.
  • Both countries are members of the Union for the Mediterranean.
 Iran
Cartoon on the establishment of diplomatic relations between Greece and the then-ruling Qajar dynasty of Persia in 1902
  • Relations between the two people date back from the antiquity and before Persian invasion of Greece. There is also the report of Strabo of an Athenian delegation to Persia in 432 BC.[78] The relations have evolved from sworn rivalry during the Greco-Persian wars to strong cordiality. Alexander the Great defeated the Persian empire and the country was put under Greek rule for approx. 400 years until they were defeated by Parthians (another group of Iranian people) and pushed backed from Persia to their homeland.
  • Greece has an Embassy in Tehran
  • Iran is represented by her Embassy in Athens.[79]
  • Greek Ministry of Foreign Affaires about relations with Iran
  • Greece and the United States embassy have conversed regarding the combined military attitude towards the country. Read about it in this Wikileaks article [1]
 Iraq see Greece-Iraq relations Relations of the Greek and Iraqi peoples are deeply rooted in history, both have developed cultures that have influenced the course of humanity. They date as far back as when Alexander the Great ruled Mesopotamia (which name is of Greek origin, meaning "the land between two rivers") and eventually died in Babylon, Iraq. Greece firmly and consistently supports the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of Iraq. Greece traditionally maintained good and friendly relations with Iraq due to strong historical and cultural bonds, dating back to ancient times.[80] Greece has an Embassy in Baghdad, and Iraq is represented by her Embassy in Athens.
 Israel see Greece–Israel relations
  • Since 1990, diplomatic relations between the two countries were upgraded from Diplomatic Representation to Embassy level.
  • Greece is represented in Israel through its embassy in Tel Aviv, its Consulate General in Jerusalem, and an honorary consulate in Haifa.
  • Israel is represented in Greece through its embassy in Athens.
 Lebanon see Greek–Lebanese relations The relation between both people dates back to early antiquity, with the early trading activities between the ancient Greeks and the Phoenicians. In modern times, Greek-Lebanese bilateral relations are very good at all levels. Greece has an embassy in Beirut and Lebanon has an embassy in Athens. Both countries are members of the Union for the Mediterranean and the Francophonie.
 Libya 1952
  • Diplomatic relations between the two countries date back since 1952, when Libya’s independence was formally recognized by the UN.
  • Relations between the two countries have been traditionally friendly.
  • Greece has an embassy in Tripoli.
  • Libya is represented in Greece through its embassy in Athens.
  • Greek Foreign Affaires Ministry about relations with Libya
 Morocco
  • Bilateral relations between Greece and Morocco have traditionally been very good.
  • Greece has an embassy in Rabat, and a consular office in Casablanca.
  • Morocco is represented in Greece by its embassy to Athens.
  • Both countries are members of the Union for the Mediterranean and the Francophonie.
  • Greek Foreign Affairs Ministry about relations with Morocco
 Palestine see Greek–Palestinian relations
  • Bilateral relations between Greece and Palestine have been very close.
  • Greece has a consulate in Jerusalem which is accredited to the Palestinian Authority.
  • Palestine has a General Delegation in Athens.
 Qatar 1973
  • Greece has an embassy in Doha which opened in 2007.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Athens which opened in 2008.[81]
 Saudi Arabia
  • Greece has an Embassy in Riyadh. Greece has also a Consulate General in Jeddah.
  • Saudi Arabia has an Embassy in Athens.
  • See also Greeks in Saudi Arabia
  • Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Saudi Arabia
 Sudan

Greece and Sudan have long enjoyed a very cordial and friendly relationship spanning decades. The two countries enjoy strong and productive relations in the areas of diplomacy, economic reciprocity, and also there are large concentrations of Sudanese (both students and immigrants) in Greece, and numerous Greek nationals who have resided in Sudan since the early 20th century. The two countries are on very good terms with each other, notwithstanding Sudan's close ties with Greece's historical rival, Turkey. Greece has an embassy in Khartoum, whilst Sudan is represented in Greece through the parallel accreditation of its embassy in Athens. The Hellenic country also deeply supports peaceful stability in Sudan's western region, Darfur.

  • Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Sudan
 Syria
 United Arab Emirates 1971
  • Greece opened an Embassy in Abu Dhabi in 1989. Greece also has a commercial section in Dubai.
  • The United Arab Emirates are represented in Greece by their embassy in Athens.
  • Greek Foreign Affairs Ministry about relations with the United Arab Emirates

Asia

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Burma
  • Greece is represented in Burma through its embassy in Bangkok (Thailand).
  • Greek interests in Burma are represented by the Italian embassy in Yangon.
  • Burma is represented in Greece through its embassy in Rome (Italy).
  • Burmese Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  • Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Burma
 Cambodia
  • The Cambodian embassy in Belgium is also accredited to Greece
  • The Greek embassy in Bangkok (Thailand) is also accredited to Cambodia.[83]
  • Both countries are full members of the Francophonie.[84]
  • Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relation with Cambodia
 India 1950 see Greek-Indian relations
  • There is an Indian embassy in Athens.[85]
  • The Greek Embassy is located in a new building in New Delhi which was inaugurated on 6 February 2001. India supports the Greek position over the Cyprus dispute[86]
  • Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with India
 Indonesia 1960s
  • The embassy of Indonesia in Athens was opened in 1994 and was followed by the establishment of the embassy of Greece in Jakarta in 1997.
  • Greek Foreign Affairs Ministry about relations with Indonesia
  • Greek embassy in Jakarta
  • Indonesian embassy in Athens
 Japan 1899 see Greece–Japan relations
  • There has been a Greek embassy in Tokyo since 1960
  • The Japanese Embassy in Athens opened in 1960, when it was decided to upgrade the Japanese Consulate which had opened in 1956.
  • Since then the two countries have enjoyed excellent relations in all fields, and cooperate closely.[87]
 Kyrgyzstan see Greece-Kyrgyzstan relations
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1992.[88] Greece is represented in Kyrgyzstan through its embassy in Almaty (Kazakhstan). Kyrgyzstan is represented in Greece through a non resident ambassador based in Bishkek (in the Foreign Ministry). Kyrgyz consular representation in Greece is made by the Kazakh consulate in Athens.
  • On 1 November 2004, Kyrgyz President Askar Akayev made an official visit to Greece.[61][89] A Foreign Ministry delegation from Greece visited Dushanbe for talks, and had meetings with Tajikistan's Foreign Minister Zarifi and First Deputy Foreign Minister Youldashev in 2008. Foreign Minister Dora Bakoyannis met with Tajikistan's Foreign Minister Zarifi during the 1st EU-Central Asia Forum on security issues in Paris in September 2008.[88]
  • There are between 650 and 700 people of Greek descent living in Kyrgyzstan.[90] However, the data of the General Secretariat For Greeks Abroad give an even lower number (50 people).[91]
  • In 2004 Greece and Kyrgyzstan signed a bilateral agreement for air transports, tourism and diplomacy during Kyrgyz president Askar Akayev's visit to Greece.[61][92]
 Malaysia see Greek – Malaysia relations
 Mongolia 21 February 1986
  • Greece is represented in Mongolia through its embassy in Beijing (China).
  • Mongolia is represented in Greece through its embassy in Sofia (Bulgaria) and an honorary consulate in Athens.
  • l Mongolian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: list of bilateral treaties with Greece (in Mongolian only)
 Pakistan See Greece–Pakistan relations In modern times, Pakistan's first embassy in Athens was opened in 1975. Greece established an embassy in Islamabad in 1987. There are around 32,500 Pakistani people living and working in Greece. However, Islamabad has stated it will not accept Greek sovereignty over Cyprus and it should withdraw its bulk of armed forces from the southern part of the island to restore the independence of the Cypriots, which it continues to have diplomatic relations with Nicosia.
 People's Republic of China see China–Greece relations and Foreign relations of the People's Republic of China
 Philippines
  • There is a Philippine embassy in Athens.[94]
  • Greece has an embassy in Manila and an honorary consulate general.
  • There are around 40,000 Filipinos living and working in Greece, making them one of the largest foreign communities in Greece. (see Filipinos in Greece).
  • Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs - Diplomatic relations with the Philippines
 Singapore
  • The Greek embassy in Bangkok, Thailand, is also accredited to Singapore.
  • Singapore's embassy in Berlin, Germany, is also accredited to Greece. Singapore has an honorary consulate in Athens.
  • In consular affairs Greek interests are represented by the French Embassy in Singapore. There is also a special Port Consular Office in Singapore, which looks after the interests of Greek shipping companies, as well as an honorary consulate.
  • Greek Foreign Affairs Ministry about relations with Singapore
 South Korea 5 April 1961
  • Greece sent an expeditionary force to help the South Koreans against the communists during the Korean War.
  • South Korea opened its embassy in Athens on 6 July 1973.[95]
  • Greece opened its embassy in Seoul in October 1991.
  • Greek Ministry of Foreign Affaires about relations with South Korea
 Thailand 26 May 1958
  • The Greek Embassy in Bangkok was opened in November 1989.
  • Thailand has an embassy in [Athens.
  • Greek Ministry of Foreign Affaires about relations with Thailand
  • Thai embassy in Athens
  • Thai deputy premier, UN sec. gen. candidate, meets with premier Karamanlis, FM
 Vietnam April 1975
  • Since May 2007, Greece has had an embassy in Hanoi, it was inaugurated by prime minister Kostas Karamanlis.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Athens.
  • Greek Foreign Affairs Ministry about relations with Vietnam
  • Vietnamese Foreign Affairs Ministry about relations with Greece
  • Details about bilateral relations from the Vietnamese Foreign Affairs Ministry

Sub-Saharan Africa

Greece enjoys close historic relations with many members of the African Union, such as South Africa, Sudan, and Ethiopia.

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Democratic Republic of the Congo see Democratic Republic of the Congo – Greece relations
  • Greece has an embassy in Kinshasa and two honorary consulates in Kisangani and Lubumbashi.
  • The Democratic Republic of the Congo has an embassy in Athens. Both countries are full members of Francophonie.
  • Greek Foreign Affaires Ministry about relations with Democratic Republic of Congo
 Nigeria see Greek-Nigerian relations Nigeria has an embassy in Athens.[96] Greece established a diplomatic mission in Nigeria in 1970, and today has an embassy in Abuja and a consulate in Lagos. Trade between the two countries is imbalanced, with imports from Greece to Nigeria exceeding exports. Greek-owned tankers have an important role in shipping Nigerian oil and natural gas, its main exports. Recently a Greek tanker was involved a dispute over crude oil smuggling.[97] Greek-controlled companies have invested US$5 billion in the Nigerian economy. There is a small Greek business community in Lagos.[98]
 South Africa
  • The presence of a large Greek Diaspora in South Africa led to the establishment of diplomatic relations as far back as the early 20th century.
  • Greece has an Embassy in Pretoria, a general consulate in Johannesburg and 2 consulates in Cape Town and Durban.[99]
  • South Africa has an Embassy in Athens and a consulate-general in Thessaloniki.[100]
  • Relations are cordial, and got stronger since World War II.
  • Greek Ministry of Foreign Affaires about relations with South Africa
  • South African Department of Foreign Affaires about relations with Greece
 Zimbabwe see Greek-Zimbabwean relations Greece has an embassy in Harare. Due to the economic situation, Zimbabwe has neither an embassy nor an honorary consulate in Greece.[101]

Oceania

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Australia

Relations between the two states are close: both country were allies during both World Wars, there are a large Greek community in Australia (dating back from the 1950s and 1960s). Both countries have an embassy in the each other's capital. Greece also has Consulates General in Sydney, Melbourne and Adelaide, as well as a Consulate in Perth, Honorary Consulates General in Brisbane and Darwin, and Honorary Consulates in Newcastle and Hobart.

  • Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade about relations with Greece
  • Australia embassy in Athens
  • Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Australia
  • Greek embassy in Canberra
  • Hellenic Australian Business Council in Athens, Greece
 New Zealand see Greece–New Zealand relations Since 1999 there has been a Greek Embassy in Wellington, also accredited to six island states in the Pacific. As part of an effort to redeploy resources in Europe, New Zealand closed its embassy in Athens in 1991, since when it has been represented in Greece through its embassy in Rome which is accredited accordingly. It does still retain an Honorary Consulate General in Athens, however. There is also an Honorary Greek Consulate in Auckland. On the level of political cooperation the two countries have a like-minded approach to international crises and current issues of international interest. There is particularly close cooperation in offering mutual support within international organizations, such as the Human Rights Commission, the Universal Postal Union, etc. New Zealand also supported Greeces candidacy for a seat on the UN Security Council. The prevailing climate in political relations between Greece and New Zealand was demonstrated in 2002 by the visit of the President of the Hellenic Republic to Wellington, which confirmed the excellent state of relations between the two countries.

Terms

Northern Epirus

Map of the traditional Greek presence in Northern Epirus (in blue).

Northern Epirus is the name used generally by Greeks to refer to the southern part of Pyrros Dimas, Sotiris Ninis and former Greek president Kostis Stefanopoulos have ancestral links to the Greek minority.

Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople

The entrance of the Patriarchal Cathedral of St. George in the Phanar district.

The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, protected under the treaty of Lausanne is a point of controversy between Greece and Turkey as the latter refuses to recognize the Ecumenical character of the Patriarchate thus requiring the Patriarch himself to be a Turkish citizen. Moreover the biggest part of the Patriarchate's property - known as Vakoufia - had been confiscated by Turkish authorities and the Theological school of Halki which is the traditional school out of which the Eastern Orthodox Church, draws its clergy is closed since 1971. To no avail numerous Greek, European Union and USA officials have criticized Turkey's attitude and even president Bill Clinton during his visit in Greece asked for the theological school to open. During Greek prime-minister's Kostas Karamanlis historic visit to Turkey in 2007, Recep Tayyip Erdogan promised to reconsider his country's stance on the matter.

Black Sea

The Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation.

International organization participation

Greece is a major participant in most large-scale international bodies, with the geographic significance of the region proving advantageous for diplomatic, trade and political crossroads.

WHO, WIPO, WMO.

Most recently, Greece was elected by the United Nations General Assembly to the United Nations Security Council, on 15 October 2004, as a non-permanent member for 2005 and 2006.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Αρχές του Εξωτερικού (Missions Abroad)". Hellenic Republic Ministry of Foreign Affairs (in Greek). www.mfa.gr. Retrieved 2 July 2011. 
  2. ^ a b c d "FYROM Name Issue". www.mfa.gr. Retrieved 27 August 2011. 
  3. ^ a b c d e "GREECE and THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA - Interim Accord (with related letters and translations of the Interim Accord in the languages of the Contracting Parties). Signed at New York on 13 September 1995". untreaty.un.org. 13 September 1995. Retrieved 27 August 2011. 
  4. ^ "Bucharest Summit Declaration Issued by the Heads of State and Government participating in the meeting of the North Atlantic Council in Bucharest on 3 April 2008". www.summitbucharest.ro. 3 April 2008. Retrieved 27 August 2011. 
  5. ^ "2008/212/EC: Council Decision of 18 February 2008 on the principles, priorities and conditions contained in the Accession Partnership with the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and repealing Decision 2006/57/EC". eur-lex.europa.eu. 18 February 2008. Retrieved 27 August 2011. 
  6. ^ "Conclusions on the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia". ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 27 August 2011. 
  7. ^ "The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia institutes proceedings against Greece for a violation of Article 11 of the Interim Accord of 13 September 1995". www.icj-cij.org. 17 November 2008. Retrieved 27 August 2011. 
  8. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-16032198
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  10. ^ Lucas, Dimitrios (4 January 2006). "Greece’s Shifting Position on Turkish Accession to the EU Before and After Helsinki (1999)". MA in European Studies. Catholic University of Leuven. Retrieved 14 August 2008. [Greece has become] one of Turkey’s most ardent supporters within the EU. 
  11. ^ "Turkish PM visits Greek Muslims". BBC News (London). 8 May 2004. Retrieved 14 August 2008. 
  12. ^ Mesut Yilmaz told BirGün about the dark years, BirGün, Monday 23 December 2011 (in Turkish)
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  15. ^ Turk-Greek Ties Strained by Arson Row, Journal of Turkish Weekly, Friday 30 December 2011
  16. ^ Greek, Turkish foreign ministers discuss fire comment, Kathimerini, Saturday 31 December 2011
  17. ^ Turkish daily cites report supporting wildfire claims, Kathimerini, Saturday 31 December 2011
  18. ^ http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3395.htm
  19. ^ http://www.osaarchivum.org/files/holdings/300/8/3/text/101-4-123.shtml
  20. ^ Bilateral Relations Between Greece And Albania
  21. ^ http://eu.greekreporter.com/2012/02/02/omonoia-proceeds-with-census-of-greek-minority-in-albania/
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  24. ^ http://greece.greekreporter.com/2013/11/04/karolos-papoulias-visits-albania/
  25. ^ Archbishop Anastasios of Albania
  26. ^ Archbishop Ieronymos II of Athens
  27. ^ Origin of the Albanians
  28. ^ http://www.culturalsurvival.org/publications/cultural-survival-quarterly/albania/northern-epiros-greek-minority-southern-albania
  29. ^ http://borioipirotis.blogspot.co.nz/2012/05/1986.html
  30. ^ Languages of Albania
  31. ^ Albanian communities in Greece
  32. ^ http://www.greeks-albanians.com/eng-m-ga
  33. ^ Omonoia (organization)
  34. ^ http://www.greeks-albanians.com/eng-m-home
  35. ^ http://www.euractiv.com/sections/enlargement/albanian-official-we-are-much-more-pro-european-several-eu-members-302813
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  37. ^ "Greece, Azerbaijan to work closer on energy security". EUbusiness. February 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2009. 
  38. ^ "Azerbaijan plans to export gas to Europe via Greece: Azerbaijani president".  
  39. ^ "Greece, Azerbaijan sign energy cooperation memorandum". Athens News Agency. Retrieved 25 April 2009. 
  40. ^ a b "Greece and Azerbaijan sign energy cooperation agreement". Journal of Turkish Weekly (JTW). August 2007. Retrieved 25 April 2009. 
  41. ^ Greece "wants to be first" EU member to directly import Azeri gas
  42. ^ Belgian embassy in Athens
  43. ^ Greek embassy in Brussels
  44. ^ Bulgaria and its neighbors: a hundred years after independence
  45. ^ a b Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Bilateral relations between Greece and Bulgaria
  46. ^ Greek embassy in Nicosia
  47. ^ Czech embassy in Athens
  48. ^ Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Czech Republic
  49. ^ French Foreign Ministry about relations with Greece
  50. ^ Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with France
  51. ^ French embassy in Greece
  52. ^ Greek embassy in France
  53. ^ Lithuanian embassy in Athens
  54. ^ "Πρώην Γιουγκοσλαβική ∆ημοκρατία της Μακεδονίας" [the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia]. www.mfa.gr. Retrieved 28 August 2011. 
  55. ^ "Diplomatic Missions". www.mfa.gov.mk. Retrieved 28 August 2011. 
  56. ^ Greek embassy in Malta
  57. ^ http://greece.visahq.com/embassy/Moldova/
  58. ^ Norway's embassy in Athens
  59. ^ Greek embassy in Warsaw
  60. ^ Polish embassy in Athens
  61. ^ a b c "Bilateral relations between Russia and Greece".  
  62. ^ Greek embassy in Bratislava
  63. ^ Swedish embassy in Athens
  64. ^ Greek embassy in Stockholm
  65. ^ Greek embassy in Kiev
  66. ^ Ukrainian embassy in Athens
  67. ^ [2]
  68. ^ [3]
  69. ^ [4]
  70. ^ "Framework of Treaties". Greece. Retrieved 7 May 2009. 
  71. ^ http://www.cancilleria.gov.co/international/regions/europe/union/member/greece
  72. ^ Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relation with Cuba
  73. ^ Greek embassy in Mexico City
  74. ^ Mexican embassy in Athens
  75. ^ United States Department of State: Background Note: Greece
  76. ^ "Greeks angered by NATO strikes clash with riot police". CNN. Retrieved 2 May 2010. 
  77. ^ Greek Foreign Affairs Ministry about relations with Algeria
  78. ^ D. J. Mosley,Archipresbeutai, Hermes, Vol. 94, No. 3 (1966), pp. 377-381.
  79. ^ Iranian embassy in Athens
  80. ^ "Greece and Gulf War II’". lse.ac.uk. Retrieved 23 August 2008. Author:George Tzogopoulos, PhD researcher on U.S. foreign policy and the media, Loughborough University.
  81. ^ Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Qatar
  82. ^ Syrian embassy in Athens
  83. ^ "Bilateral Relations: Cambodia". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Greece). 2009. Retrieved 2 May 2009. 
  84. ^ "Membres" (in French). L'Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. 2009. Retrieved 2 May 2009. 
  85. ^ Indian embassy in Athens
  86. ^ Greek embassy in New Delhi
  87. ^ www.ypex.gov.gr
  88. ^ a b "Tajikistan". Greece. Retrieved 21 May 2009. Greece and Tajikistan established diplomatic relations in 1992. The stabilization of the country following the civil war and its increasing presence as part of the international community are expected to offer an opportunity for substantially developing its bilateral relations with Greece. 
  89. ^ "Kyrgyz president in Greece".  
  90. ^ "Kyrgyzstan: The Greek Community". Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 4 May 2009. 
  91. ^ "General Information". General Secretariat For Greeks Abroad. Retrieved 7 May 2009. 
  92. ^ "Kyrgyzstan, Greece sign cooperation accords".  
  93. ^ Greek Foreign Affairs Ministry about relations with Malaysia
  94. ^ Philippine Embassy in Athens
  95. ^ Korean embassy in Athens
  96. ^ "Nigerian Missions Overseas". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Nigeria. Retrieved 22 April 2009. 
  97. ^ "Row over tanker held in Nigeria". London: BBC News. 30 November 2008. Retrieved 25 April 2009. 
  98. ^ "Nigeria". Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 22 April 2009. 
  99. ^ Greek consulate in Johannesburg
  100. ^ South African embassy Athens
  101. ^ "Zimbabwe". Retrieved 14 April 2009. Greece has an Embassy in Harare, whereas Zimbabwe does not have an Embassy and is not able to afford one. Zimbabwe does not have an Honorary Consulate in Greece either. 
  102. ^ Country Studies US: Greeks and Other Minorities

Further reading

  • Economides, Spyros (March 2005). "The Europeanisation of Greek Foreign Policy". West European Politics 28 (2): 471–491.  

External links

  • Greece's foreign policy, via the Greek Ministry of Foreign affairs
  • Ethnic groups in Albania, via CIA - The World Factbook
  • Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs
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