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Gian Lorenzo Bernini

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Title: Gian Lorenzo Bernini  
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Subject: St. Peter's Baldachin, Medusa (Bernini), Francesco Borromini, Paul Fréart de Chantelou, Baroque
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Gian Lorenzo Bernini

ssic book on Bernini, though still a valuable resource, has never been updated since its original publication in 1965 and the author's premature death; a vast amount of new information about Bernini has surfaced since then. It also accepts too readily the whitewashed, hagiographic depictions of Bernini, his patrons, and of Baroque Rome as supplied by the first, official biographies by Baldinucci and Domenico Bernini.
  • ^ Mileti, Nick J. (2005). Beyond Michelangelo: The deadly rivalry between Bernini and Borromini. Philadelphia: Xlibris Corporation. 
  • ^ Morrissey, Jake (2005). Genius in the Design: Bernini, Borromini and the rivalry that transformed Rome. New York: Harper Perennial. 
  • ^ Domenico Bernini, Life of Gian Lorenzo Bernini, 2011 ed., p. 111
  • ^ Hibbard, p. 21
  • ^
  • ^ Gale, Thomson. Gian Lorenzo Bernini Encyclopedia of World Biography, 2004. For list of Bernini's siblings, see Franco Mormando, Bernini: His Life and His Rome (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011), pp. 2–3.
  • ^ For Bernini's marriage to Caterina, and a list of Bernini's children, see Franco Mormando, Bernini: His Life and His Rome University of Chicago Press, 2011, pp. 109–16.
  • ^ Gian lorenzo Bernini
  • ^ Wittkower, p. 14.
  • ^ Hibbard, p. 14. Although Hibbard, as well as other scholars, are more reticinent about the overall quality of the earliest of these sculptures, of Aeneas, Anchises, and Ascanius.
  • ^ Wittkower, p. 15.
  • ^ Hibbard, pp. 53-54.
  • ^ Wittkower, pp. 14–15.
  • ^ Hibbard, pp. 48–61.
  • ^ Hibbard, p. 68
  • ^ Mormando, p. 72
  • ^ For the conversion of 17th-century Roman scudi to modern American dollars, see Mormando, Bernini: His Life and His Rome", 2011, pp. xvii-xix, Money, Wages, and Cost of Living in Baroque Rome.
  • ^ Mormando, p84
  • ^ a b Wittkower, p. 88
  • ^ "Biographies – Gian Lorenzo Bernini", National Gallery of Canada, retrieved 29 October 2009 
  • ^ Triple Portrait of Charles I
  • ^  
  • ^ Hibbard, pp. 116–8
  • ^ a b Mormando, p156
  • ^ Mormando, p150
  • ^ Lavin, Bernini and the Unity of the Visual Arts, passim
  • ^ Lavin, ibid.
  • ^ Mormando, p. 159
  • ^ Hibbard, p. 156
  • ^ Mormando, p. 204
  • ^ Hibbard, pp. 163–7
  • ^ Hibbard, pp. 144–8
  • ^ Hibbard, pp. 149–50
  • ^ See Gould, Cecil. Bernini in France, an episode in Seventeenth Century History, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London, 1981
  • ^ Gould, C., 1982. Bernini in France: an episode in 17th-century history. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Pr. For more recent treatments of the same episode in Bernini's life, incorporating the most recent documentary research since Gould's book of 1982, see Mormando, Bernini: His Life and His Rome, 2011, chap. 5, A Roman Artist in King Louis's Court; see also Mormando's many documentary footnotes to Domenico Bernini's account of his father's dealings with the French: Domenico Bernini, Life of Gian Lorenzo Bernini," notes to chapters 16–20.
  • ^ Hibbard, Howard (1990). Bernini. Penguin. p. 181. 
  • ^ Mormando, Bernini: His LIfe and His Rome, pp. 255-56, emphasis added.
  • ^ Fagiolo, M., 2008. Bernini a Parigi: le Colonne d'Ercole, l'Anfiteatro per il Louvre e i progetti per la Cappella Bourbon.
  • ^
  • ^ Wittkower, p. 89
  • ^ See Marder, Tod A. Bernini and the Art of Architecture Abbeville Press, New York and London, 1998
  • ^ See McPhee, Sarah. Bernini and the bell towers: architecture and politics at the Vatican, Yale University Press, 2002
  • ^ Magnuson Torgil, Rome in the Age of Bernini, Volume II, Almqvist & Wiksell, Stockholm, 1986: 202
  • ^ Probably made in collaboration with Lebrun and Le Vau, Blunt, Anthony. Architecture in France 1500–1700, Pelican History of Art, 1953, p. 232
  • ^ Blunt, Anthony. Guide to Baroque Rome, Granada, 1982, p. 166
  • ^ This was dismantled in the nineteenth century and reassembled (incorrectly) in the twentieth in the Via Veneto. A second Fontana delle Api in the Vatican has sometimes been attributed to Bernini of which Blunt has written, "Borromini is documented as having carved the fountain in 1626, but it is not certain whether he made the design for it, and it has also been attributed—not very plausibly—to Bernini." Blunt, Anthony. Borromini, Belknap Harvard, 1979, 17
  • ^ Heckscher, W., "Bernini's Elephant and Obelisk," Art Bulletin, XXIX, 1947, p. 155.
  • ^ This anecdote regarding the Elephant and Obelisk monument (more formally, it is a monument to Divine Wisdom and a tribute to Pope Alexander VII) is one of the many undocumented popular legends circulating about Bernini. To begin with, the elephant is not smiling. Second, even though Bernini may have had professional reasons to resent Paglia, he personally had no grudges against the Dominican Order or the Inquisition. Moreover, Fr. Giuseppe Paglia was director of the overall project to reconstruct the piazza in front of Santa Maria Minerva, appointed by Pope Alexander VII himself and, as such, had supervisory authority over Bernini and the design of his Elephant and Obelisk monument. The final design of that monument in fact owes much to Paglia's direct intervention. Hence, it is unlikely that Paglia (or Pope Alexander) would have allowed this supposed insult to him or his Dominican order. Finally, if Bernini did intend to deliver this visual insult, he failed totally, for there is no contemporary documentation indicating that visitors to the piazza during the artist's lifetime ever noticed the supposed insult: see Franco Mormando, ed. and trans., Domenico Bernini's Life of Gian Lorenzo Bernini (University Park: Penn State University Press, 2011), p. 369, n. 33. Instead, the origins of this anecdote can be traced to the very end of the 17th century, when the satirist, Cardinal Lodovico Sergardi, circulated a two-line epigram in which the elephant tells the Dominicans that the position of his rear end is meant to announce 'where I hold you in my esteem' (see Ingrid Rowland, 'The Friendship of Alexander VII and Athanasius Kircher, 1637-1667' in Early Modern Rome: Proceedings of a Conference Held on May 13-15, 2010 in Rome, ed. Portia Prebys [Ferrara: Edisai, 2011], pp. 669-78, here p. 670; see also p. 671 where Rowland absolves Bernini of any satiric intent: 'The Dominicans, who followed the evolution of Bernini's design for this monument with meticulous care from beginning to end, must have realized that the only reasonable placement for this remarkable create was the placement that we see today.')
  • ^ Ann Sutherland Harris, "Master Drawings," Vol. 41, No. 2, Drawings by Sculptors (Summer, 2003), pp. 119–127
  • ^ For a list and discussion of important sources for Bernini's life, see Franco Mormando, Bernini: His Life and His Rome (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011), pp. 7–11.
  • ^ For an unabridged translation and analysis of The Vita Brevis, see Domenico Bernini's Life of Gian Lorenzo Bernini in Mormando, ed., 201 Appendix 1, pp. 237–41.
  • ^ Baldinucci, Filippo, Life of Bernini. Translated from the Italian by Enggass, C. University Park, Penn State University Press, 2006. Unfortunately, the Enggass edition of Baldinucci contains many translation errors; readers should always consult the text of the original 1682 edition.
  • ^ See Mormando, Domenico Bernini's Life of Gian Lorenzo Bernini, 2011, pp. 14–34. It is significant that Christina's extant financial records nowhere report the queen's having monetarily subsidized the publication Baldinucci's biography, which would have been her responsibility as patron. As Mormando further explains, we also know that in compiling his famous collection of artists' lives, Baldinucci routinely copied material, word for word, from texts supplied to him by family members and close friends and associates of his subjects. Also significant is the fact that in Domenico's biography of his father, the author is completely silent about the queen's supposed patronage of the Baldinucci biography, a strange omission since he devotes much space to the friendship between Gian Lorenzo and Queen Christina, recording the queen's many signs of favoritism, protection, and adulation towards the artist.
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