World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0017716034
Reproduction Date:

Title: Gts-21  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: TC-2216, TC-1698, AR-R17779, SSR-180,711, UB-165
Collection: Antipsychotics, Nicotinic Agonists, Phenol Ethers, Pyridines, Stimulants, Tetrahydropyridines
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Systematic (IUPAC) name
PubChem CID:
Synonyms 3-(2,4-dimethoxy-benzylidene)anabaseine
Chemical data
Formula C19H20N2O2
Molecular mass 308.374

GTS-21 (DMBX-A) is a derivative of the natural product anabaseine that acts as a partial agonist at neural nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It binds to both the α4β2 and α7 subtypes, but activates only the α7 to any significant extent.[1][2]

Both GTS-21 itself and its demethylated active metabolite 4-OH-GTS-21[3] display nootropic[4] and neuroprotective effects,[5][6][7][8] and GTS-21 is being investigated for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease,[9] nicotine dependence,[10] and, most significantly, for schizophrenia.[11][12][13][14][15]


  1. ^ Briggs CA, Anderson DJ, Brioni JD, Buccafusco JJ, Buckley MJ, Campbell JE, Decker MW, Donnelly-Roberts D, Elliott RL, Gopalakrishnan M, Holladay MW, Hui YH, Jackson WJ, Kim DJ, Marsh KC, O'Neill A, Prendergast MA, Ryther KB, Sullivan JP, Arneric SP. Functional characterization of the novel neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligand GTS-21 in vitro and in vivo. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behaviour. 1997 May-Jun;57(1-2):231-41. PMID 9164577
  2. ^ Meyer EM, Tay ET, Papke RL, Meyers C, Huang GL, de Fiebre CM. 3-[2,4-Dimethoxybenzylidene]anabaseine (DMXB) selectively activates rat alpha7 receptors and improves memory-related behaviors in a mecamylamine-sensitive manner. Brain Research. 1997 Sep 12;768(1-2):49-56. PMID 9369300
  3. ^ Meyer EM, Kuryatov A, Gerzanich V, Lindstrom J, Papke RL. Analysis of 3-(4-hydroxy, 2-Methoxybenzylidene)anabaseine selectivity and activity at human and rat alpha-7 nicotinic receptors. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 1998 Dec;287(3):918-25. PMID 9864273
  4. ^ Kitagawa H, Takenouchi T, Azuma R, Wesnes KA, Kramer WG, Clody DE, Burnett AL. Safety, pharmacokinetics, and effects on cognitive function of multiple doses of GTS-21 in healthy, male volunteers. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003 Mar;28(3):542-51. PMID 12629535
  5. ^ Meyer EM, King MA, Meyers C. Neuroprotective effects of 2,4-dimethoxybenzylidene anabaseine (DMXB) and tetrahydroaminoacridine (THA) in neocortices of nucleus basalis lesioned rats. Brain Research. 1998 Mar 9;786(1-2):252-4. PMID 9555043
  6. ^ Shimohama S, Greenwald DL, Shafron DH, Akaika A, Maeda T, Kaneko S, Kimura J, Simpkins CE, Day AL, Meyer EM. Nicotinic alpha 7 receptors protect against glutamate neurotoxicity and neuronal ischemic damage. Brain Research. 1998 Jan 1;779(1-2):359-63. PMID 9473725
  7. ^ Li Y, Meyer EM, Walker DW, Millard WJ, He YJ, King MA. Alpha7 nicotinic receptor activation inhibits ethanol-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, cytochrome c release and neurotoxicity in primary rat hippocampal neuronal cultures. Journal of Neurochemistry. 2002 May;81(4):853-8. PMID 12065644
  8. ^ de Fiebre NC, de Fiebre CM. Alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated protection against ethanol-induced neurotoxicity. Alcohol. 2003 Nov;31(3):149-53. PMID 14693263
  9. ^ Kem WR. The brain alpha7 nicotinic receptor may be an important therapeutic target for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: studies with DMXBA (GTS-21). Behavioural Brain Research. 2000 Aug;113(1-2):169-81. PMID 10942043
  10. ^ Foulds J, Burke M, Steinberg M, Williams JM, Ziedonis DM. Advances in pharmacotherapy for tobacco dependence. Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs. 2004 May;9(1):39-53. PMID 15155135
  11. ^ Simosky JK, Stevens KE, Freedman R. Nicotinic agonists and psychosis. Current Drug Targets. CNS and Neurological Disorders. 2002 Apr;1(2):149-62. PMID 12769624
  12. ^ Martin LF, Kem WR, Freedman R. Alpha-7 nicotinic receptor agonists: potential new candidates for the treatment of schizophrenia. Psychopharmacology (Berlin). 2004 Jun;174(1):54-64. PMID 15205879
  13. ^ Olincy A, Harris JG, Johnson LL, Pender V, Kongs S, Allensworth D, Ellis J, Zerbe GO, Leonard S, Stevens KE, Stevens JO, Martin L, Adler LE, Soti F, Kem WR, Freedman R. Proof-of-concept trial of an alpha7 nicotinic agonist in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry. 2006 Jun;63(6):630-8. PMID 16754836
  14. ^ Olincy A, Stevens KE. Treating schizophrenia symptoms with an alpha7 nicotinic agonist, from mice to men. Biochemical Pharmacology. 2007 Oct 15;74(8):1192-201. PMID 17714692
  15. ^ Freedman R, Olincy A, Buchanan RW, Harris JG, Gold JM, Johnson L, Allensworth D, Guzman-Bonilla A, Clement B, Ball MP, Kutnick J, Pender V, Martin LF, Stevens KE, Wagner BD, Zerbe GO, Soti F, Kem WR. Initial Phase 2 Trial of a Nicotinic Agonist in Schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2008 Apr 1. [Epub ahead of print] PMID 18381905
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.