World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Ge (Cyrillic)

Article Id: WHEBN0000637842
Reproduction Date:

Title: Ge (Cyrillic)  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Ge with descender, Scrabble letter distributions, Ge with middle hook, Gje, Soft De
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Ge (Cyrillic)

Cyrillic letter Ghe
Numeric value: 3
The Cyrillic script
Slavic letters
А Б В Г Ґ Д Ђ
Ѓ Е Ѐ Ё Є Ж З
З́ Ѕ И Ѝ І Ї Й
Ј К Л Љ М Н Њ
О П Р С С́ Т Ћ
Ќ У Ў Ф Х Ц Ч
Џ Ш Щ Ъ Ы Ь Э
Ю Я
Non-Slavic letters
Ӑ А̄ А̊ А̃ Ӓ Ӓ̄ Ә
Ә́ Ә̃ Ӛ Ӕ Ғ Г̧ Г̑
Г̄ Ҕ Ӻ Ӷ Ԁ Ԃ
Ԫ Ԭ Ӗ Е̄ Е̃
Ё̄ Є̈ Ӂ Җ Ӝ Ԅ
Ҙ Ӟ Ԑ Ԑ̈ Ӡ Ԇ Ӣ
И̃ Ҋ Ӥ Қ Ӄ Ҡ Ҟ
Ҝ Ԟ Ԛ Ӆ Ԯ Ԓ Ԡ
Ԉ Ԕ Ӎ Ӊ Ң Ԩ Ӈ
Ҥ Ԣ Ԋ О̆ О̃ О̄ Ӧ
Ө Ө̄ Ӫ Ҩ Ԥ Ҧ Р̌
Ҏ Ԗ Ҫ Ԍ Ҭ
Ԏ У̃ Ӯ Ӱ Ӱ́ Ӳ
Ү Ү́ Ұ Х̑ Ҳ Ӽ Ӿ
Һ Ԧ Ҵ Ҷ Ӵ
Ӌ Ҹ Ҽ Ҿ
Ы̆ Ы̄ Ӹ Ҍ Э̆ Э̄ Э̇
Ӭ Ӭ́ Ӭ̄ Ю̆ Ю̈ Ю̈́ Ю̄
Я̆ Я̄ Я̈ Ԙ Ԝ Ӏ
Archaic letters
Ҁ Ѻ
ОУ Ѡ Ѽ Ѿ
Ѣ Ѥ Ѧ
Ѫ Ѩ Ѭ Ѯ
Ѱ Ѳ Ѵ Ѷ

Ghe or Ge (Г г; italics: Г г) is a letter of the Cyrillic script. It is also known in some languages as He. It commonly represents the voiced velar plosive /ɡ/, like the pronunciation of g in "go".

Ghe is generally romanized using the Latin letter G; but when romanizing Belarusian, Ukrainian and Rusyn, the Latin letter H is used.

Contents

  • History 1
  • Usage in Slavic languages 2
    • South Slavic 2.1
    • Russian 2.2
    • Belarusian and Ukrainian 2.3
  • Usage in non-Slavic languages 3
  • Related letters and other similar characters 4
  • Computing codes 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

History

The Cyrillic letter Ghe was derived directly from the Greek letter Gamma (Γ γ), but the lowercase Ghe is a small version of the capital letter.

In the Early Cyrillic alphabet its name was глаголи (ɡlaɡoli), meaning "speak".

In the Cyrillic numeral system, Ge had a numerical value of 3.

Usage in Slavic languages

South Slavic

In standard Serbian, Bulgarian, Macedonian the letter Ghe represents a voiced velar plosive /ɡ/, except when it is devoiced to [k] word-finally or before a voiceless consonant.

Russian

In standard Russian, Ghe represents the voiced velar plosive /ɡ/, except when it is devoiced to [k] word-finally or before a voiceless consonant, and it represents /ɡʲ/ before a palatalizing vowel. In the Southern Russian dialect, the sound becomes the velar fricative /ɣ/, and sometimes the glottal fricative /ɦ/ in regions bordering Belarus and Ukraine.

It is acceptable to pronounce certain Russian words with [ɣ] (sometimes referred to as Ukrainian Ge): Бог, богатый, благо, Господь (Bog, bogatyj, blago, Gospod’), although not all speakers use or agree with this. The sound is normally considered non-standard or dialectal in Russian and is avoided by educated Russian speakers. Бог (Bog, "God") is always pronounced [box] in the nominative case.[1]

In the Russian nominal genitive ending -ого, -его, Ghe represents [v], including in the word сегодня ("today", from сего дня).

The letter Ghe represents a voiceless [x] (not [k]) in front of the letter Ka in two Russian words, namely, мягкий and лёгкий, and their derivatives.

The Latin letter H of words of Greek, English, or German origin is usually transliterated into Russian with Ghe rather than Kha, e.g. heroгерой, hamburgerгамбургер, HaydnГайдн. This can occasionally cause ambiguity, as for example English Harry and Gary/Garry would be spelled the same in Russian (e.g., Гарри Поттер). The reasons for using Ghe to write h are fairly complex, but include the fact that Ghe is used for h in Ukrainian, Belarusian, and some Russian dialects, along with the perception that Kha sounds too harsh.

Belarusian and Ukrainian

In Ukrainian represents a voiced glottal fricative [ɦ]—a breathy voiced counterpart of the English [h].

In Belarusian (like in Southern Russian) the letter corresponds to velar fricative /ɣ/ and it soft counterpart /ɣʲ/.

In Ukrainian and Belarusian, a voiced velar plosive /ɡ/ is present only in loanwords and written with the Cyrillic letter Ghe with upturn (Ґ ґ) in Ukrainian and with the digraph кг in Belarusian.

In both languages the letter is called He and transliterated with H rather than with G.

Usage in non-Slavic languages

In many non-Slavic languages it can represent both /g/ and /ʁ~ɣ/ (the latter mostly in Turkic and in some Finno-Ugric languages).

Related letters and other similar characters

Computing codes

Character Г г
Unicode name CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER GHE CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER GHE
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 1043 U+0413 1075 U+0433
UTF-8 208 147 D0 93 208 179 D0 B3
Numeric character reference Г Г г г
KOI8-R and KOI8-U 231 E7 199 C7
CP 855 173 AD 172 AC
Windows-1251 195 C3 227 E3
ISO-8859-5 179 B3 211 D3
Mac Cyrillic 131 83 227 E3

References

  1. ^

External links

  • The dictionary definition of Г at Wiktionary
  • The dictionary definition of г at Wiktionary
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.