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Gluteal muscles

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Title: Gluteal muscles  
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Subject: Semitendinosus muscle, Gluteus minimus muscle, Gluteus medius muscle, Gluteus maximus muscle, Human leg
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Gluteal muscles

Gluteus maximus
Muscles of the gluteal and posterior femoral regions. Gluteus minimus and the origins and insertions of medius and maximus labeled

The gluteal muscles are a group of three muscles which make up the buttocks: the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius and gluteus minimus. The three muscles originate from the ilium and sacrum and insert on the femur.

Structure

The gluteus maximus is the largest of the gluteal muscles and one of the strongest muscles in the human body. It inserts at the iliotibial band and the gluteal tuberosity of the femur. Its action is to extend and to laterally rotate the hip, and also to extend the trunk.

Function

The bulk of the gluteal muscle mass contributes only partially to shape of the buttocks. The other major contributing factor is that of the panniculus adiposus of the buttocks, which is very well developed in this area, and gives the buttock its characteristic rounded shape. Although the gluteal muscle bulk and tone can be improved with exercise, it is the disposition of the overlying panniculus adiposus which may be responsible for the "sagging butt" phenomenon. Exercise in general (not only of the gluteal muscles but of the body in general) which can contribute to fat loss can lead to reduction of mass in subcutaneal fat storage locations on the body which includes the panniculus, so for leaner and more active individuals, the glutes will more predominantly contribute to the shape than someone less active with a fattier composition. The degree of body fat stored in various locations such as the panniculus is dictated by genetic and hormonal profiles.

Clinical significance

Sitting for long periods can lead to the gluteal muscles atrophying through constant pressure and disuse. This may be associated with (although not necessarily the cause of) lower back pain, difficulty with some movements that naturally require the gluteal muscles, such as rising from the seated

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