World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Gallatin County, Illinois

Gallatin County, Illinois
Map of Illinois highlighting Gallatin County
Location in the state of Illinois
Map of the United States highlighting Illinois
Illinois's location in the U.S.
Founded 1812
Named for Albert Gallatin
Seat Shawneetown
Largest city Shawneetown
 • Total 328 sq mi (850 km2)
 • Land 323 sq mi (837 km2)
 • Water 5.1 sq mi (13 km2), 1.6%
 • (2010) 5,589
 • Density 17/sq mi (7/km²)
Congressional district 15th
Time zone Central: UTC-6/-5

Gallatin County is a county located in the U.S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 5,589,[1] making it the fifth-least populous county in Illinois. Its county seat is Shawneetown.[2] It is located in the southern portion of Illinois known locally as "Little Egypt".

Being located at the mouth of the Wabash River, Gallatin County, along with neighboring Posey County, Indiana, and Union County, Kentucky form the tri-point of the Illinois-Indiana-Kentucky Tri-State Area.


  • History 1
  • Geography 2
    • Climate and weather 2.1
    • Major highways 2.2
    • Adjacent counties 2.3
    • National protected area 2.4
  • Government 3
  • Demographics 4
    • 2010 4.1
    • 2000 4.2
  • Communities 5
    • City 5.1
    • Villages 5.2
    • Unincorporated communities 5.3
    • Townships 5.4
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • Further reading 8
  • External links 9


Salt production served as the state's first major industry in the early 19th century. Saltworks developed first by Native Americans and the French at the Great Salt Spring on the south side of the Saline River about five miles downstream from Equality. Beginning in 1803, salt works developed also at Half Moon Lick southwest of Equality on the north side of the Saline River. Today Half Moon Lick is on private land, but the Great Salt Springs are located on public lands in the Shawnee National Forest about one mile west of the Saline River bridge across Illinois Route 1 on Salt Well Road.[3]

The county was organized in 1812, having been formed from Randolph County. The county was named for Albert Gallatin,[4] who was Secretary of the Treasury at the time. At that time the bank at Shawneetown was the only bank in Illinois. It was the one later associated with the John Marshall House, which has been rebuilt and serves as museum for the Gallatin County Historical Society. It is not to be confused with the larger State Bank of Illinois building that is now a state historic site about a block away in what is now Old Shawneetown


According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 328 square miles (850 km2), of which 323 square miles (840 km2) is land and 5.1 square miles (13 km2) (1.6%) is water.[6]

The Wabash and Ohio rivers join in the northeastern part of the county. The Saline River is a major drainage in the county, and it feeds into the Ohio River.

Climate and weather

Shawneetown, Illinois
Climate chart ()
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Source: The Weather Channel[7]

In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Shawneetown have ranged from a low of 21 °F (−6 °C) in January to a high of 87 °F (31 °C) in July, although a record low of −22 °F (−30 °C) was recorded in January 1994 and a record high of 104 °F (40 °C) was recorded in August 2007. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 3.22 inches (82 mm) in October to 5.02 inches (128 mm) in May.[7]

Major highways

Adjacent counties

National protected area


Gallatin County government is led by a five-member county board. In addition, the county is divided into ten townships.


2000 census age pyramid for Gallatin County


Whereas according to the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau:


As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 5,589 people, 2,403 households, and 1,556 families residing in the county.[13] The population density was 17.3 inhabitants per square mile (6.7/km2). There were 2,746 housing units at an average density of 8.5 per square mile (3.3/km2).[6] The racial makeup of the county was 97.9% white, 0.3% American Indian, 0.2% black or African American, 0.1% Asian, 0.4% from other races, and 1.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.2% of the population.[13] In terms of ancestry, 23.6% were German, 22.9% were Irish, 10.7% were English, and 7.0% were American.[14]

Of the 2,403 households, 26.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.6% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.2% were non-families, and 31.1% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.87. The median age was 44.4 years.[13]

The median income for a household in the county was $38,003 and the median income for a family was $48,892. Males had a median income of $38,801 versus $22,425 for females. The per capita income for the county was $21,537. About 12.4% of families and 18.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.9% of those under age 18 and 14.9% of those age 65 or over.[15]




Unincorporated communities


See also


  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 5, 2014. 
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  3. ^ Jon Musgrave. 2004, Rev. ed. 2005. Slaves, Salt, Sex & Mr. Crenshaw: The Real Story of the Old Slave House and America's Reverse Underground Railroad. Marion, Ill.: 57-65.
  4. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. p. 133. 
  5. ^ White, Jesse. Origin and Evolution of Illinois Counties. State of Illinois, March 2010. [2]
  6. ^ a b "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County".  
  7. ^ a b "Monthly Averages for Shawneetown, Illinois". The Weather Channel. Retrieved 2011-01-27. 
  8. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014". Retrieved June 4, 2015. 
  9. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 5, 2014. 
  10. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved July 5, 2014. 
  11. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 5, 2014. 
  12. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 5, 2014. 
  13. ^ a b c "DP-1 Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data".  
  14. ^ "DP02 SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates".  
  15. ^ "DP03 SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates".  

Further reading

  • 1887. History of Gallatin, Saline, Hamilton, Franklin and Williamson Counties, Illinois. Chicago: Goodspeed Publishing Co.
  • Musgrave, Jon, ed. 2002. Handbook of Old Gallatin County and Southeastern Illinois. Marion, Ill.: 464 pages.
  • Musgrave, Jon. 2004, Rev. ed. 2005. Slaves, Salt, Sex & Mr. Crenshaw: The Real Story of the Old Slave House and America's Reverse Underground R.R.. Marion, Ill.: 608 pages.
  • Waggoner, Horace Q., interviewer. 1978. "Lucille Lawler Memoir" Shawneetown Bank Project. Sangamon State University. Springfield, Ill.

External links

  • History of Gallatin County
  • History of Gallatin County and its Communities

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.