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Gateway of India

Gateway of India
The Gateway of India as seen from the harbour, 2003
Gateway of India is located in Mumbai
Gateway of India
Location within Mumbai
Former names Gilbert
General information
Architectural style Indo-Saracenic
Location Mumbai, Bombay
Elevation 10 m (33 ft)
Construction started 31 March 1911
Completed 1924
Inaugurated 4 December 1924
Cost INR 2.1 million (1911)
Client India
Owner Archaeological Survey of India
Height 26 m (85 ft)
Diameter 15 metres (49 feet)
Design and construction
Architect George Wittet
Architecture firm Gammon India[1]
Renovating team
Architect George Wittet

The Gateway of India is a monument built during the British Raj in Mumbai (formerly Bombay), India.[2] It is located on the waterfront in the Apollo Bunder area in South Mumbai and overlooks the Arabian Sea.[3][4] The structure is a basalt arch, 26 metres (85 feet) high. It lies at the end of Chhatrapati Shivaji Marg at the water's edge in Mumbai Harbour.[5] It was a crude jetty used by the fishing community which was later renovated and used as a landing place for British governors and other prominent people. In earlier times, it would have been the first structure that visitors arriving by boat in Mumbai would have seen.[6][7] The Gateway has also been referred to as the Taj Mahal of Mumbai,[8] and is the city's top tourist attraction.[9]

The structure was erected to commemorate the landing of their Majesties Viceroys and the new Governors of Bombay.[10] It served to allow entry and access to India.[11]

The monument has faced three terror attacks from the beginning of the 21st century; twice in 2003 and it was also the disembarkation point in 2008 when four gunmen attacked the Taj Mahal Palace & Tower.


  • History 1
  • Design and structure 2
  • Significance 3
  • Gallery 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7


The writings on the Gateway of India which reads "Erected to commemorate the landing in India of their Imperial Majesties King George V and Queen Mary on the Second of December MCMXI"

The Gateway of India was built to commemorate the visit of

  • Interactive Panorama: Gateway of India
  • 360° Panorama at dawn: Gateway of India

External links

  1. ^ "Which company built the Gateway of India?".  
  2. ^ National Portal Content Management Team. "National Portal of India, Monuments". National Informatics Centre (NIC). Retrieved 23 April 2012. 
  3. ^ a b Pg no. 582
  4. ^ DNA (24 April 2012). "Walk amid a wealth of heritage in Mumbai".  
  5. ^ Holloway, James (29 November 1964). "Gateway of India; Colorful, Crowded Bombay Provides An Introduction to Subcontinent".  (subscription required)
  6. ^ a b c d Dwivedi, Sharada; Rahul Mehotra (1995). Bombay – The Cities Within. Mumbai:  
  7. ^ Arnett, Robert (15 July 2006). India Unveiled. Atman Press. p. 166.  
  8. ^ Duncan Forbes (1968). The heart of India. Hale. p. 76. Retrieved 3 April 2012. 
  9. ^ a b "2003: Bombay rocked by twin car bombs".  
  10. ^ Chapman, Kenneth. Peace, War and Friendships. Roxana Chapman. p. 151.  
  11. ^ a b Simon, Sherry; St-Pierre, Paul (27 November 2000). Changing the Terms: Translating in the Postcolonial Era. University of Ottawa Press. p. 245.  
  12. ^ a b c Mis, Melody S. (1 August 2005). How to Draw India's Sights and Symbols.  
  13. ^ "Gateway of India". 
  14. ^ Dwivedi, Sharada; Mehrotra, Rahul (1995). Bombay: the cities within. India Book House.  
  15. ^ Bradnock, Robert; Bradnock, Roma; Ballard, Sebastian (1993). South Asian handbook. Trade & Travel.  
  16. ^ Shobhna Gupta (2003). Monuments of India.  
  17. ^ Sigh, Kirpal; Mathew, Annie. Middle School Social Sciences. Frank Brothers. p. 8.  
  18. ^ Bajwa, Jagir Singh; Kaur, Ravinder (1 January 2007). Tourism Management. APH Publishing. p. 240.  
  19. ^ a b Singh, Sarina (1 September 2009). Lonely Planet India. Lonely Planet. pp. 783–784.  
  20. ^ a b Kapoor, Subodh (1 July 2002). The Indian Encyclopaedia.  
  21. ^ a b Pippa De Bruyn; Keith Bain; David Allardice; Shonar Joshi (12 February 2010). Frommer's India. John Wiley & Sons. p. 125.  
  22. ^ "300-feet Shivaji statue in Mumbai's Arabian Sea!". 3 June 2008.  
  23. ^ B.K. Chaturvedi. Tourist Centers of India. Diamond Pocket Books (P) Ltd. p. 146.  
  24. ^ Prasad, Rajendra (1984). Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Correspondence and Select Documents. Allied Publishers. p. 205.  
  25. ^  
  26. ^ Kottis, George C. (30 October 2006). Follow the Wind of Your Soul. AuthorHouse. p. 101.  
  27. ^ Thakkar, Dharmesh (27 January 2009). "Gateway of India jetties to move location".  
  28. ^ "5 jetties may be shut".  
  29. ^ DNA (18 April 2012). "Mumbai heritage week: Revisiting a lost culture in the city of caves".  
  30. ^ "Disaster floats at gateway".  
  31. ^ Tembhekar, Chittaranjan; Jaisinghani, Bella (5 March 2012). "Elephanta festival ‘moves’ to Gateway of India".  
  32. ^ "Festival weaves magic".  
  33. ^ Outlook Publishing (8 December 2008). Outlook. Outlook Publishing. p. 35. Retrieved 3 April 2012. 
  34. ^ Clara Lewis,  


See also


A bomb planted in a taxi exploded near the gateway in the 2003.[9] The gateway was also the site of a major bomb-blast in August 2003 and was the disembarkation point of the terrorists participating in the November 2008 terror attacks when four gunmen attacked the Taj Mahal Palace & Tower.[33] Public movement in certain areas was restricted after the 2008 attacks.[34]

The Gateway of India is a major tourist destination and a popular gathering spot for locals, street vendors and photographers.[19] In 2012, Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation moved the "Elephanta Festival of music and dance" from its original location at Elephanta Caves (where it had been celebrated for 23 years) to the Gateway due to the increased capacity offered by the venue. The Gateway can host 2,000 to 2,500 people, whereas Elephanta Caves could host only 700 to 800 people.[31][32]

After the 2008 Mumbai attacks, there has been a proposal to close all these jetties and replace them with two newer ones to be built near the Bombay Presidency Radio Club nearby.[28] The second and third jetties are the starting point for tours of Elephanta Caves, which is a 50-minute boat ride away by ferry.[21][29] Other routes from the Gateway include ferry rides to Alibaug and Mandwa; these ferries are said to carry passengers above their certified capacity due to their popularity.[30]

Gateway of India thronged by tourists

There are five jetties at the gateway.[27] The first jetty is exclusive to the Atomic Research Centre, the second and third are used for commercial ferry operations, the fourth is closed and the fifth is exclusive to the Royal Bombay Yacht Club.

Opposite the gateway stands the statue of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, the king who used guerilla warfare to establish the Maratha empire in the Sahyadri mountain range in the 17th century,[22] as a symbol of Maratha "pride and courage".[23] The statue was unveiled on 26 January 1961 on the occasion of India's Republic Day.[24][25] The other statue in the area is that of Swami Vivekananda.[26]

Seen here is the crowd, which includes international and local tourists, local photographers with the monument at the background

It is the place where the viceroys and governors used to land upon their arrival in India. Though built as a welcome to [11] Built right next to the Taj Mahal Palace & Tower hotel,[21] for British arriving for the first time to India, the gateway was a symbol of the "power and majesty" of the British empire.[3]


The central dome is 48 feet (15 metres) in diameter and 83 feet (25 metres) above the ground at its highest point.[20] The whole harbour front was realigned in order to come in line with a planned esplanade which would sweep down to the centre of the town. On each side of the arch, there are large halls that can hold 600 people.[12] The cost of the construction was 2 million (US$32,000), borne mainly by the Government of India. For lack of funds, the approach road was never built, and so the gateway stands at an angle to the road leading up to it.[6][20]

The architect Roman triumphal arch and the 16th-century architecture of Gujarat.[16] Its design is a combination of Hindu and Muslim architectural styles; the arch is of Muslim style while the decorations are of Hindu style.[17] The gateway is built from yellow basalt and reinforced concrete.[12] The stone was locally obtained, and the perforated screens were brought from Gwalior.[18] The gateway faces out to Mumbai Harbour from the tip of Apollo Bunder.[19]

Design and structure

The last British troops to leave India following the country's independence, the First Battalion of the Somerset Light Infantry, passed through the gateway on their way out in a ceremony on 28 February 1948, signalling the end of British rule.[6][15]

[6].Earl of Reading, the viceroy The gateway was opened on 4 December 1924, by the [14] Between 1915 and 1919, work proceeded at Apollo Bundar (Port) to reclaim the land on which the gateway and the new sea wall would be built. The foundations were completed in 1920, and construction was finished in 1924.[13]

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