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Historical reenactment

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Historical reenactment

Soldiers firing guns in the Battle of Waterloo reenactment, in front of the wood of Hougoumont, 2011

Historical reenactment is an educational or entertainment activity in which people follow a plan to recreate aspects of a historical event or period. This may be as narrow as a specific moment from a battle, such as the reenactment of Pickett's Charge presented during the Great Reunion of 1913, or as broad as an entire period, such as Regency reenactment or The 1920s Berlin Project.


  • History 1
  • Reenactors 2
    • Reenactment groups 2.1
    • Categories of reenactors 2.2
      • Farbs 2.2.1
      • Mainstream 2.2.2
      • Progressive 2.2.3
  • Period 3
  • Clothing and equipment 4
  • Types 5
    • Living history 5.1
    • Combat demonstration 5.2
    • Battle reenactment 5.3
    • Tactical combat 5.4
    • Commercial reenactment 5.5
  • Publications 6
  • Media support 7
  • Criticism 8
  • See also 9
  • References 10
  • Further reading 11
  • External links 12


The joust between the Lord of the Tournament and the Knight of the Red Rose, a lithograph commemorating the Eglinton Tournament of 1839

Activities related to "reenactment" have a long history. The Romans staged recreations of famous battles within their amphitheaters as a form of public spectacle. In the Middle Ages, tournaments often reenacted historical themes from Ancient Rome or elsewhere.

Military displays and mock battles and reenactments first became popular in 17th century England. In 1638, a staged battle between Christian and Muslim forces was enacted in London, and the Roundheads, flush from a series of victories during the Civil War, reenacted a recent battle at Blackheath in 1645, despite the ongoing conflict.[1]

It was in the nineteenth century that historical reenactments became widespread, reflecting the then intense romantic interest in the Middle Ages. Medieval culture was widely admired as an antidote to the modern enlightenment and industrial age. Plays and theatrical works (such as Ivanhoe, which in 1820 was playing in six different productions in London alone)[2] perpetuated the romanticism of knights, castles, feasts and tournaments. The Duke of Buckingham staged naval battles from the Napoleonic War on the large lake on his estate in 1821, and a reenactment of the Battle of Waterloo was put on for a public viewing at Astley's Amphitheatre in 1824.[1]

Historical reenactment came of age with the grand spectacle of the Archibald Montgomerie, 13th Earl of Eglinton. The Tournament was a deliberate act of Romanticism, and drew 100,000 spectators.

Layout of the Eglinton Tournament.

It was held on a meadow at a loop in the Lugton Water. The ground chosen for the tournament was low, almost marshy, with grassy slopes rising on all sides.[4] Lord Eglinton announced that the public would be welcome; he requested medieval fancy dress, if possible, and tickets were free. The pageant itself featured thirteen medieval knights on horseback.

The preparations, and the many works of art commissioned for or inspired by the Eglinton Tournament, had an effect on public feeling and the course of 19th-century Gothic revivalism. Its ambition carried over to events such as a similar lavish tournament in Brussels in 1905, and presaged the historical reenactments of the present. Features of the tournament were actually inspired by Walter Scott's novel Ivanhoe: it was attempting "to be a living re-enactment of the literary romances".[5] In Eglinton’s own words "I am aware of the manifold deficiencies in its exhibition — more perhaps than those who were not so deeply interested in it; I am aware that it was a very humble imitation of the scenes which my imagination had portrayed, but I have, at least, done something towards the revival of chivalry".[6]

Reenactments of battles became more commonplace in the late 19th century, both in Britain, and also in America. Within a year of the Battle of the Little Bighorn, survivors of U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment reenacted the scene of their defeat for the camera as a series of still poses.

Modern reenactments of historical battles were held at Royal Tournament, Aldershot Tattoo. Pictured, the programme for the 1934 show, where the Siege of Namur was recreated.

In 1895, members of the Gloucestershire Engineer Volunteers reenacted their famous stand at Rorke's Drift, 18 years earlier. 25 British soldiers beat back the attack of 75 Zulus at the Grand Military Fete at the Cheltenham Winter Gardens.[1]

Veterans of the American Civil War recreated battles as a way to remember their fallen comrades and to teach others what the war was all about.[7] The Great Reunion of 1913, celebrating the 50th anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg, was attended by more than 50,000 Union and Confederate veterans, and included reenactments of elements of the battle, including Pickett's Charge.[8]

During the early twentieth century, historical reenactment became very popular in Russia with re-enactments of the Siege of Sevastopol (1854–1855) (1906), the Battle of Borodino (1812) in St Petersburg and the Taking of Azov (1696) in Voronezh in 1918. In 1920, there was a reenactment of the 1917 Storming of the Winter Palace on the third anniversary of the event. This reenactment inspired the scenes in Sergei Eisenstein's film October: Ten Days That Shook the World.

Large scale reenactments began to be regularly held at the Royal Tournament, Aldershot Tattoo in the 1920s and 30s. A spectacular recreation of the Siege of Namur, an important military engagement of the Nine Years' War, was staged in 1934 as part of 6-day long show.[1]

In America, modern reenacting is thought to have begun during the 1961–1965 Civil War Centennial commemorations.[9] Reenacting grew in popularity during the 1980s and 1990s, due in large part to the success of the 125th Anniversary reenactment near the original Manassas battlefield, which was attended by more than 6,000 reenactors.[10]


Viking re-enactors from all over the world at the Battle of Clontarf millennium commemoration (lining up before charging at the opposition). Dublin, 2014.

Most participants are amateurs who pursue history as a hobby. Participants within this hobby are extremely diverse. The ages of participants range from young children whose parents bring them along to events, to the elderly. Among adult participants, people from all different walks of life can be found: college students, firefighters, lawyers, members of the armed forces, doctors, and even professional historians.

Reenactment groups

An actor playing John Smith simulates claiming a beach for England in the New World in a historical reenactment
Mainstream Federal reenactors
A tintype showing "hardcore" American Civil War reenactors.
Reenactment covers a wide time span. This is a reenactment of the Roman legion XV Apollinaris, taking place in Austria.

Reasons given for participating vary. Some participants are interested in getting a historical perspective on a particular period or war, particularly if they can trace their ancestry back to an individual or individuals who were involved. Others participate for the escapism that such events offer.

Categories of reenactors

Reenactors are commonly divided (or self-divide) into several broadly defined categories, based on the level of concern for authenticity.[11][12] (It should be noted that these definitions and categorisation is primarily that of the USA. Other countries have different terms of art, slang and definitions)


Some, called "

  • The Historical Reenactment Web Site, Information relating to reenactment globally and the home of The Historical Reenactment Wiki
  • UK-based historical event organisers, their web site featuring "A Brief History of Re-enactment", primarily but not exclusively from a UK and European perspective.
  • Reenactor.Net, The Worldwide Online Home of Reenacting

External links

  • Horwitz, Tony. Confederates in the Attic: Dispatches from the Unfinished Civil War (1998), an ethnographic study of re-enactors and groups engaged in remembrance.
  • Stanton, Cathy (1999-11-01). "Reenactors in the Parks: A Study of External Revolutionary War Reenactment Activity at National Parks" (PDF) National Park Service. Retrieved on 2008-07-28.

Further reading

  1. ^ a b c d
  2. ^ Anstruther, Ian The Knight and the Umbrella: An Account of the Eglinton Tournament, 1839. London: Geoffrey Bles Ltd, 1963. pp. 122–123
  3. ^ Corbould, Edward. The Eglinton Tournament: Dedicated to the Earl of Eglinton. Pall Mall, England: Hodgson & Graves, 1840.[1]. p 5.
  4. ^ Anstruther, Ian The Knight and the Umbrella: An Account of the Eglinton Tournament, 1839. London: Geoffrey Bles Ltd, 1963. pp. 188–189
  5. ^ Watts, Karen, 2009, "The Eglinton Tournament of 1839"
  6. ^ Literary Gazette, 1831:90.
  7. ^ Hadden, Robert Lee. "Reliving the Civil War: A reenactor's handbook". Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 1999. p 4 "Civil War reenacting was done almost from the beginning of war, as soldiers demonstrated to family and friends their actions during the war, in camp, in drill, and in battle. Veterans organizations recreated camp life to show their children and others how they lived and to reproduce the camaraderie of shared experience with their fellow veterans."
  8. ^
  9. ^ Hadden. p 4 "Without a doubt, Civil War reenactment got its boost during the centennial, which also saw the birth of the North-South Skirmish Association (N-SSA)."
  10. ^ Hadden. p 6 "In 1986, the first of the 125th Anniversary battles was held near the original battlefield of Manassas. More than anything, this mega-event sparked an interest in the Civil War and reenacting."
  11. ^ a b Strauss. "In the United States, hobby organizations participate in the public reenactment of historical events. The most popular is Civil War reenacting, which can be viewed as a manifestation of the unresolved nature of that war ... Among reenactors, the quest for historical authenticity is considered a core value."
  12. ^ Stanton. p 34
  13. ^ Hadden p 209 and p 219
  14. ^ Hadden p 8. "Ross M. Kimmel states that it was used at the Manassas reenactment in 1961 ... George Gorman and his 2nd North Carolina picked up the term at the First Manassas Reenactment in 1961 and enjoyed using it constantly with condescension and sarcasm directed toward other units."
  15. ^
  16. ^ a b Hadden, p 8
  17. ^
  18. ^ Hadden p 8 Juanita Leisch calls it "Fast And Researchless Buying," and other sources insist it came from the Bicentennial and Revolutionary War groups and means "Fairly Authentic Royal British."
  19. ^
  20. ^ Hadden, pp. 219–220
  21. ^ Hadden p 138
  22. ^ Hadden p 224
  23. ^ Hadden, p 138 "The hard-core movement is often misunderstood and sometimes maligned."
  24. ^ Hadden p. 138 "Like soldiers of the Civil War, progressives experience the same poor conditions that the original soldiers did, camping without tents and sleeping out exposed to the cold and rain. They spend weekends eating bad and insufficient food, and they practice a steady regimen of work, marching, and drill. They suffer the cold, carrying insufficient clothing and blankets as well as sleeping campaign-style by spooning with each other for warmth."
  25. ^ Hadden p 139
  26. ^ Great War Association-Home. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
  27. ^
  28. ^ Der Tross 10. – 14. Juni 2004
  29. ^ Kaltenberg web entry
  30. ^ a b Michael Petzet: "ln the full richness of their authenticity" - The Test of Authenticity and the New Cult of Monuments, Nara Conference on Authenticity in Relation to the World Heritage 1994.
  31. ^ Benita Luckmann: Bretten, Politik in einer deutschen Kleinstadt. Enke, Stuttgart 1970, ISBN 3-432-01618-2.
  32. ^ The Medieval Town. Middelaldercentret. Accessed 9 September 2015
  33. ^ "I believe in Yesterday: MY adventures in Living History" by Tim Moore, published by JOnathan Cape in 2008, ISBN 0-224-07781-3
  34. ^
  35. ^ AFI Night at the Movies
  36. ^ This documentary can be found on the DVD of the film Gettysburg.
  37. ^ Thompson, Jenny. Wargames: Inside the World of 20th Century Reenactors (Smithsonian Books, Washington, 2004). ISBN 1-58834-128-3
  38. ^ Thompson, op.cit.
  39. ^
  40. ^
  41. ^


See also

A final concern is that reenactors may be accused of being, or actually be, aligned with the political beliefs that some of the reenacted armies fought for, such as Nazism or the Confederate South. For example, U.S. politician Rich Iott‍‍ '​‍s participation in a World War II reenactment in which he was in the group that portrayed the German 5th SS Panzer Division Wiking side excited media criticism during his 2010 Congressional campaign.[41]

Thompson's book discusses the "fantasy farb", or tendency of reenactors to gravitate towards "elite" units such as commandos, paratroopers, or Waffen-SS units. This results in under-representation in the reenactment community of what were the most common types of military troops in the period being reenacted. The question has arisen among North American reenactors, but similar issues exist in Europe. For example, in Britain, a high proportion of Napoleonic War reenactors perform as members of the 95th Rifles (perhaps due to the popularity of the fictional character of Richard Sharpe) and medieval groups have an over-proportion of plate-armoured soldiers. The UK has multi-period events such as History in Action, where groups can see each other's appearance and performances, as well as perform for the general public. Weapons can be a concern in countries where weapons of most forms are legally banned or socially frowned on (such as in the UK). Reenactors' interactions with the public, and educational work of volunteer groups like NARES,[40] help mitigate such issues.

Critics question the motivation of reenactors; some suggest concerns about the level of immersion found in some areas, notably those involving 20th century conflicts where combatants had stricter regulations regarding personal grooming.[37] The average age of reenactors is generally far higher than the average age of soldiers in most conflicts. Few reenactment units discriminate based on age and physical condition.[38] Some critics have complained about the exclusion of women from American Civil War combat reenactment units. While a small handful of women may have fought in the conflict, almost all did so disguised as men. Attitudes on this topic seem to vary widely.[39]

Wehrmacht reenactors recreate the battle of Molotov Line in Sanok-Olchowce.


I think we're really fortunate to have those people involved. In fact, they couldn't be making this picture without them; there's no question about that. These guys come with their wardrobe, they come with their weaponry. They come with all the accoutrements, but they also come with the stuff in their head and the stuff in their heart.[36]

In a documentary about the making of the film Gettysburg, actor Sam Elliott, who portrayed Union General John Buford in the film, said of reenactors:

Motion picture and television producers often turn to reenactment groups for support; films like Gettysburg,[34] Glory,[35] The Patriot, and Alatriste benefited greatly from the input of reenactors, who arrived on set fully equipped and steeped in knowledge of military procedures, camp life, and tactics.

Media support

Little has been published about re-enactment in the mainstream market, except for press articles. One exception is the book "I believe in Yesterday: My adventures in Living History" by Tim Moore, which recounts his experiences trying out different periods of re-enactment and the people he meets and things he learns whilst doing so.[33]

In the UK a number of small publishing houses have been established that particularly publish books about the English Civil War and more recently, of earlier periods as well. The largest are Stuart Press [around 250 volumes in print] and Partizan Press.

For the Napoleonic Period, two books of interest cover life in the military at that time and living history: The Napoleonic Soldier by Stephen E. Maughan, 1999 and Marching with Sharpe by B.J. Bluth, 2001. Various Napoleonic reenactment groups cover the history of their associated regiments as well as try to describe and illustrate how they approach recreating the period. The goal to be as authentic as is possible has led many serious reenactment societies to set up their own research groups to verify their knowledge of the uniforms, drill and all aspects of the life that they strive to portray. In this way reenactment plays a vital role in bringing history to life, keeping history alive, and in expanding the knowledge and understanding of the period.

The Medieval Soldier by Gerry Embleton and John Howe (1995) is a popular book on the topic, which has been translated into French and German. It was followed by Medieval Military Costume in Colour Photographs.

Autumnal military exercise 1912 / Reenactment Roscheider Hof Open Air Museum, Konz

Many publications have covered historical reenactment and living history. Prominent among these are the Camp Chase Gazette, Smoke and Fire News, and two different magazines named Living History, and Skirmish Magazine.


presentations, rather than tactical or battle reenactment, although some host larger temporary events. living history displays. By their nature, these are usually authenticSome locations have set up permanent

Many castles, museums, and other historical tourist attractions employ actors or professional reenactors as part of the experience. These usually address the recreation of a specific town, village, or activity within a certain time frame. Commercial reenactment shows are usually choreographed and follow a script.

Commercial reenactment

The development of "historical airsoft" tournaments is an offshoot of the military reenactment tactical.

Tactical battles are generally not open to the public. Tactical battles are fought like real battles with both sides coming up with strategies and tactics to beat their opponents. With no script, a basic set of agreed-upon rules (physical boundaries, time limit, victory conditions, etc.), and on-site judges, tactical battles can be considered a form of Live action role-playing game, but, in the cases where firearms are used, with real weapons firing blank ammunition (depending on gun control ordinances).

Tactical combat

They are often fought at or near the original battle ground or at a place very similar to the original. These demonstrations vary widely in size from a few hundred fighters to several thousand, as do the arenas used (getting the right balance can often make or break the spectacle for the public).

Scripted battles are reenactments in the strictest sense; the battles are planned out beforehand so that the companies and regiments make the same actions that were taken in the original battles.

Battle reenactment

Tourists can purchase replica goods at a store in Colonial Williamsburg
Battle of Maidstone Re-enactment, Kent (2011)

Combat demonstrations are mock battles put on by reenacting organizations and/or private parties primarily to show the public what combat in the period might have been like. Combat demonstrations are only loosely based on actual battles, if at all, and may simply consist of demonstrations of basic tactics and maneuvering techniques.

Combat demonstration

In Germany medieval reenactment is usually associated with living history and renaissance faires and festivals as e.g. the Peter and Paul festival in Bretten.[28] or the Schloss Kaltenberg knights tournament.[29] The majority of combat reenactment groups are battlefield reenactment groups, some of which have become isolated to some degree because of a strong focus on authenticity. The specific German approach of authenticity is less about replaying a certain event, but to allow an immersion in a certain era, to catch, in the sense of Walter Benjamin the 'spiritual message expressed in every monument's and every site's own "trace" and "aura"', even in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction.[30] Historic city festivals and events are quite important to build up local communities and contribute to the self-image of municipalities.[31] Events in monuments or on historical sites are less about the events related to them but serve as staffage for the immersion experience.[30] In Denmark several open air museums uses living history as a part of their concept. These includes Middelaldercentret,[32] The Old Town, Aarhus and Frilandsmuseet.

In the United States, The National Park Service land; NPS policy "does not allow for battle reenactments (simulated combat with opposing lines and casualties) on NPS property. There are exceptions i.e. Saylors Creek, Gettysburg. These are HIGHLY controlled with exacting safety factors, as well as, exacting historial truths"[27]

Living histories are usually meant for education of the public. Such events do not necessarily have a mock battle but instead are aimed at portraying the life, and more importantly the lifestyle, of people of the period. This often includes both military and civilian impressions. Occasionally, storytelling or acting sketches take place to involve or explain the everyday life or military activity to the viewing public. More common are craft and cooking demonstrations, song and leisure activities, and lectures. Combat training or duels can also be encountered even when larger combat demonstrations are not present.

The term 'living history' describes the performance of bringing history to life for the general public in a manner that in most cases is not following a planned script. Historical presentation includes a continuum from well researched attempts to recreate a known historical event for educational purposes, through representations with theatrical elements, to competitive events for purposes of entertainment. The line between amateur and professional presentations at living history museums can be blurred. While the latter routinely use museum professionals and trained interpreters to help convey the story of history to the public, some museums and historic sites employ living history groups with high standards of authenticity for the same role at special events.

Interessengemeinschaft Mandan-Indianer Leipzig 1970, the popular image of Native Americans made Indian living history quite popular in communist Eastern Germany

Living history


Event spectators may derive more satisfaction from attending reenactments when a high level of authenticity is attained in both individual clothing and equipment, as well as equipment used in camp.

Detailed attention to authenticity in design and construction is given equally as well to headgear, footwear, eyewear, camp gear, accoutrements, military equipment, weapons and so on. These items (which are generally much more expensive than clothing and uniform in modern production) offer the wearer a lifelike experience in the use of materials, tailoring and manufacturing techniques that are as close to authentic as possible.

Numerous cottage industries abound that provide not only the materials but even the finished product for use by reenactors. Uniforms and clothing made of hand woven, natural dyed materials are sewn by hand or machine using the sartorial techniques of the period portrayed.

The Company of St. George recreating a small medieval military camp in France, 2006.

Clothing and equipment

Popular periods to reenact include:

The period of an event is the range of dates. See authenticity (reenactment) for a discussion of how the period affects the types of costume, weapons, and armour used.

Reenactor displaying buckskins


Hard-core reenactors generally value thorough research, and sometimes deride mainstream reenactors for perpetuating inaccurate "reenactorisms". They generally seek an "immersive" reenacting experience, trying to live, as much as possible, as someone of the period might have done. This includes eating seasonally and regionally appropriate food, sewing inside seams and undergarments in a period-appropriate manner, and staying in character throughout an event.[24] The desire for an immersive experience often leads hard-core reenactors to smaller events, or to setting up separate camps at larger events.[25]

At the other extreme from farbs are "hard-core authentics", or "progressives," as they sometimes prefer to be called.[21] Sometimes derisively called "stitch counters",[22] hardcore reenactors are sometimes misunderstood by observers.[23]


Mainstream reenactors make an effort to appear authentic, but may come out of character in the absence of an audience. Visible stitches are likely to be sewn in a period-correct manner, but hidden stitches and undergarments may not be period-appropriate. Food consumed before an audience is likely to be generally appropriate to the period, but it may not be seasonally and locally appropriate. Modern items are sometimes used "after hours" or in a hidden fashion. The common attitude is to put on a good show, but that accuracy need only go as far as others can see.



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