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Hepatitis E

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Hepatitis E

Hepatitis E
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 B17.2
ICD-9-CM 070.4
DiseasesDB 5794
eMedicine med/995
MeSH D016751

Hepatitis E is a viral hepatitis (liver inflammation) caused by infection with a virus called hepatitis E virus (HEV). It is one of five known human hepatitis viruses: A, B, C, D, and E. HEV is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA icosahedral virus with a 7.5 kilobase genome. HEV has a fecal-oral transmission route. Infection with this virus was first documented in 1955 during an outbreak in New Delhi, India.[1] A preventative vaccine (HEV 239) is approved for use in China.[2]

Although Hepatitis E often causes an acute and self-limiting infection (it usually goes away by itself and the patient recovers) with low mortality rates in the western world, it bears a high risk of developing chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised patients with substantial mortality rates. Organ transplant recipients who receive immunosuppressive medication to prevent rejection are thought to be the main population at risk for chronic hepatitis E.[3] Furthermore, in healthy individuals during the duration of the [4]

Contents

  • Signs and symptoms 1
    • Acute infection 1.1
    • Chronic infection 1.2
  • Virology 2
    • Classification 2.1
    • Distribution 2.2
    • Transmission 2.3
    • Animal reservoir 2.4
    • Molecular biology 2.5
  • Prevention 3
    • Sanitation 3.1
    • Vaccines 3.2
  • Treatment 4
  • Epidemiology 5
    • Recent outbreaks 5.1
  • History 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8

Signs and symptoms

Acute infection

The incubation period of hepatitis E varies from 3 to 8 weeks. After a short prodromal phase symptoms lasting from days to weeks follow. They may include jaundice, fatigue and nausea. The symptomatic phase coincides with elevated hepatic aminotransferase levels.[5]

Viral RNA becomes detectable in stool and blood serum during incubation period. Serum IgM and IgG antibodies against HEV appear just before onset of clinical symptoms. Recovery leads to virus clearance from the blood, while the virus may persist in stool for much longer. Recovery is also marked by disappearance of IgM antibodies and increase of levels of IgG antibodies.[5]

Chronic infection

While usually an acute disease, in immunocompromised subjects—particularly in solid organ transplanted patients—hepatitis E may cause a chronic infection.[6] Occasionally this may cause liver fibrosis and cirrhosis.

Virology

Classification

There is only one serotype of the virus and classification is based on the nucleotide sequences of the genome.[7] Genotype 1 has been classified into five subtypes, genotype 2 into two subtypes and genotypes 3 and 4 have been into ten and seven subtypes respectively.

Differences have been noted between the different genotypes. For genotype 1, the age at which incidence peaks is between 15 and 35 years and mortality is about 1%. Genotype 3 and 4—the most common in Japan—are more common in people older than 60 years and the mortality is between 5 and 10%.[8]

Distribution

Genotype 1 has been isolated from tropical and several subtropical countries in Asia and Africa. Genotype 2 has been isolated from Mexico, Nigeria, and Chad. Genotype 3 has been isolated almost worldwide including Asia, Europe, Oceania, North and South America. Genotype 4 appears to be limited exclusively to Asia.

Genotypes 1 and 2 are restricted to humans and often associated with large outbreaks and epidemics in developing countries with poor sanitation conditions. Genotypes 3 and 4 infect humans, pigs and other animal species and have been responsible for sporadic cases of hepatitis E in both developing and industrialized countries.

In the United Kingdom the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) said that the number of human hepatitis E cases increased by 39% between 2011 and 2012.[9]

Transmission

Hepatitis E is prevalent in most developing countries, and common in any country with a hot climate. It is widespread in Southeast Asia, northern and central Africa, India, and Central America. It is spread mainly by the fecal-oral route due to fecal contamination of water supplies or food; person-to-person transmission is uncommon.

The incubation period following exposure to the hepatitis E virus ranges from three to eight weeks, with a mean of 40 days.[10] Outbreaks of epidemic hepatitis E most commonly occur after heavy rainfalls and monsoons because of their disruption of water supplies. Major outbreaks have occurred in New Delhi, India (30,000 cases in 1955–1956), Burma (20,000 cases in 1976–1977), Kashmir, India (52,000 cases in 1978), Kanpur, India (79,000 cases in 1991), and China (100,000 cases between 1986 and 1988).

DEFRA said that there was evidence that the increase in hepatitis E in the UK was due to food-borne zoonoses, citing a study that found 10% of pork sausages on sale in the UK contained the virus. Some research suggests that food must reach a temperature of 70 °C for 20 minutes to eliminate the risk of infection. An investigation by the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency found hepatitis E in 49% of pigs in Scotland.[9]

Animal reservoir

Domestic animals have been reported as a reservoir for the hepatitis E virus, with some surveys showing infection rates exceeding 95% among domestic pigs.[11] Replicative virus has been found in the small intestine, lymph nodes, colon and liver of experimentally infected pigs. Transmission after consumption of wild boar meat and uncooked deer meat has been reported as well.[12] The rate of transmission to humans by this route and the public health importance of this are, however, still unclear.[13]

A number of other small mammals have been identified as potential reservoirs: the lesser bandicoot rat (Bandicota bengalensis), the black rat (Rattus rattus brunneusculus) and the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus).[14] A new virus designated rat hepatitis E virus has been isolated.[15]

A rabbit hepatitis E virus has also been described,[16] with a study published in 2014 showing that research rabbits from two different American vendors showed seroprevalences of 40% for Supplier A and 50% for Supplier B when testing for antibodies against hepatitis E virus (HEV). Supplier A was a conventional rabbit farm, and supplier B was a commercial vendor of specific pathogen free (SPF) research rabbits. The study remarks "HEV probably is widespread in research rabbits, but effects on research remain unknown." Laboratory animal care personnel, researchers, and support staff represent a new population at risk for HEV infection, and research facilities should be diligent in measures to prevention of this possibly zoonotic pathogen.[17]

An avian virus has been described that is associated with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in chickens. This virus is genetically and antigenically related to mammalian HEV, and probably represents a new genus in the family.

Molecular biology

Although it was originally classified in the Caliciviridae family, the virus has since been classified into the genus Orthohepevirus, and has been reassigned into the Hepeviridae family. The virus itself is a small non-enveloped particle.

The genome is approximately 7200 bases in length, is a polyadenylated single-strand RNA molecule that contains three discontinuous and partially overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) along with 5' and 3' cis-acting elements, which have important roles in HEV replication and transcription. ORF1 encodes a methyltransferase, protease, helicase and replicase; ORF2 encodes the capsid protein and ORF3 encodes a protein of undefined function. A three-dimensional, atomic-resolution structure of the capsid protein in the context of a virus-like particle has been described.[18] An in vitro culture system is not yet available.

As of 2009 there are approximately 1,600 sequences of both human and animal isolates of HEV available in open-access sequence databases.

Species of this genus infect humans, pigs, boars, deer, rats, rabbits and birds.[19]

Prevention

Sanitation

Improving sanitation is the most important measure in prevention of hepatitis E; this consists of proper treatment and disposal of human waste, higher standards for public water supplies, improved personal hygiene procedures and sanitary food preparation. Thus, prevention strategies of this disease are similar to those of many others that plague developing nations, and they require large-scale international financing of water supply and water treatment projects.

Vaccines

A vaccine based on recombinant viral proteins was developed in the 1990s and tested in a high-risk population (military personnel of Nepal) in 2001.[20] The vaccine appeared to be effective and safe, but development was stopped for economic reasons, since hepatitis E is rare in developed countries.[2] There is no licensed hepatitis E vaccine for use in the US.

Although other HEV vaccine trials, including trials conducted in populations in southern Asia, have shown candidate vaccines to be effective and well-tolerated, these vaccines have not yet been produced or made available to susceptible populations. The exception is China. After more than a year of scrutiny and inspection by China's State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA), a hepatitis E vaccine developed by Chinese scientists was available at the end of 2012. This vaccine—called HEV 239 and sold as Hecolin by its developer Xiamen Innovax Biotech—was approved for prevention of hepatitis E in 2012 by the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology, following a phase 3 trial on two groups of 50,000 people each from Jiangsu Province where none of the vaccinated became infected during a 12-month period, compared to 15 in the group given placebo treatment.[21] The first vaccine batches came out of Innovax' factory in late October 2012, and will be sold to Chinese distributors.[2]

Treatment

Apart from supportive care, no specific validated treatment exists for acute hepatis E infection. Although ribavirin is not registered for Hepatitis E treatment, there is off-label experience for treating chronic Hepatitis E with this compound. The use of low doses, 600 to 800 milligrams per day, of immunosuppression.[5]

Epidemiology

The hepatitis E virus causes around 20 million infections a year. These result in around three million acute illnesses and as of 2010, 57,000 deaths annually.[22] It is particularly dangerous for pregnant women, who can develop an acute form of the disease that is lethal in 20 percent of cases. The virus (HEV) is a major cause of illness and of death in the developing world and disproportionate cause of deaths among pregnant women. Among indigenous people, a significant prevalence of hepatitis E virus-specific antibody has been reported in several amerindian Yupka tribes in South America.[23]

Recent outbreaks

In 2004, there were two major outbreaks, both of them in sub-Saharan Africa. There was an outbreak in Chad in which, as of September 27, there were 1,442 reported cases and 46 deaths. The second was in Sudan with, as of September 28, 6,861 cases and 87 deaths. Increasingly, hepatitis E is being seen in developed nations, with reports of cases in the UK, US and Japan. The disease is thought to be a zoonosis in that animals are thought to be the source. Both deer and swine have been implicated.

In October 2007, an epidemic of hepatitis E was suspected in Kitgum District of northern Uganda where no previous epidemics had been documented. This outbreak has progressed to become one of the largest hepatitis E outbreaks in the world. By June 2009, the epidemic had caused illness in 10,196 persons and 160 deaths.[24]

In 2011, a minor outbreak was reported in Tangail, a neighborhood of Dhaka, Bangladesh.[25]

In June 2012, an outbreak was reported in city of Ichalkaranji, Maharashtra, India. As of June 14, 2012, 3232 cases were reported and 18 died [26] and another 3 died in Shirol taluka of Kolhapur Maharashtra, India in June 2012. Officials in the Indian state of Maharashtra suspect that contaminated water from the Panchganga river was responsible for the hepatitis E outbreak in Ichalkaranji.

In July 2012, an outbreak was reported in South Sudanese refugee camps in Maban County near the Sudan border. South Sudan's Ministry of Health reported over 400 cases and 16 fatalities as of September 13, 2012.[27] Progressing further, as of February 2, 2013, 88 have died due to the outbreak. The "Medical charity Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) said it had treated almost 4,000 patients."[28]

In April 2014 there was an outbreak in Nepal, Biratnagar Municipality with over 6,000 locals infected and at least 9 dead.[29]

History

The most recent common ancestor of Hepatitis E evolved between 536 and 1344 years ago.[19] It diverged into two clades—an anthropotropic and an enzootic form—which subsequently evolved into genotypes 1 and 2 and genotypes 3 and 4 respectively. The divergence dates for the various genotypes are as follows: Genotypes 1/2 367–656 years ago; Genotypes 3/4 417–679 years ago. For the most recent common ancestor of the various viruses themselves: Genotype 1 between 87 and 199 years ago; Genotype 3 between 265 and 342 years ago; and Genotype 4 between 131 and 266 years ago. The anthropotropic strains (genotype 1 and 2) have evolved more recently than the others suggesting that this virus was originally a zooenosis.

The use of an avian strain confirmed the proposed topology of the genotypes 1–4 and suggested that the genus may have evolved (range to ).[19] The use of a rat sequence also confirmed this topology and estimated date of divergence from the swine/human strains was 7.44×104 years ago (range 2.1×104 to 1.4×105 years ago). Since this date is approximately coincident with the advent of agriculture it may be that this virus originally infected rats and subsequently spread to pigs and then to humans. Additional work is required to support or refute this possibility as very few sequences have been isolated from species other than humans and suids.

Genotypes 1, 3 and 4 all increased their effective population sizes in the 20th century.[19] The population size of genotype 1 increased noticeably in the last 30–35 years. Genotypes 3 and 4 population sizes began to increase in the late 19th century up to 1940–1945. Genotype 3 underwent a subsequent increase in population size until the 1960s. Since 1990 both genotypes' population sizes have been reduced back to levels last seen in the 19th century.

The overall mutation rate for the genome has been estimated at ~1.4×10−3 substitutions/year.[19]

References

This article incorporates public domain text from the CDC as cited

  1. ^ Gupta DN, Smetana HF; Smetana (1957). "The histopathology of viral hepatitis as seen in the Delhi epidemic (1955–56)". Indian J. Med. Res. 45 (Suppl): 101–13.  
  2. ^ a b c Park, S. B. (November 2012). "Hepatitis E vaccine debuts". Nature 491 (7422): 21–22.  
  3. ^ a b Zhou X, de Man RA, de Knegt RJ, Metselaar HJ, Peppelenbosch MP, Pan Q.; De Man; De Knegt; Metselaar; Peppelenbosch; Pan (2013). "Epidemiology and management of chronic hepatitis E infection in solid organ transplantation: a comprehensive literature review". Rev Med Virol. 23 (5): 295–304.  
  4. ^ WHO. "Global Alert and Response (GAR); Hepatitis E". Retrieved 26 January 2012. 
  5. ^ a b c Hoofnagle, J. H.; Nelson, K. E.; Purcell, R. H. (2012). "Hepatitis E". New England Journal of Medicine 367 (13): 1237–1244.  
  6. ^ Bonnet, D.; Kamar, N.; Izopet, J.; Alric, L. (2012). "L'hépatite virale E : Une maladie émergente". La Revue de Médecine Interne 33 (6): 328–334.  
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  9. ^ a b Doward, Jamie (21 September 2013). "Chefs fight for the right to serve their pork pink". The Observer newspaper. Retrieved 22 September 2013. 
  10. ^ "Hepatitis E Fact sheet". 
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  13. ^ Kuniholm MH & Nelson KE (2008). "Of Organ Meats and Hepatitis E Virus: One Part of a Larger Puzzle Is Solved". J Infect Dis 198 (12): 1727–1728.  
  14. ^ "Wild Rats and Disease". 
  15. ^ Johne R, Plenge-Bönig A, Hess M, Ulrich RG, Reetz J, Schielke A; Plenge-Bönig; Hess; Ulrich; Reetz; Schielke (March 2010). "Detection of a novel hepatitis E-like virus in faeces of wild rats using a nested broad-spectrum RT-PCR". J. Gen. Virol. 91 (Pt 3): 750–8.  
  16. ^ Cheng X, Wang S, Dai X, Shi C, Wen Y, Zhu M, Zhan S, Meng J; Wang; Dai; Shi; Wen; Zhu; Zhan; Meng (2012). "Rabbit as a novel animal model for hepatitis e virus infection and vaccine evaluation". PLoS ONE 7 (12): e51616.  
  17. ^ Birke L, Cormier SA, You D, Stout RW, Clement, Johnson M, et al. Hepatitis E antibodies in laboratory rabbits from 2 US vendors. Emerg Infect Dis [Internet]. 2014 Apr [April 3, 2014]. doi:10.3201/eid2004.131229
  18. ^ Tao, TS; Liu, Z; Ye, Q; Mata, DA; Li, K; Yin, C; Zhang, J; Tao, YJ (Aug 4, 2009). "Structure of the hepatitis E virus-like particle suggests mechanisms for virus assembly and receptor binding". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106 (31): 12992–7.  
  19. ^ a b c d e Purdy MA, Khudyakov YE; Khudyakov (2010). Tavis, John E, ed. "Evolutionary history and population dynamics of hepatitis E virus". PLoS ONE 5 (12): e14376.  
  20. ^ Shrestha MP, Scott RM, Joshi DM; et al. (2007). "Safety and efficacy of a recombinant hepatitis E vaccine". N. Engl. J. Med. 356 (9): 895–903.  
  21. ^ Proffitt, A. (2012). "First HEV vaccine approved". Nature Biotechnology 30 (4): 300–301.  
  22. ^ Lozano, R; Naghavi, M; Foreman, K; Lim, S; Shibuya, K; Aboyans, V; Abraham, J; Adair, T; Aggarwal, R; Ahn, SY; Alvarado, M; Anderson, HR; Anderson, LM; Andrews, KG; Atkinson, C; Baddour, LM; Barker-Collo, S; Bartels, DH; Bell, ML; Benjamin, EJ; Bennett, D; Bhalla, K; Bikbov, B; Bin Abdulhak, A; Birbeck, G; Blyth, F; Bolliger, I; Boufous, S; Bucello, C; et al. (Dec 15, 2012). "Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010". Lancet 380 (9859): 2095–128.  
  23. ^ Echevarría, JM; Blitz-Dorfman, L; Pujot, FH (September 1996). "[Infection by hepatitis virus among the indigenous populations of South America: a review of the problem].". Investigacion clinica 37 (3): 191–200.  
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  27. ^ Hereward Holland (September 13, 2012). "Hepatitis outbreak kills 16 in South Sudan refugee camps". Retrieved September 15, 2012. 
  28. ^ Hereward Holland (February 2, 2013). "Hepatitis outbreak kills 88 in South Sudan—aid agency". Reuters. Retrieved February 6, 2013. 
  29. ^ "Nine killed, 6000 fall ill due to Hepatitis E in Morang". Republica. 8 May 2014. Retrieved 4 August 2014. 

External links

  • "Hepatitis E". Media centre: Fact sheet N°280. World Health Organization. July 2013. 
  • Virus Pathogen Database and Analysis Resource (ViPR): Hepeviridae
  • Aggarwa, Rakesh; Gandhi, Sanjay (December 2010). "A systematic review on prevalence of hepatitis E disease and seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus antibody" (PDF). World Health Organization. WHO/IVB/10.14. 
  • Bjorn, Genevive (18 October 2010). "The night my liver started running my life". New York Times. 
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