Frederick iii the simple

Frederick III (or IV) (1 September 1341 – 27 January 1377), called the Simple, was King of Sicily from 1355 to 1377. He was the second son of Peter II of Sicily and Elisabeth of Carinthia. He succeeded his brother Louis. The documents of his era call him the "infante Frederick, ruler of the kingdom of Sicily", without any regnal number.

"Frederick the Simple" is often confused with an earlier Sicilian monarch, Frederick II, who chose to call himself "Frederick III", even though he was actually only the second King Frederick to occupy the Sicilian throne, as also this Frederick has been dubbed by later generations of genealogists and historians as Frederick III.

Frederick III was born in Catania, and succeeded to his brother Louis in 1355 under the regency of his sister, Euphemia of Sicily. In his youth the reign was under the control of powerful Sicialian barons, in particular of Artale I Alagona. The beginning of Frederick III's reign was also plagued by intermittent wars with the Kingdom of Naples (see War of the Sicilian Vespers) and also by the Black Death, to which his elder brother and predecessor had succumbed. In 1372 he was able to come to peace terms with Naples and Pope Gregory IX, obtaining the title of tributary King of "Trinacria".

He appointed his uncle, Roland, to act on his behalf in the Duchy of Athens and Neopatria.

On 11 April 1361, Frederick married his first wife Constance of Aragon, daughter of King Peter IV of Aragon. They had only one daughter, Maria. On 17 January 1372, Frederick married secondly Antonia of Balzo. There were no children from this marriage. Frederick was betrothed again to Antonia Visconti, but he died before the wedding and was succeeded by his only child, Queen Maria.

Regnal titles
Preceded by
Louis
King of Sicily
1355–1377
Succeeded by
Maria
Preceded by
Frederick I
Duke of Athens
1355–1377

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