World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Hawaiian Music Hall of Fame

Article Id: WHEBN0035596445
Reproduction Date:

Title: Hawaiian Music Hall of Fame  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Helen Desha Beamer, Mahi Beamer, Music of Hawaii, Hawaiian Music Hall of Fame, Hawaii Music Awards
Collection: Musicians from Hawaii, Native Hawaiian Musicians, State Halls of Fame in the United States
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Hawaiian Music Hall of Fame

Hawaii Ponoi by Kalakaua and Henri Berger

The Hawaiian Music Hall of Fame was established as a non-profit corporation in 1994 in the U.S. state of Hawaii. The annual honorees include individuals, groups, institutions, chanters and songs.[1]


  • The Royal Patrons 1
  • Meles 2
  • Institutions 3
  • Groups 4
  • Chanters 5
  • Individuals 6
  • See also 7
  • References 8
  • External links 9

The Royal Patrons

King David Kalakaua, Queen Liliuokalani, Princess Miriam Likelike and Prince William Pitt Leleiohoku II were siblings known as Na Lani 'Ehā, or The Royal Four, for their patronage and enrichment of Hawaii's musical culture and history. All four were composers. Their aggregate body of musical compositions in the Hawaiian language numbers in the hundreds. After the hula had long been banned by missionaries, Kalakaua restored it as a symbol of the Hawaiian culture. Kalakaua and Liliuokalani were the last monarchs of the Kingdom of Hawaii, but The Royal Four's gift of music to Hawaii lives on through individual artists. The Hawaiian Music Hall of Fame acknowledges the royal siblings as their patrons.[2]

Patrons of the Hawaiian Music Hall of Fame
Name Image Birth–Death Information
Liliuokalani (1838–1917) List of compositions and works by Liliuokalani. Last reigning monarch of Kingdom of Hawaii. Composed Aloha 'Oe and hundreds of other songs and chants.[3]
Kalākaua (1836–1891) Lyricist for the state song Hawaii Ponoi, honoring Kamehameha I (Henri Berger wrote the music). The last reigning king of the Kingdom of Hawaii.[4] Helped restore the hula. The Merrie Monarch Festival is named in his honor.[5]
Leleiohoku II (1854–1877) List of compositions and works by Leleiohoku. Crown Prince of the Kingdom of Hawaii.[6]
Likelike (1851–1887) Princess of the Kingdom of Hawaii, mother of Princess Ka'iulani. Composer, sponsor of musical events.[7]


Hawaiian Music Hall of Fame Songs
Song title Inducted Information
Alika 2002 Words & music by Charles Ka'apa
Hawaii Aloha 1998 Written by Rev. Lorenzo Lyons[8]
Hawaiʻi Ponoʻī 2012 State song of Hawaiʻi, written by King David Kalakaua and Henri Berger [9][10]
Kalama'ula 2002 Words & music by Emma Kala Dudoit
Kaulana Na Pua 1998 Written by Ellen Wright Prendergast[8]
Makalapua 1998 Written by Konia and Eliza Holt[8]
Na Ali'i 1998 Written by Samuel Kauhiwi[8]
Ua Like No A Like 1998 Written by Alice Everett[8]
Wehiwehi 'Oe 2002 Words & music by Sylvester Kalama


Hawaiian Music Hall of Fame Institutions
Name Image Inducted Information
Kamehameha Schools 2003 Awarded for perpetuating Hawaiian music[11]
Kawaiahaʻo Church 2004 Church of Hawaiian royal family[12]


Hawaiian Music Hall of Fame Groups
Name Image Inducted Information
Cazimero, The BrothersThe Brothers Cazimero 2006 Duo formed in the 1970s[13]
Haili Church Choir 2001 Helped develop and promote Hawaiian music[14]
Hui Ohana 2009 Formed by Leeward Kaʻapana with brother Nedward Kaʻapana, mother Tina Kaʻapana and cousin Dennis Pavao[15]
Lake Trio, KahauanuKahauanu Lake Trio 2005 See Kahauanu Lake[16]
Ka Leo Hawai‘i 2012 Recording artists[9]
Kauhi Quartet, RichardRichard Kauhi Quartet 2010 Formed by pianist Richard Kauhi in 1947.[17]
Makaha Sons of Ni'ihau 2012 Recording artists[9]
Nahenahe Singers, LeoLeo Nahenahe Singers 2008 Formed in 1962 by Noelani Kanoho Mahoe. Other members included[18]
Olomana 2011 Founded in 1973 by Jerry Santos and Robert Beaumont[19]
Royal Hawaiian Band, TheThe Royal Hawaiian Band 1999 Established in 1936 by Kamehameha III and still active playing on the grounds of Iolani Palace[20]


Relevant historical events coinciding with the time frame of the chanter prophesies:

Hawaiian Music Hall of Fame Chanters
Name Image Birth–Death Inducted Information
Keaulumoku (1716–1784) 1995 singularly
2000 with group
Chanter and prophet. His prophesies included Kamehameha I's unification of the islands, conquest by the white man, destruction of the temples, the downfall of the monarchy and extinction of the Hawaiian race.[27][28]
Ka'opulupulu (c1773) 2000 Chanters honored as a singular group. Chanter and prophet who advised Kahahana against giving away Kualoa land on Oahu to Kahekili II of Maui. Kahekili II declared the priest a traitor and had both the priest and the priest's son killed. Prophesied the conquest of Hawaii by the white man, the end of the monarchy, and the extinction of the Hawaiian race.[28]
Kapoukahi 2000 Chanters honored as a singular group. Prophesied that Kamehameha I would be ruler over a united kingdom.[28]
Kapihe 2000 Chanters honored as a singular group. Offered prayers over newborn Kamehameha III, believed to be stillborn. Prophesied the end of the kapus (taboos). Other prophesies are believed to have foretold of the coming of the missionaries and subsequent downfall of the Hawaiian monarchy.[28]
Hewahewa 2000 Chanters honored as a singular group. High priest under Kamehameha I and Kamehameha II, later converted to Christianity. Helped Ka'ahumanu and Keōpūolani end the kapus.[28]
Palea, James Pihanui KuluwaimakaJames Pihanui Kuluwaimaka Palea (1837–1937)[29] 2011 Chanter in the court of Kalākaua, Bishop Museum database
Mika, AkoniAkoni Mika (1858-unknown) 2011 Kauai chanter recorded by ethnomusicologist Helen Heffron Roberts in the 1920s [30]


Hawaiian Music Hall of Fame Individuals
Name Image Birth–Death Inducted Information
Apaka, AlfredAlfred Apaka (1919–1960) 1995 Baritone singer who popularized romantic Hawaiian ballads during the 1950s.[31]
Beamer, Helen DeshaHelen Desha Beamer (1882–1952) 1995 Composer and recording artist[32]
Berger, HenriHenri Berger (1844–1929) 1995 Led the Royal Hawaiian Band from 1872 until his death. Wrote the melody to Kalakaua's song Hawaii Ponoi.[33]
Bright Sr., Sol K.Sol K. Bright Sr. (1909–1992) 1995 Recording artist and composer of "Hawaiian Cowboy", "Sophisticated Hula" and "Polynesian Love Song"[34]
Kekuku, JosephJoseph Kekuku (1874–1932) 1995 Inventor of the steel guitar[35]
King, Charles E.Charles E. King (1874–1950) 1995 Composer[36]
Machado, LenaLena Machado (1903–1974) 1995 Vocalist, composer, soloist with the Royal Hawaiian Band[37]
Pukui, MaryMary Pukui (1895–1986) 1995 Author of the Hawaiian Dictionary, chanter, composer [38]
Rodrigues, Victoria K. I'iVictoria K. I'i Rodrigues (1912–1987) 1995 Vocalist who translated lyrics between the Hawaiian and English languages[39]
Cunha, Albert "Sonny"Albert "Sonny" Cunha (1879–1933) 1996 Composer, the first one to popularize Hawaiian songs with English lyrics ("Hapa-Haole")[40]
Hoʻopiʻi, SolSol Hoʻopiʻi (1902–1953) 1996 Steel guitar player[41]
Isaacs, Alvin KaleolaniAlvin Kaleolani Isaacs (1904–1984) 1996 Original band leader of the Royal Hawaiians, composed over 300 songs[42]
Kahalewai, HaunaniHaunani Kahalewai (1929–1982) 1996 Mezzo-soprano who was a featured vocalist with Alfred Apaka[43]
Kealaka'i, MekiaMekia Kealaka'i (1867–1944) 1996 Bandmaster of the Royal Hawaiian Band[44]
Almeida, John KameaalohaJohn Kameaaloha Almeida (1897–1985) 1998 Recording artist, composer of what have become standards of Hawaiian music[45]
Aluli, Irmgard FardenIrmgard Farden Aluli (1911–2001) 1998 Composer, wrote "Puamana" [46]
Anderson, Robert AlexRobert Alex Anderson (1894–1995) 1998 Composer of "Lovely Hula Hands", "Mele Kalikimaka" and many others[47]
Mossman, BinaBina Mossman (1893–1990) 1998 Composer, organized the first Hawaii girls glee club[48]
Nape, DavidDavid Nape (1870–1913) 1998 Composer, member of the Royal Hawaiian Band[49]
Lam, MaddyMaddy Lam (1910–1985) 2000 Composer, Vocalist with Alfred Apaka and Webley Edwards[50]
Keawe, GenoaGenoa Keawe (1918–2008) 2001 Falsetto singer, recorded in the Hawaiian language for 49th State Records[51]
Kinney, RayRay Kinney (1900–1972) 2002 Vocalist who performed across multiple media. Discovered other performers such as Alfred Apaka and Eddie Kamae.[52]
Pahinui, GabbyGabby Pahinui (1921–1980) 2002 Vocalist, Slack key guitarist, recording artist[53]
Lake, KahauanuKahauanu Lake (1932–2011) 2004 Composer, musician prominent in the Waikiki music scene[54][55]
Alohikea, AlfredAlfred Alohikea 2005 Kauai musician, composer[56]
Lincoln, Bill Ali'iloaBill Ali'iloa Lincoln (1913–) 2005 Falsetto singer[57][58]
Waia'u, Henry W.Henry W. Waia'u 2005
Beamer, MahiMahi Beamer (1929–) 2006 Falsetto singer[59][60]
Davis, Charles K. L.Charles K. L. Davis (1925–1991) 2006 Opera singer who also sang hapa haole songs, sang as a duo in Los Angeles with James Shigeta[59][61]
Dela Cruz, LindaLinda Dela Cruz (1929–2007) 2006 Falsetto singer, activist for native Hawaiian rights[59][62]
Keali`iwahamana, NinaNina Keali`iwahamana 2006 Vocalist[59][63]
Veary, EmmaEmma Veary (1930–) 2006 Vocalist with operatic range, performed in various venues in Waikiki. Noted for her rendition of Kamehameha Waltz.[64]
Ka'iwa, BillBill Ka'iwa (1934–2011) 2007 Recording artist[65]
Kalima, JesseJesse Kalima (1920–1980) 2007 Ukulele virtuoso, Vocalist[66]
Kamae, EddieEddie Kamae (1927–) 2007 Ukulele virtuoso[67]
McDiarmid Sr., DonaldDonald McDiarmid Sr. 2007 Founder of Hula Records, composer, member of Harry Owens band.[68]
Moon, PeterPeter Moon (1944–) 2007 Vocalist and musician who began in the 1960s with Sunday Manoa[13]
Sai, MarleneMarlene Sai (1941–) 2007 Recording artist discovered by Don Ho[69]
Watkins, John Pi'ilaniJohn Pi'ilani Watkins (1928–1983) 2007 Falsetto Hall of Fame member, hula master, who served as a judge at the Merrie Monarch Festival[70]
Ae'a, JosephJoseph Ae'a (1846–1912) 2008 Musician, composer, member of the Royal Hawaiian Band[18]
Alohikea, Elizabeth Leilu'uhipolaniElizabeth Leilu'uhipolani Alohikea (1885–1935) 2008 Singer with the Royal Hawaiian Band[18]
Brown, Anuhea AudreyAnuhea Audrey Brown (1922–) 2008 Musician composer, singer, pianist with the Haili Church Choir[18]
Brown, Thomas Kihei DeshaThomas Kihei Desha Brown (1925–1978) 2008 Falsetto singer, musician, band leader[18]
Johnson, Alice AngelineAlice Angeline Johnson (1912–1982) 2008 Composer known as "The Song Bird of Hawaii"[18]
Lake, John KeolaJohn Keola Lake (1937–2008) 2008 Mentor and teacher of Hawaiian culture at Saint Louis High School, Chaminade University and Hawaiian Academy of Arts, Music, and Dance.[18]
Nahale-a Sr., Albert Po'aiAlbert Po'ai Nahale-a Sr. (1910–1970) 2008 Minister of Music, Haili Church Choir[18]
Vaughan Jr., PalaniPalani Vaughan Jr. (1944–) 2008 Recording artist[71]
Wong Jr., James Ka'upenaJames Ka'upena Wong Jr. (1929–) 2008 Chanter, dancer, teacher, composer and recording artist[18]
Kalama, Thomas SylvesterThomas Sylvester Kalama (1856–1906) 2009
Kamakahi, DennisDennis Kamakahi (1953–) 2009 Composer, Vocalist, Slack Key Guitarist[72][73]
Lake, Ma'iki AiuMa'iki Aiu Lake (1925–1984) 2009 Hula master[74][75]
Lee, KuiKui Lee (1932–1966) 2009 Composer, recording artist[76]
Bacon, Pat NamakaPat Namaka Bacon (1920–) 2010 Author and scholar of Hawaiian culture, adopted daughter of Mary Pukui[77]
Cummings, AndyAndy Cummings (1913–1995) 2010 Composer who wrote "Waikiki"[78][79]
Kaʻai, ErnestErnest Kaʻai (1881–1961) 2010 Ukulele virtuoso[80]
Reichel, Keali'iKeali'i Reichel (1961–) 2010 Vocalist, Composer[81]
Ilalaole, JosephJoseph Ilalaole (1873–1965) 2011 Hula instructor[82]
Kalama, BennyBenny Kalama (1916–1999) 2011 Vocalist, musician, musical director of Hawaii Calls, arranger for Alfred Apaka[83]
Kalainaina Jr., Sam Li'aSam Li'a Kalainaina Jr. (1881–1975) 2011 Big Island performer and promoter, composer known as "the poet of Waipio Valley"[84]
Namakelua, AliceAlice Namakelua (1892–1987) 2011 Kumu hula, lei maker, slack key guitar performer[85]
Owens, HarryHarry Owens (1902–1986) 2012 Composer of "Sweet Leilani"[9]
Kainapau, GeorgeGeorge Kainapau (1905–1992) 2012 Falsetto singer[9][86]
Naʻope, GeorgeGeorge Naʻope (1928–2009) 2012 Kumu hula master[9]

See also


  1. ^ "Hawaiian Music Hall of Fame". HMHF. Retrieved 23 April 2012. 
  2. ^ Haas, Michael (2011). Barack Obama, The Aloha Zen President. Greenwood Publishing Group, Incorporated. p. 150.  
  3. ^ Smith, Gail (2003). Four Centuries of Women Composers. Mel Bay Publications, Inc. p. 41.  
  4. ^ Goh, Geok Yian (2005). Uniquely Hawaii. Heinemann-Raintree. p. 14.  
  5. ^ "Kalakaua". HMHF. Retrieved April 23, 2012. 
  6. ^ "Leleiohoku II". HMHF. Retrieved April 23, 2012. 
  7. ^ "MIriam Likelike". HMHF. Retrieved April 23, 2012. 
  8. ^ a b c d e "Songs". HMHF. Retrieved April 23, 2012. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f Fujioka, Justin (May 1, 2013). "5 inducted into Hawaiian Music Hall of Fame". KITV News. Retrieved May 8, 2013. 
  10. ^ "Hawaii Ponoi". Retrieved May 8, 2013. 
  11. ^ "Kamehameha Schools". HMHF. Retrieved April 23, 2012. 
  12. ^ "Kawaiahao Church". HMHF. Retrieved April 23, 2012. 
  13. ^ a b "Past Hoku Winners Prove Diversity and Longevity of Hawaiian Talent". Billboard: 32. May 6, 1995. 
  14. ^ "Haili Church Choir". HMHF. Retrieved April 23, 2012. 
  15. ^ Ruymar, Lorene; Boyd, Joe (1996). Hawaiian Steel Guitar and Its Great Hawaiian Musicians. Centerstream Publications. p. 92.  
  16. ^ "K Lake Trio". Hawaiian Music History. Retrieved April 23, 2012. 
  17. ^ "Letters to the Editor". Honolulu Advertiser. July 20, 2006. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Hawaiian musicians shine at Stars". Honolulu Advertiser. May 4, 2009. 
  19. ^ "Hawaii Family Album". Billboard: 54. April 30, 1994. 
  20. ^ "Royal Hawaiian Band official site". City and County of Honolulu. Retrieved April 23, 2012. 
  21. ^ Rayson (1989). "Captain Cook Finds the Islands". Hawaii: The Pacific State. Bess Press, Incorporated. pp. 26, 27, 28.  
  22. ^ Putney, Clifford (2010). Missionaries in Hawai'i: The Lives of Peter and Fanny Gulick, 1797–1883. University of Massachusetts. pp. 44, 45.  
  23. ^ a b Oaks, Robert E (2003). Hawaii:: A History of the Big Island. Arcadia Publishing. p. 43.  
  24. ^ Lal, Brij V.; Fortune, Kate (1999). The Pacific Islands: An Encyclopedia. University of Hawaii Press. p. 142.  
  25. ^ Siler, Julia Flynn (2012). Lost Kingdom: Hawaii's Last Queen, the Sugar Kings and America's First Imperial Adventure. Grove/Atlantic, Inc. p. 4.  
  26. ^ Menton, Linda K. (1999). History of Hawaii. Curriculum Research & Development Group. p. 50.  
  27. ^ "Keaulumoku". HMFM. Retrieved April 23, 2012. 
  28. ^ a b c d e "Chanters". HMHF. Retrieved April 23, 2012. 
  29. ^ James P.K. Palea at Find a Grave
  30. ^ "Life is Good blog". Star-Bulletin. May 3, 2012. Retrieved May 12, 2012. 
  31. ^ Allen, Robert C. (2004). Creating Hawaii Tourism. Bess Press, Inc. p. 210.  
  32. ^ "Helen Desha Beamer". Hawaiian Music History. Retrieved April 23, 2012. 
  33. ^ "Henri Berger". HMHFM. Retrieved April 23, 2012. 
  34. ^ "Sol K. Bright Sr.". HMHF. Retrieved April 23, 2012. 
  35. ^ "Joseph Kekuku". HMHF. Retrieved April 23, 2012. 
  36. ^ "Charles E. King". HMHF. Retrieved April 23, 2012. 
  37. ^ "Lena Machado". HMHF. Retrieved April 23, 2012. 
  38. ^ "Mary Pukui". HMHF. Retrieved April 23, 2012. 
  39. ^ "Victoria K. I'i Rodrigues". HMHF. Retrieved April 23, 2012. 
  40. ^ "Sonny Cunha". HMHF. Retrieved April 23, 2012. 
  41. ^ "Sol Hoopii". HMHF. Retrieved April 23, 2012. 
  42. ^ "Alvin Isaacs". HMHF. Retrieved April 23, 2012. 
  43. ^ "Haunani Kahalewa". HMHF. Retrieved April 23, 2012. 
  44. ^ "Mekia Kealakai". HMHF. Retrieved April 23, 2012. 
  45. ^ "John Kameaaloha Almeida". HMFM. Retrieved April 23, 2012. 
  46. ^ Clark, John R.K. (1989). Beaches of Maui County. Univ of Hawaii Press. p. 56.  
  47. ^ "R A Anderson". HMHF. Retrieved April 23, 2012. 
  48. ^ "Bina Mossman". HMHF. Retrieved April 23, 2012. 
  49. ^ "Davie Nape". HMHF. Retrieved April 23, 2012. 
  50. ^ "Maddy Lam". HMHF. Retrieved April 23, 2012. 
  51. ^ "Genoa Keawe". HMHF. Retrieved April 23, 2012. 
  52. ^ "Ray Kinney". HMHF. Retrieved April 23, 2012. 
  53. ^ "Gabby Pahimui". HMHF. Retrieved April 23, 2012. 
  54. ^ "Kahauanu Lake". HMHF. Retrieved April 23, 2012. 
  55. ^ Berger, John (March 7, 2011). "Kahauanu Lake dies at 79". Honolulu Pulse. 
  56. ^ Mahoe, Noelani; Elbert, Samuel H. (1970). Na  
  57. ^ "Bill Aliiloa Lincoln". Hawaiian Music History. Retrieved April 25, 2012. 
  58. ^ "Territorial Tributes". Territorial Airwaves. Retrieved April 25, 2012. 
  59. ^ a b c d Moreno, Loran (July 17, 2007). "Hawaiian music legends to be honored". Honolulu Adversiter. Retrieved April 25, 2012. 
  60. ^ "Mahi Beaner". Hawaiian Music History. Retrieved April 23, 2012. 
  61. ^ "Charles K L Davis". Square Retrieved April 24, 2012. 
  62. ^ "Linda Dela Cruz". Hawaiian Music History. Retrieved April 24, 2012. 
  63. ^ "Nina K". Hawaiian Music History. Retrieved April 23, 2012. 
  64. ^ "Emma Veary". Midweek. May 11, 2011. 
  65. ^ Berger, John. "Bill Kaiwa, 1934–2011". Honolulu Pulse. Retrieved April 24, 2012. 
  66. ^ "2002 Hall of Fame Inductee". Ukulele Hall of Fame. Retrieved April 24, 2012. 
  67. ^ "Eddie Kamae". Hawaiian Music History. Retrieved April 23, 2012. 
  68. ^ Kam, Nadine (April 30, 1984). "The Business of Island Entertainment". Billboard: 56. 
  69. ^ "Marlene Sai". Hawaiian Music History. Retrieved April 23, 2012. 
  70. ^ "John Piilani Watkin". Hawaiian Music History. Retrieved April 24, 2012. 
  71. ^ "Palani Vaughn Jr.". Hawaiian Music History. Retrieved 23 April 2012. 
  72. ^ "New World". CMJ New Music Report: 32. February 15, 1999. 
  73. ^ "Slack Key Master ... Dennis Kamakahi". Slack Key Show. Retrieved April 24, 2012. 
  74. ^ Margaret Maiki Souza Aiu Lake at Find a Grave
  75. ^ Gordon, Mike (July 2, 2006). "Ma'iki Aiu Lake". Honolulu Advertiser. 
  76. ^ Enomoto, Catherine Kekoa. "We'll Remember You". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved April 23, 2012. 
  77. ^ Serrano, Zenaida (August 17, 2005). "The Auntie of Bishop Museum". Honolulu Advertiser. Retrieved April 25, 2012. 
  78. ^ "Andy Cummings". Hawaiian Music History. Retrieved April 24, 2012. 
  79. ^ "Andy Cummings". Square Retrieved April 24, 2012. 
  80. ^ "Ernest Kaai". Ukulele Hall of Fame. Retrieved April 23, 2012. 
  81. ^ Horowitz, Lenoir; Horowitz, Micah (2010). Kauai Underground Guide: 19th Edition. Papaloa Press. p. 127.  
  82. ^ Joseph Kealiikuikamoku Ilalaole at Find a Grave
  83. ^ Tsai, Michael. "Benny Kalama". Honolulu Advertiser. Retrieved April 23, 2012. 
  84. ^ "LI'A: The Legacy of a Hawaiian Man". The Hawaiian Legacy Foundation. 
  85. ^ "The Honolulu 100". Honolulu Magazine. November 2005. 
  86. ^ "George Kainapau: 1905–1992 Hawaiian Falsetto Singer". Hawaiian Music History. Retrieved May 9, 2013. 

External links

  • Hawaiian Music Hall of Fame Honorees

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.