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Hawkins' Zouaves

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Hawkins' Zouaves

9th Regiment New York Volunteer Infantry

Active May 4, 1861 to May 20, 1863
Country United States
Allegiance Union
Branch Infantry
Engagements Battle of Forts Clark and Hatteras
Battle of Roanoke Island
Battle of Elizabeth City
Battle of South Mills
Battle of Antietam
Battle of Fredericksburg
Siege of Suffolk
3rd Division, IX Corps

The 9th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment was an infantry regiment that served in the Union Army during the American Civil War. It was also known as the "Hawkins' Zouaves" or "New York Zouaves."

Military Service, 1861

In April 1861 with the secession of the Southern States and the calling up of volunteers by President Abraham Lincoln, Rush C. Hawkins went to Albany, New York, and volunteered the services of a company of New York Zouaves to the state. The governor of New York accepted the offer of the company, and also granted the authorization to Hawkins to raise a regiment of Zouaves. With this authorization in hand he returned to New York City and opened a recruiting office which soon had drawn over 2,000 volunteers, this large number of recruits quickly outgrew the size of the recruiting office.

In early April the regiment moved to its new quarters at Castle Garden in New York City, where on April 23 and 27 the ten companies of the regiment were mustered into state service. After finishing their organization, the regiment was mustered into United States service on May 4, 1861, at Castle Garden by Captain S.B. Hayman of the 7th United States Infantry Regiment. On May 13 the regiment was officially numbered as the Ninth Infantry Regiment of New York Volunteers, by the War Department and New York Adjutant General's office.

On May 15 the regiment boarded a barge that was towed by the steamer “Young America” and moved from Castle Garden to its new camp on Riker’s Island. This camp was designated as Camp Hawkins and the men arrived at the camp around 10 o’clock. It was here that they completed their training and were outfitted with their uniforms, arms, and equipment.

On June 5 the regiment moved from Camp Hawkins and boarded two steamships which took them to the foot of Thirtieth Street along the East River, where they disembarked and marched up 34th Street to Fifth Avenue, proceeding to the home of Mrs. A.W. Griswold where they were presented the national colors. They then moved to the home of Mrs. W.D. Moffatt where they were presented their regimental colors. After these presentations the Regiment marched down the Avenue onto Broadway and down to Pier Four on the North River. Here the Regiment began boarding the steamer “Marion,” however it was found that the vessel would not be large enough to hold the entire regiment properly for the trip. With the men and equipment loaded onto the “Marion” she steamed out to a point between Bedloe's Island and Castle Williams where she dropped anchor for the night. It was during this brief trip that the regiment suffered its first casualty when Albert “Tobe” Warren died after he fell overboard during that afternoon.

The following morning (June 6) the Marion steamed down the river and dropped anchor off of Staten Island to await the arrival of the additional transport required for the regiment. Shortly thereafter the steamer “George Peabody” arrived and 400 men of the regiment were transferred from the Marion to her. Once this was completed the two vessels set sail for Newport News, Virginia. The regiment served at Newport News from June 8, 1861; Companies C, G and H at Hatteras, North Carolina, from August 27, 1861; and the regiment at Hatteras from September 10, 1861.

Military Service, 1862

The regiment served in the 3d Brigade, Burnside's North Carolina Expedition, from January, 1862; at Roanoke, North Carolina, from February 3, 1862; in 4th Brigade, Hawkins' Coast Division (3d), 9th Corps, from March, 1862; in the 1st Brigade, 3d Division, 9th Corps, from July, 1862. With Gen. Burnside's force, the regiment arrived at Roanoke Island, early in February and was actively engaged in the battle there, losing 17 members. It participated in an expedition to Winston; returned to camp on Roanoke Island; was brigaded with the 89th N. Y. and 6th N. H. under Col. Hawkins; was in expeditions to Elizabeth City, and lost 75 men at South Mills. On July 10, the regiment was ordered to Norfolk, Virginia, camped at Newport News, until September 4, when it moved to Washington, D.C., and to Frederick, Maryland, on the 12th. Here it became a part of the Army of the Potomac; was active at South mountain and Antietam, with a loss in the latter battle of 233 killed, wounded and missing. After camping in detachments at various points, the regiment was concentrated at Fredericksburg, Virginia, participated in the battle there in December.[1]

Military Service, 1863

The regiment camped at Falmouth, Virginia until Feb. 1, 1863, except Co. F, which had remained as garrison at Plymouth, North Carolina, rejoining the regiment on Jan. 26. In February the 9th was ordered back to Suffolk, where it remained until May, the expiration of its term of service. May 6, 1863 the three years' men of the regiment, which latter had left for New York city, May 3, 1863, were assigned to the 3d Infantry. In April or May, 1863, the War Department authorized Capt. R. H. Morris of this regiment to organize a battery of members of his regiment, whose term of service had not expired. It was to consist of 110 men, but failed to complete its existence; 44 of the men assigned to the proposed battery deserted, the remainder were assigned to the 3d Infantry.[2]

The regiment was mustered out of United States service on May 20, 1863, at New York City, New York, following the expiration of its term of service.

9th New York Veteran Volunteers

With the mustering out of the 9th Regiment in May 1863, the Governor of New York authorized Major Edward Jardine to re-organize them as the 9th New York Veteran Volunteer Infantry Regiment, and appointed Major Jardine as colonel of the newly organizing regiment. After several weeks of recruiting the command was organized into two companies under ex-Hawkins Zouaves officers William Barnett and James B. Horner. The two companies went into camp as a battalion at Fort Hamilton, New York, where training and recruiting was continued.

From July 13 to 16, 1863, the City of New York exploded in several violent riots in reaction to the draft. During these the two companies were called out to help protect the city. In the ensuing fighting between soldiers and civilians Colonel Jardine was severely wounded when he was shot in the hip. As a result of this wound he was taken out of service for several months, and even after returning to the field was only able to perform light duties. The companies of the 9th Veterans acquitted themselves well in the action, and received notice in the reports of Colonel Winslow of the 5th New York Veteran Volunteers.

On October 14, 1863, with the failure of the regiment to fully organize, the companies (under the command of Captain James B. Horner) were ordered to be consolidated into the 17th New York Veteran Volunteer Infantry Regiment, along with the men of the reorganizing 11th Veterans, 38th Veterans, and the "Union Sharpshooters." As such they were mustered into United States service as Company H (Captain James B. Horner) and Company I (Captain William Barnett) of the 17th Veterans. As for Colonel Jardine, he was mustered into service as Lieutenant Colonel of the 17th Veterans.


During the regiments term of service it suffered the following casualties.

  • Killed In Action: 2 Officer, 53 Enlisted
  • Died of Wounds: 0 Officer, 16 Enlisted
  • Died of Disease and other causes: 2 Officers, 27 Enlisted
  • Total: 4 Officers and 100 Enlisted


29 years old. Enrolled on May 4, 1861, at New York City, New York, for three years service; mustered into service as Colonel of the Regiment on May 4, 1861, at Castle Garden, New York; wounded in action on April 19, 1862, at Camden, North Carolina; commanding the 1st Brigade, 3rd Division, 9th Army Corps, in 1862; mustered out of service with the Regiment on May 20, 1863, at New York City, New York.

  • Lieutenant Colonel George F. Betts

34 years old. Enrolled on April 23, 1861, at New York City, New York, for three years service; mustered into service as Lieutenant Colonel of the Regiment on May 4, 1861; resigned his commission on February 14, 1862.

  • Lieutenant Colonel Edgar Allison Kimball

38 years old. Enrolled on April 23, 1861, at New York City, New York, for three years service; mustered into service as Major of the Regiment on May 4, 1861; promoted to Lieutenant Colonel on February 14, 1862; murdered on April 12, 1863, by Brigadier General Michael Corcoran, U.S. Volunteers, near Suffolk, Virginia.

  • Major Edward Jardine

31 years old. Enlisted on May 3, 1861, at New York City, New York, for three years service; mustered into service as Captain of Company G of the 9th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment on May 4, 1861; promoted to Major on February 14, 1862; wounded in action on April 19, 1862, at Camden, North Carolina; mustered out of service with the Regiment on May 20, 1863, at New York City, New York. Appointed as Colonel of the 9th New York Veteran Volunteer Infantry Regiment on May 29, 1863, for three years service; seriously wounded in the thigh on July 17, 1863, at New York City, New York, during the Draft Riots; mustered out of service on October 14, 1863, at New York City, New York. Enrolled and is mustered into service as Lieutenant Colonel of the 17th New York Veteran Volunteer Infantry Regiment on October 17, 1863, at Albany, New York, for three years service; granted a ten-day leave of absence on account of physical disability on May 9, 1864; honorably discharged on May 10, 1864, to accept an appointment. Appointed as Captain of the 4th Company, 2nd Battalion, Veteran Reserve Corps, to date from May 3, 1864; resigns his commission in the Veteran Reserve Corps on April 12, 1866. [Born on November 2, 1828, in New York City, New York; served as the National Vice Commander-in-Chief of the Grand Army of the Republic, no dates; died on July 16, 1893, in New York City, New York; buried at Greenwood Cemetery, Brooklyn, New York.]

See also

American Civil War portal
New York portal
  • List of New York Civil War regiments
  • New York State Military Museum and Veterans Research Center - Civil War - 9th Infantry Regiment History, photographs, historical sketch, table of battles and casualties, Civil War newspaper clippings, and battle flag for the 9th New York Infantry Regiment.
  • Palmetto Riflemen & New York Zouaves American Civil War Living History / Reenactor Group that portrays the "New York Zouaves".


  • Internet Archive
  • Johnson, Charles F.; "The Long Roll. Being a Journal of the Civil War, as set down during the years, 1861-1863." East Aurora: Roy crofters, 1911.
  • Phisterer, Frederick; "New York in the War of the Rebellion." Albany: J.B. Lyon Co., 1912.
  • Whitney, John H.E.; "The Hawkins Zouaves (Ninth N.Y.V.) Their battles and marches." New York: 1866.
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