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History of Andhra Pradesh

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History of Andhra Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India whose recorded history begins in the Vedic Period. Andhra Pradesh is mentioned in Sanskrit epics such as Aitareya Brahmana (800 BCE).[1][2][3] The Assaka Maha-Janapada (700–300 BCE) was an ancient Indian kingdom located between the rivers Godavari and Krishna in southeastern India.[4] There are accounts of people in the region being descendants of Viswamitra; these are littered in all versions of Ramayana, Mahabharata and Puranas.

Contents

  • Historical Overview 1
  • Pre-Satavahana Period 2
  • Satavahana Period 3
  • Ikshvakus 4
    • Vashishthiputra Sri Santamula (Santamula I) 4.1
    • Virapurushadatta 4.2
    • Ehuvula Santamula (Santamula II) 4.3
    • Rudrapurushadatta 4.4
  • Brihatpalayanas 5
  • Anandagotrikas 6
  • Salankayanas 7
  • Pallavas 8
  • Vishnukundinas 9
  • Kalachuris of Chedi 10
    • Chedi 10.1
    • Haihaya 10.2
    • Kalachuri 10.3
  • Eastern Chalukyas 11
  • Chola Empire 12
  • Kakatiyas 13
  • Musunuri Nayaks 14
  • Reddy Dynasty 15
    • Origins of the Reddys 15.1
  • Vijayanagar Empire 16
  • Mughal era 17
  • Beginning of the Colonial era 18
    • Madras Presidency 18.1
      • Telugu Districts in the Madras Presidency 18.1.1
      • Zamindaris in Madras 18.1.2
      • Padamanayakas of Madras 18.1.3
  • Post-independence 19
    • Madras Manade movement 19.1
    • Creation of Andhra Pradesh State 19.2
    • Merger of Hyderabad state and Andhra 19.3
    • Telangana movement 19.4
    • Bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh 19.5
    • Evolution of multiple Telugu states 19.6
  • Dynasties 20
  • References 21
  • External links 22

Historical Overview

In the 6th century BCE, Assaka was one of sixteen kingdoms of India. The Assaka were succeeded by the Satavahana (230 BCE - 220 CE) who built the city of Amaravati. The Satavahana empire reached its zenith under Satakarni. At the end of the Satavahana period, the Telugu region was fractured into feudatories under various lords. During the latter part of the 2nd century CE, the Andhra Ikshvakus ruled the eastern region along the Krishna river.

During the 4th century, the Pallavas extended their rule from southern Andhra to the Tamil region and established their capital at Kanchipuram. Their power increased during the reigns of Mahendravarman I (571 – 630 CE) and Narasimhavarman I (630 – 668 CE). The Pallavas dominated the southern Telugu and the northern parts of the Tamil regions until the end of the 9th century CE.

Between 624 and 1323 CE, a significant change came about in the social, religious, linguistic and literary spheres of Andhra society. The Kakatiya dynasty emerged, bringing the entire Telugu land under a unified rule. During this period, the Telugu language emerged as a literary medium through the contributions of Nannaya.

In 1323, the Sultan of Delhi, Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq sent a large army under the command of Ulugh Khan (who later ruled as Delhi Sultan under the name Mohammad bin Tuglhluq) to conquer the Telugu and lay siege to Warangal. The fall of the Kakatiya dynasty led to a new era under the competing influences of the Turkic kingdoms of Delhi, the Chalukya Chola dynasty (1070 CE until the second half of the 13th century CE) in the south and the Persio-Tajik sultanate of central India. The struggle for Andhra ended with the victory of Musunuri Nayaks over the Turkic Delhi Sultanate.

The Telugu achieved independence under rule of Krishnadevaraya of the Vijayanagara Empire (1336–1646 CE). After the fall of the Vijayanagara Empire, the Qutb Shahi dynasty of the Bahmani Sultanate ruled Andhra. The Qutb Shahi were tolerant of Telugu culture from the early part of the 16th century to the end of the 17th century CE.

The arrival of Europeans, the French under the Marquis de Bussy-Castelnau and the English under Robert Clive, ended another era of Andhra history. In 1765, Lord Robert Clive, along with the Chief and Council at Vishakapatnam, obtained from the Mughal emperor Shah Alam a grant of the five Circars. In 1792, the British achieved complete supremacy when they defeated Maharaja Vijaya Rama Gajapati Raju of Vizianagaram.

The foundation for modern Andhra was laid in the struggle for Indian independence under Mohandas Gandhi. The campaign of Potti Sriramulu for a state independent of the Madras state and social reform movements by Tanguturi Prakasam Panthulu and Kandukuri Veeresalingam, led to the formation of Andhra State with Karnool as its capital and Tanguturi Prakasampantullu, a freedom fighter, as its first chief minister. A fully democratic society with two stable political parties and a modern economy emerged under the Chief Ministership of N. T. Rama Rao.

India became independent from the United Kingdom in 1947. The Muslim Nizam of Hyderabad wanted to retain his independence from India, but was forced to cede his kingdom to India in 1948 to form Hyderabad State. Andhra State was the first state in India to be formed on a mainly linguistic basis. It was carved from the Madras Presidency in 1953. In 1956, Andhra State was merged with the Telugu-speaking area of Hyderabad State to create the state of Andhra Pradesh..

The next chapter in the history of the Telugu's began when the Lok Shabha of India approved the formation of Telangana from ten districts of Andhra Pradesh on 18 February 2014.

Pre-Satavahana Period

There are references to an Andhra kingdom and people called the "Andhras" in Sanskrit epics (the Mahabharata, Ramayana and Puranas). In the Mahabharata, there is mention of an man called Rukmini of Vidarbha. Vidarbha was a kingdom which included the Deccan Plateau and the foothills of the Vindhya ranges. It included the areas that are now Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka and a little-known and now submerged archipelago in the Bay of Bengal. Rama is said to have lived in the forests around the present day city of Bhadrachalam during his exile.

Although these ancient literary signs point to a history dating to several centuries BCE, authentic archaeological evidence exists only from the last two millennia. The Kingdom of Pratipalapura (5th century BCE), which is identified with Bhattiprolu in the Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh, may be the earliest kingdom of South India. There is inscriptional evidence suggesting King Kubera ruled over Bhattiprolu around 230 BCE. The script of these Bhattiprolu inscriptions was the progenitor of the Brahmi Lipi that later diversified into the modern Telugu and Tamil scripts.

Satavahana Period

During the Mauryan age, in the 4th century BCE, Andhra was a political state in the southeastern Deccan. Megasthenes, who visited the court of Chandragupta Maurya (322-297 BCE), mentioned that Andhras had 30 fortified towns and an army of 1,000,000 infantry, 2,000 cavalry and 1,000 elephants.[5]

Uninterrupted political and cultural accounts of Andhra Pradesh begin at the time of the rise of the Satavahanas. Matsya Purana writes there were 29 rulers during this dynasty. They held the Andhra desa for about 456 years, from the 2nd century BCE to the 2nd century CE. An inscription at Nasik, written at the time of Gautamiputra Satakarni, the 23rd Satavahavana, indicates the kingdom included most of the southern peninsula and some southern parts of the present Indian states of Maharashtra, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh. The court language used by the Satavahanas was Prakrit. Satavahana kings followed the Vedic religion.

The fall of the Satavahana empire left Andhra in political chaos. Local rulers carved out small kingdoms for themselves. Between 180 and 624 CE, control of Andrha lay with Ikshvaku, Brihatpalayana, Salankayana, Vishnukundina, Vakataka, Pallava, Ananda Gotrika, Kalinga and other small kingdoms. The most important was Ikshvaku. Sanskrit replaced Prakrit as the language of inscriptions of that time.

Ikshvakus

The Andhra Ikshvakus (Sanskrit: इक्श्वाकू) formed a kingdom along the Krishna river during the latter half of the 2nd century CE. The Ishvaku capital was Vijayapuri (Nagarjunakonda). Archaeological evidence points to the Ikshvakus immediately succeeding the Satavahanas in the Krishna river valley. They may have migrated to Andhra from the North.[6] The Ikshvakus left inscriptions at Nagarjunakonda, Jaggayyapeta, Amaravati and Bhattiprolu. Ikshvaku rulers practiced the Vedic religion.

Some scholars suggest this dynasty was related to the ancient Ikshvakus of the Hindu epics. For example, that Rama of the Ramayana, the incarnation of Vishnu, was of the Ikshvaku line. Surviving inscriptions, such as those in the Nagarjunakonda valley, Jaggayyapeta and Ramireddipalli provide some support for this hypothesis.

In the Vayu Purana, Manu, the great patriarch of ancient India, had nine sons, of whom Ikshvaku was the eldest. Ikshvaku was founder of the Suryavanshi dynasty. He ruled from Ayodhya at the commencement of the Treta Yuga. He had one hundred sons, the eldest of which was Vikushi, who succeeded his father as the ruler of Ayodhya. Fifty of Vikushi's brothers founded small principalities in Northern India. Forty-eight founded kingdoms in the South.

In the Dharmamrita, in the lifetime of the 12th Tirthankara, Yasodhara, an Ikshvaku prince of the Kingdom of Anga, came to Vengi in the south. The prince was so impressed with the beauty of the region and the fertility of the soil that he made it his permanent home and founded a city called Pratipalapura (Bhattiprolu).

In the Puranas, the Andhra Ikshvakus are mentioned as the Sriparvatiyas (rulers of Sriparvata) and Andhrabhrityas (servants of the Andhras). They were feudal lords of the Satavahanas and bore the title 'Mahatalavara'. Although the Puranas mentions seven kings ruling Andhra for 100 years only four are confirmed in inscriptions.

Vashishthiputra Sri Santamula (Santamula I)

Santamula I was the founder of the Ikshvaku dynasty. He performed the Asvamedha, Agnihotra, Agnistoma and Vajapeya sacrifices to proclaim his independent and imperial status. It became a common practice among the rulers of subsequent dynasties to perform the Ashvamedha sacrifice in token of their declaration of independent status.

Virapurushadatta

Virapurushadatta was the son and successor of Santamula through his wife Madhari. He had a sister named Adavi Santisri. He took a queen from the Saka family of Ujjain and gave his daughter in marriage to a Chutu prince.

Ehuvula Santamula (Santamula II)

Ehuvula Santamula (Santamula II),Virapurushadata's son, ruled after a short Abhira interregnum.

Rudrapurushadatta

Rudrapurushadatta was an Ikshvaku ruler mentioned in inscriptions from Gurajala in Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh. He may have been a son of Ehuvula Santamula. He ruled for over 11 years and was probably the last important ruler of the Ikshvaku dynasty.

The Abhiras may have taken power from the Ikshvakus in about AD 278.

Brihatpalayanas

In the 3rd century CE, the Brihatpalayana ruled north Andhra from the capital, Kodur in the Krishna District. One of the dynasty was Jaya Varma of the Brihatpalayana gotra (clan).

Anandagotrikas

The Ananda Gotrikas (335-425) ruled coastal Andhra from their capital, Kapotapuram. Their affiliations are unknown.

Salankayanas

From about 300 to 440 CE, following the fall of the Ikshvakus, the Salankayanas ruled part of the East coast from Vengi. Like the Vishnukundinas of Vinukonda who succeeded them, the Salankayanas were vassals of the Pallava of the southern Telugu and northern Tamil lands. In this time, the script of the Telugu and Kannada languages began to clearly separate from that of other south Indian and north Indian dialects.

Pallavas

The Pallava Empire (Telugu: పల్లవులు; Tamil: பல்லவர்) was a South Indian kingdom of the 4th to 8th centuries CE. The Pallava ruled from Kanchipuram in Tamil Nadu. Their ascendency occurred during the reign of Mahendravarman I (571 – 630 CE) and Narasimhavarman I (630 – 668 CE). The empire included the southern Telugu and the northern parts of the Tamil region.

The Pallavas are noted for their patronage of Dravidian architecture examples of which survive in Mahabalipuram. The Chinese traveller Xuanzang visited Kanchipuram under Pallava rule and extolled the benign government.

This period was one of conflict with the Chalukyas of Badami in the north and the Tamil states of Chola and Pandyas in the south. In the 8th century CE, the Pallavas fell to the Chola.

Vishnukundinas

The Vishnukundina dynasty ruled in the Deccan and South India in the 5th and 6th centuries CE. According to Edward B. Eastwick, the Maharaja of Vizianagaram was a descendent of the Maharajas of Udaipur and of the Sisodia branch of the Gehlot tribe. A brother of the Maharaja of Udaipur migrated to Oudh. The early rulers of the dynasty aligned with the Vakatakas and had marital alliances with them and with the Rashtrakutas.

In 529, Madhava Varma, a descendent of the dynasty together with four allied clans, gained independence by defeating the Salankayanas in coastal Andhra. Their capitals were Amaravati and Bezwada, until they eventually settled at Vizianagaram. Over the centuries the four allied clans served as feudatories to the Vizianagaram rulers, as well as to subsequent dynasties such as the Chalukyas. Kalidindi in Krishna district was held by the Vishnukundin, although it was later associated with the Rajus.

In 1512, the Maharaja of Vizianagaram was conquered by the Golkonda dynasty and was made Subahdar of the Northern Circars. The title was conferred by Emperor Aurangzeb, who gave the Maharaja a two-edged sword (Zulfikar). The zulfikar is still part of the Vishnukundinas coat-of-arms. The Rajahs of Vizianagaram obtained the title of 'Gajapati' after the 16th-century battle of Nandapur in the Northern Circars.

In 1845, the British, represented by Lord Northbrook, conferred several honours upon Maharaja Vijaya Rama Gajapati Raju III. On 31 December 1850 Raju III had a son. One of his daughters was married to Maharaj Kumar Singh, a cousin of and heir apparent to the Maharajah of Rewah.

Kalachuris of Chedi

The Matsyas, Chedis, Perichedis, Haihayas and Kalachuris may share a common Vedic ancestry and origin myth but the link is tenuous.

In the Puranas, Matsya (Sanskrit for 'fish') was the name of a tribe (Meenas) and a state of Vedic civilization. The Matsya tribe was founded by a fisherman who became a king. The Mahabharata (V.74.16) describes King Sahaja as a son of Uparichara Vasu, a Chedi king. Vasu ruled the Chedis and the Matsyas, suggesting the Matsya were once part of the Chedi Kingdom. The Puranas mention as many as six Matsya kingdoms. The Pandya Kingdom in the extreme south bears the picture of a fish on its official banner. Signs of the Matsya are later found in the Visakhapatnam region.

Chedi

The Chedi kingdom was one among many kingdoms in central and western India ruled during early periods by Paurava kings and later by Yadav kings. It corresponds roughly to the present day Bundelkhand division of Madhya Pradesh.

Haihaya

The Haihaya kingdom (from 'haya' meaning 'horse') was one of the many kingdoms ruled by Chandravamsha Kshatriya kings in central and western India. Mythology tells of Haihaya origin from a prince of the Lunar race and the Vishnu Purana links its outlying tribes to the Yadu race. The five great divisions of the tribe are named in the Puranas as the Talajanghas, Vitihotras, Avantis, Tundikeras, and Jatas (Sujatas). The Haihaya rulers included Kartavirya Arjuna, a powerful king who defeated Ravana. Although he had one thousand arms, he was felled and his arms severed by Parasurama. The Haihaya capital was Mahishmati (the modern city of Maheswar) on the banks of the river Narmada in Madhya Pradesh.

Kalachuri

Kalachuri is the name used by two kingdoms who claim common ancestry and who ruled by a succession of dynasties in the 10th to 12th centuries CE. The first of the two kingdoms controlled areas in Central India (west Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan). The second, the southern Kalachuri, ruled over parts of Karnataka. Kalachuri kings were related to the Chalukyas and Rashtrakutas by matrimonial alliances and so also ruled from places like Tripuri, Gorakhpur, Ratnapur, and Rajpur.

The name Kalachuri may come from the words kali meaning 'long moustache' and churi meaning 'sharp knife'. The Kalachuri were also known as Katachuris (the shape of a sharp knife), Kalanjarapuravaradhisvara (the Lord of Kalanjara) and Haihaya (Heheya).

In the Telugu epic, the "Battle of Palnadu", the Kalachuri are referred to as the Haihaya family of the Kona region (Amalapuram; the Razole Taluqs of the area now known as the East Godavari District); and as the Haihaya family of Palanadu. They were modest feudatories of the Chalukyas.

The Perichedis are also mentioned as minor feudatories of the Chalukyas. According to V. Rama Chandra Rao, the Perichedis were linked to the ancient Chedi. They had two branches, with Kollipaka and Bezawada as their capitals.

Rao also mentions that the Vastsavai dynasty of Peddapuram may be related to the Matsya dynasty, as there is evidence of a branch found in the Vishakapatnam area.

A record of 1174 suggests the Kalachuri dynasty was thought to be founded by Soma, who grew a beard and moustache to save himself from the wrath of Parashurama. Their emblem was Suvarna Vrishabha, the golden bull. The Kalachuri honoured Krantivirya Sahasrarjun, who killed Rishi Jamdagni, Bhagwan Parshurama's father. Historians such as P. B. Desai are emphatic about the central Indian origin of the Kalachuris.

At their zenith, the Kalachuris ruled an extensive empire covering areas of Gujarat, Malwa, Konkan and parts of Maharashtra. Their rule was lost to the Badami Chalukyas under Badami Chalukya Magalesa.

Colonel Todd recorded a tribe of Haihayas still existing "near the very top of the valley of Sohagpur, in Bhagelkhand, aware of their ancient lineage, and though few in number, still celebrated for their valour."

Eastern Chalukyas

Between 624 and 1323, a significant change came about in the social, religious, linguistic and literary spheres of Andhra society. During this period the Telugu language emerged as a literary medium, overcoming the predominance of Prakrit and Sanskrit. From around 848, in the time of Gunaga Vijayaditya, to the 11th century, the Telugu language progressed from stanzas to literary works. In this time, the Telugu language was written in old Telugu script. Al-Beruni referred to old Telugu script as "Andhri" in his "Kitab Al-Hind" (1000). In the 11th century, the Mahabharata was partially translated by the court poet Nannaya under the patronage of the Eastern Chalukya ruler, Rajaraja Narendra. The emergence of the Telugu script from the old Telugu script began in the 11th century and culminated in the 19th century.

The Eastern Chalukyas were a branch of the Chalukyas of Badami. Pulakesin II conquered Vengi (near Eluru) in 624 and installed his brother, Kubja Vishnuvardhana (624-641), as its ruler. The Vishnuvardhana dynasty, known as the Eastern Chalukyas, ruled for nearly four centuries. Vishnuvardhana extended his dominions as far as Srikakulam in the north and Nellore in the south.

Control of the Vengi region shifted from Gunaga Vijayaditya, to Rashtrakuta rule, to the Kalyani Chalukya (10th to 11th century); and to the Cholas. In 1118, Kulottunga Chola was defeated by Vikramaditya VI of the Kalyani Chalukya dynasty. The Cholas at Talakad were defeated by Hoysala ruler, Vishnuvardhana. Thus, once again, Vengi came under Chalukya rule.

The fall of the Kalyani Chalukya came with the death of Vikramaditya VI. By the end of the 12th century, the Eastern Chalukya empire had been divided into local kingdoms: the Hoysala Empire, the Kakatiya Kingdom and the Yadavas.

Chola Empire

The Chola dynasty were a ruling power in Andhra from 1010 to 1200. The Chola territories stretched from the islands of the Maldives in the south to the banks of the Godavari River in Andhra Pradesh.

Kakatiyas

The Kakatiya dynasty came to power in the 12th and 13th centuries CE. Initially, the Kakatiyas were feudatories of the Western Chalukyas of Kalyani. They held a small territory near Warangal.

Prola II of the Kakatiyas (1110–1158), increased the Kakatiya territory to the south and declared his independence. His successor, Rudra (1158–1195), increased the territory as far as the Godavari delta to the east. Rudra built the Warangal Fort to serve as a second capital. He countered invasions by the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri.

The next ruler, Mahadeva, extended the Kakatiyas kingdom to the coastal area. In 1199, Mahadeva was succeeded by Ganapati Deeva. Ganapati Deeva was the first ruler, beyond the Satavahanas, to unite governance of the Telugu lands and unlike the Satavahanas, the Kakatiyas were native Telugu kings who used Telugu as their court language. In 1210, Ganapati defeated the Velanati Cholas and extended his empire northwards to Anakapalle.

Rani Rudrama Devi (1262–1289), is one of the few queens of Indian history. She defended the Kakatiyas kingdom against the Cholas and the Seuna Yadavas. On her death, at the beginning of 1290, Rani's adopted grandson, Prataparudra, became king. Prataparudra's reign was frought with battles against both internal and external foes. Prataparudra did, however, expand his borders to the west to Raichur and in the south to Ongole and the Nallamala Hills. He introduced many administrative reforms, some of which were adopted in the Vijayanagar empire.

In 1310, Muslim attacks began and in 1323 the Kakatiyas dynasty fell to the Delhi Sultanate.

Musunuri Nayaks

Independence of the Telugu land from the Delhi sultanate was regained by the Musunuri Nayaks, who then ruled for fifty years. Hakka (Harihara) and Bukka, who had been treasury officers at the court of Prataparudra, drew inspiration from Musunuri Nayaks and organised Hindu opposition against the Muslim invaders.

Prataparudra was captured by Muslims invaders.[7] Two Telugus, Annaya Mantri and Kolani Rudradeva, united the Nayaks against the invaders. A Nayak from Vengi (in the modern-day West Godavari district), Musunuri Prolayanayak (Prolaaneedu), was chosen as their leader.[8][9] By 1326, Prolaneedu had liberated Warangal.[10] Inspired by the victories of Prolaneedu and his cousin Kaapaneedu, other states including Kampili, Hoysala, Dwarasamudram and Araveedu asserted their independence.

Uligh Khan captured Harihara and Bukka at Warangal. They were converted to Islam and were sent by the Sultan to suppress the rebellion of the Hoysala ruler. The brothers did not comply and established the Vijayanagara Empire. The Sultan led a large army south but was halted by epidemic illness and Nayak resistance. Kaapaneedu with assistance of the Hoysala liberated Andhra Pradesh. Kaapaya took the titles Andhradesaadheeswara and Andhrasuratraana.

In 1345, Muslim nobles rebelled against Muhammad bin Tughluq in Devagiri. This resulted in the foundation of the Bahmani Sultanate by Hasan Gangu. He assumed the name Alauddin Bahman Shah and in 1347, moved his capital to Gulbarga. Through raids and coercion, Singama of the Recherla Nayaks, destabilised Alauddin's rule. Kaapaneedu made a treaty with Alauddin and surrendered the Kaulas fort.

In 1351, Muhammad bin Tughluq died. In 1359, Alauddin died and was succeeded by Mohammed Shah. Kaapaneedu then sent his son Vinayaka Deva to liberate Kaulas and Bhuvanagiri from the Bahmanis. The Vijayanagar emperor, Bukka Raya, assisted him in this campaign. Vinayaka Deva had initial successes but was eventually defeated, captured and killed.

Kaapaneedu, persisted and captured Golconda and Warangal. In 1365, Golconda was chosen as the border between the Bahmani and Warangal kingdoms in 1365. Musunuri Kaapaaneedu was forced to pay remunerations (including a turquoise throne) to Mohammed Shah.

In 1370, Singamanayaka of Recherla marched against Warangal. Kaapaneedu died in the ensuing battle at Bhimavaram.

Reddy Dynasty

The first of the Reddy clans came into prominence during the Kakatiya period. During this time the Reddys carved out feudal principalities for themselves. After the death of Pratapa Rudra II and the subsequent fall of the Kakatiya empire, the Reddy chiefs became independent, leading to the emergence of the Reddy kingdom. The Reddys ruled from what is present day Srikakulam in the north to Kanchi in south, that is, most of the present day Andhra and Rayalaseema regions.[11][12][13][14]

The 19th-century writer Edgar Thurston in his book, Castes and Tribes of Southern India, stated that the Reddys were village chiefs and listed them under the section Kapu.[28] The village chiefs were given the title "Reddy".

The Reddy dynasty (1325–1448) ruled some parts of coastal Andhra Pradesh for over a hundred years.[11][12][13][13][14][15][16][17][18] Prolaya Vema Reddy was the first king of the Reddy dynasty.[19] The capital of the kingdom was Addanki. It was moved to Kondavidu and then later to Rajahmundry.[20] Prolaya Vema's reign was characterized by the restoration of peace, patronage of the arts and literature, and broad development. Errana, the translator of the Mahabharata, lived during this period.

Origins of the Reddys

The Rashtrakutas and Reddys may share a similar origin, from the Rattas (Rathis or Rashtrikas) who ruled the Deccan in ancient times. The Rathis ruled over small principalities on the Deccan plateau before 200 BCE. The word Rathi (or Ratti) is found in various forms, such as Reddi, Ratta, Rashtrakuta, Rahtor, and Rathaur. The Reddys left coins in northern Andhra Pradesh, in Kurnool district, and near Pune. Coins have been found in excavations in levels from the megalithic to Satavahana periods. The word Reddy is first recorded in inscriptions made during the Renati Chola period (7th century CE).

The Reddys may be an offshoot of the Rashtrakuta dynasty, a Rajput clan. After the decline of the Rashtrakuta dynasty, the ruling clan broke off and settled in two branches in North and South India. The settlers in the north were called Rathods (or Rathores) and ruled Marwar in western Rajasthan, while the southern settlers were called Reddys.

Vijayanagar Empire

The Vijayanagara Empire was founded by Harihara (Hakka) and Bukka, who either served as Treasury officers in the administration of the Kakatiya dynasty or were commanders of Hoysala's forces.

In 1323, when Warangal fell, the two brothers were captured, taken to Delhi and converted to Islam. The Delhi Sultanate sent them to the Deccan as governors of Kampili with the hope that they would be able to deal with the local revolt and invasions by neighboring Hindu kings. Their first campaign was against the neighboring Hoysala emperor, Veera Ballala III of Dwarasamudra. Later the brothers reconverted to Hinduism under the influence of the sage Vidyaranya and proclaimed their independence from the Delhi Sultanate.

This tale of conversion to Islam, wars against the Hoysalas and their reconversion to Hinduism has been rejected by some who claim the founders of the empire were Kannadigas who had been stationed in the Tungabhadra region Veera Ballala III to fight the Muslim invasion.

Harihara I (reigned 1336 to 1356 CE) established his new capital, Vijayanagar, in an easily defended position, south of the Tungabhadra River, where it came to symbolize the emerging medieval and political culture of South India.

The Vijayanagara empire reached its zenith under Emperor Krishnadevaraya in the early part of the 16th century CE. Telugu literature developed during this time. Vijayanagar monuments were built across South India, including Lepakshi, Tirupati and Shri Kalahasti in Andhra Pradesh. The largest and best known assembly of such monuments is at Hampi in modern Karnataka.

Mughal era

In 1323, the Delhi Sultan, Ghiaz-ud-din Tughlaq, sent a large army under the command of Ulugh Khan to conquer the Telugu country and lay siege to Warangal.

In 1347, after a revolt against the Delhi Sultanate, an independent Muslim state, the Bahmani Sultanate, was established in south India by Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah. By the end of the 15th century CE, the Bahmani Sultinate was plagued with fights between factions. As a result, five Shahi sultanates were founded. Of these, it was the Qutb Shahi dynasty that played a notable role in the history of the Telugu land.

The Qutb Shahi dynasty ruled the Andhra region from the early part of the 16th century CE to the end of the 17th century CE. Sultan Quli Qutb Shah, the founder of the dynasty, served the Bahmanis faithfully and in 1496 was appointed governor of Hyderabad State. In 1518, following the death of Mahmud Shah, his patron, Quli Qutb Shah declared independence.

In 1687, Aurangazeb, the Mughal emperor invaded Golconda and annexed it to his empire. He appointed a Nizam (governor). The Mughal Nizams controlled the Andhra region for the following 35 years or so. In 1707, Aurangazeb died. The Mughal regime weakened and lost control of the provinces. This enabled the East India Company of England and the Compagnie des Indes Orientales of France to consolidate their political powers in India.

Beginning of the Colonial era

In 1753, Asif ad-Dawlah Mir Ali Salabat Jang, Subedar of Deccan, made a decree which ceded to General Bussy the paragons of Chicacole, Ellore and Rajahmundry. Rs.200,000 were given annually for the maintenance of the French troops in the Subah, in recognition of their help. The revenue of the Circars amounted to 1 million Rupees per year.

Bussy had helped Salabat Jang become Subedar of Deccan. The agreement between the French and Salabat Jang in Aurangabad bears the signature of Said Loukshur, Minister of Salabat Jang. Yanam acquired considerable importance during the occupation of the Northern Circars by the French.

In 1758, the French and the English fought at Chandurti (now in Gollaprolu mandal in East Godavari district). The French were defeated by the combined armies of the British and Maharaja Ananda Gajapathi Raju II of Vizianagram. Salabat Jang made a treaty with the British and gave the Northern Circars to them under a firman.

Later, the Nizam rebelled against the English. The war ended with a second treaty and the Northern Circars remained permanently under the control of the British. After 1760, the French lost their hold in South India, especially on the Northern Circars. In 1765, Lord Robert Clive and the existing Chief and Council at Vizagapatam obtained from the Mughal emperor Shah Alam a grant of the five Circars. In 1792, the British achieved complete supremacy when they defeated the Maharaja Vijaya Rama Gajapati Raju of Vizianagaram. During the rule of Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan, the Kingdom of Mysore pursued an expansionist policy against the Marathas, the Nizam and the English and made incursions into the Rayalaseema region.

Madras Presidency

The Northern Circars became part of the British Madras Presidency. Eventually, the region became the Coastal Andhra. Later, the Nizam ceded five territories (Datta Madalālu) to the British, which became the Rayalaseema region. The Nizams retained control of the interior provinces as the Princely state of Hyderabad, acknowledging British rule in return for local autonomy. At this time the provinces were governed in a feudal manner, with Zamindars in areas such as Kulla and other parts of the Godavari acting as lords under the Nizam. The feudal or zamindari system was removed after independence.

Telugu Districts in the Madras Presidency

Zamindaris in Madras

  • Vizagapatam
  • Pemmasani clan
  • Ravella clan
  • Vasireddy rajas
  • Yarlagadda rajas
  • Balusu clan
  • Mullapudi clan
  • Adusumilli clan

Padamanayakas of Madras

Post-independence

In 1947, India gained independence from the United Kingdom. The Muslim Nizam of Hyderabad resisted, but was forced to cede his state to India in 1948 to form Hyderabad State. When India became independent, the Telugu-speaking people (although Urdu is spoken in some parts of Hyderabad and in a few other districts of Hyderabad State) were distributed in about 22 districts, 9 of them in the Hyderabad State region of the Nizam's Dominions (Hyderabad State), 12 in the Madras Presidency and one in French-controlled Yanam. In 1953, Andhra State was created from part of Madras Province and was the first state in India to be formed on a purely linguistic basis. In 1956, Andhra State was merged with the Telugu-speaking area of Hyderabad State to create Andhra Pradesh State.

Madras Manade movement

Madras was a place of both Tamil and Telugu cultures. In the early 1920s, the Chief Minister of the Madras Presidency, Panagal Raja said that the Cooum River should be kept as a boundary between Andhra and the Tamil regions. In 1928, Sir C. Sankaran Nair sent a report to the central council as to why Madras should not belong to the Tamils but it was decided that Madras would remain in the Tamil region. In 1953, Telugu speakers of the Madras Presidency sought to make Madras the capital of Andhra Pradesh state. They adopted the slogan Madras Manade (Madras is ours).

Creation of Andhra Pradesh State

The activist, Potti Sriramulu advocated for Telugu people by promoting the inclusion of the Telugu-speaking areas of Rayalaseema and Coastal Andhra in an Andhra state. He started a hunger strike which he continued until Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru promised to form Andhra state. On 19 October 1952, when the promise had not been fulfilled, Potti Sriramulu began his fasting again in Maharshi Bulusu Sambamurthy's house in Madras. Despite the disavowal of the fast by the Andhra Congress committee, Potti Sriramulu's action became widely known. He died shortly after midnight on 15 December 1952 at 126 Royapettah High Road, Mylapore, Madras. The house has been preserved as a monument.

During Potti Sriramulu's funeral procession, people shouted slogans praising his sacrifice. When the procession reached Mount Road, thousands of people joined and raised banners hailing Sriramulu. Later, they went into a frenzy and began destroying public property. The news spread quickly, creating uproar in distant places such as Vizianagaram, Visakhapatnam, Vijayawada, Eluru, Guntur, Tenali, Ongole and Nellore. Seven people were killed by police gunfire in Anakapalle and Vijayawada. The unrest continued for three or four days, disrupting normal life in Madras and Andhra regions.

On 19 December 1952, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru announced the formation of a separate state for Telugu-speaking people of the Madras Presidency. On 1 October 1953, eleven districts in the Telugu-speaking portion of Madras State (Coastal Andhra and Rayala Seema) voted to become Andhra State, with Kurnool as their capital. Andhra Kesari Tanguturi Prakasam Pantulu became first Chief Minister of the new Telugu state.

Merger of Hyderabad state and Andhra

Map of India with the Telangana region highlighted in red

In December 1953, the

  • Planning Commission Study of Andhra Pradesh's Development and Regional in balances
  • 2004 elections
  • "Valley of stupas" Photograph and text: Benoy K Behl

External links

  1. ^ "Dance Dialects of India". Ragini Devi. Motilal Bansarsi Dass.  
  2. ^ "History of Andhra Pradesh". AP Online.  
  3. ^ "Ancient and medieval history of Andhra Pradesh". P. Raghunadha Rao. Sterling Publishers, 1993. p. iv. Retrieved 2014-06-09. 
  4. ^ https://archive.org/stream/ancientindiantri032697mbp#page/n105/mode/2up
  5. ^ Megasthenes and Arrian, McKindle J. W. (ed. and trans.) Ancient India Thacker and Spink, Calcutta and Bombay, 1877, p. 30-174.
  6. ^ Buhler and Rapson
  7. ^ Somasekhara S. M. A Forgotten Chapter of Andhra History Andhra University, Waltair, 1945.
  8. ^ Prasad D. History of the Andhras up to 1565 A. D. 1988, p. 168.
  9. ^ Talbot C. Pre-colonial India in Practice Oxford University Press, 2001, pp.177-182, ISBN 0-19-513661-6.
  10. ^ Rao C. V. R. Administration and Society in Medieval Andhra (AD. 1038-1538) Manasa Publications,1976, p.36.
  11. ^ a b Eṃ Kulaśēkhararāvu (1988). A history of Telugu literature. For copies, M. Indira Devi. p. 96. Retrieved 9 July 2011. 
  12. ^ a b Government Of Madras Staff; Government of Madras (1 January 2004). Gazetteer of the Nellore District: brought upto 1938. Asian Educational Services. p. 51.  
  13. ^ a b c Gordon Mackenzie (1990). A manual of the Kistna district in the presidency of Madras. Asian Educational Services. pp. 9–.  
  14. ^ a b K. V. Narayana Rao (1973). The emergence of Andhra Pradesh. Popular Prakashan. p. 4. Retrieved 9 July 2011. 
  15. ^ Pran Nath Chopra (1982). Religions and communities of India. Vision Books. p. 136. Retrieved 4 July 2011. 
  16. ^ M. D. Muthukumaraswamy; Molly Kaushal; Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts; National Folklore Support Centre (India) (2004). Folklore, public sphere, and civil society. NFSC www.indianfolklore.org. pp. 198–.  
  17. ^ Mallampalli Somasekhara Sarma; Mallampalli Sōmaśēkharaśarma (1948). History of the Reddi kingdoms (circa. 1325 A.D. to circa 1448 A.D.). Andhra University. Retrieved 8 July 2011. 
  18. ^ Andhrula Sanghika Charitra, Suravaram Pratapa Reddy, (in Telugu)
  19. ^ A Sketch of the Dynasties of Southern India By Robert Sewell
  20. ^ Sheldon I. Pollock (2003). Literary cultures in history: reconstructions from South Asia. University of California Press. pp. 385–.  
  21. ^ "SRC submits report". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 1 October 2005. Retrieved 9 October 2011. 
  22. ^ "Pro-Telangana AP govt employees threaten agitation". The Economic Times. 10 February 2012. Retrieved 18 February 2012. 
  23. ^ Telangana Students Suicides Increase in Hyderabad http://www.politicsdaily.com/2010/02/25/telangana-protests-student-suicides-increase-in-hyderabad-durin/
  24. ^ "Telangana bill passed in Lok Sabha; Congress, BJP come together in favour of new state". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 18 February 2014. 
  25. ^ "Telangana bill passed by upper house". The Times of India. Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
  26. ^ "The Andhra Pradesh reorganisation act, 2014" (PDF). Ministry of law and justice, government of India. Retrieved 3 March 2014. 

References

Dynasties

While Telugu people were busy with the bifurcation related drama, the upper riparian state of Karnataka was awarded more Krishna water in a never before used formula for upper riparian water allocation. The KG delta oil and gas wealth has been sold off to British petroleum by the central government.

The key bifurcation parliamentary decisions were to leave Hyderabad and its revenue to Telangana. Providing Hyderabad as the joint capital for ten years, leaving Hyderabad and surrounding area law-and-order with the governor, Bhadrachalam a province of the Andhra region to be left with Telangana with land needed for irrigation project on Godavari to be transferred to the Residuary State of Andhra. Some verbal promises were made by the retiring Prime Minister of India (Dr. Manmohan Singh) to help both the new states develop after bifurcation. Allocating all assets in the ratio of the revenues from each region (with the joint capital counting as an exclusive Telangana contribution) and all liabilities assigned in the ratio of population.

The supreme court refused judicial review of the bill or the validity of the parliamentary procedures used to pass the legislation.

The passing of the bifurcation legislation by Congress(UPA)was the most acrimonious incident in the Parliament of India since independence. Seemandhra MPs are determined to stop the Telangana bill to be introduced in Parliament. An initial attempt to introduce the bill in Rajya Sabha was rejected by the speaker of Rajya Sabha - Hamid Ansari as a violation of the constitution since it had fiscal matters in it. A duly validated no-confidence motion was pending in the Lok Sabha of the parliament at the time of this legislation. Long standing parliamentary procedure requiring valid no-confidence motions receive immediate attention to avoid illegitimate governments from passing legislation was violated by the speaker Meira Kumari. The Indian Parliament descended into brawls with Seemandhra MPs in the well of the parliament to stop the bill while other MPs trying to stop them; the day ended with speaker announcing that Telangana bill was placed in the parliament, even while Lagadapati Rajagopal, a Seemandhra MP, used pepper spray in the house including on the speaker to stop the announcement; upon which entire Parliament had to be evacuated. The acrimony resulted in the suspension of all of the Andhra MPs from the parliament during the passing of the legislation. To avoid similar situation, following day, Parliament doors closed, and the broadcast of the proceedings shutdown for the speaker to declare the bill passed on a voice vote (no counting needed) .

When the President of India referred the bill to the Andhra Pradesh assembly for opinion, Chief minister Kiran Kumar Reddy and Speaker Nadendla Manohar who hail from Seemandhra used every trick to delay the procedures in assembly so that Telangana bill will be returned to President very late; knowing that last session of parliament before elections will be over by 3rd week February; hoping that Telangana bill will not pass before the elections. Finally the bill was returned on January 30, 2014 with over 300 requests for more information. It was voted down in assembly along regional lines (Seema Andhra MLAs against bifurcation, and Telangane MLAs for bifurcation). With Seemandhra's majority in Assembly the result was obvious. See more at Tealngana bill Legislative proceedings

As a part of this bifurcation agenda and in step with to local demands from a separate Telangana,the Indian parliament approved the creation of two states from Andhra Pradesh. The key figures in bringing about this new era of multiple Telugu states were Mrs. Sonia Gandhi, president of the Congress Party, Kalvakuntla Chandrashekar, president of TRS, Chandrababu Naidu, the leader of TDP, Sushma Swaraj and Venkiah Naidu for the BJP. Chandrashekar Rao was the leader of a political movement from Telangana that led the campaign to bifurcate the state. Chandrababu Naidu, Sonia Gandhi, and Sushma Swaraj led parties that approved the bifurcation of the state as part of their party agendas. Various other key political leaders, such as the chief minister of the state, Kiran Kumar Reddy, and Vijayawada, Member of Parliament Lagadapati Rajagopal publicly claimed opposition to bifurcation - inline with the views of their constituents. These two leaders specifically worked hard and were very successful in convincing the anti-bifurcation movement that they were capable of stopping the bifurcation through political means and that an agitation/bloodshed was not needed. The bifurcation was hence completed as planned without any blood shed.

Indian Parliament and the two main national parties in particular have been on a common platform of carving out more states from large states. They argue that smaller states have more accountable governance and they point to positive results from prior such bifurcations. Critics argue that instead of "devolution of power and responsibility", the stated objective, a large number of smaller states make the center stronger and unaccountable. Critics point to Prime ministers that never won a popular election, unelected Ministers from the nominated Rajya Sabha who owe their political life to party bosses instead of to the people etc., to make their point about centralization of power. The two main national parties benefit from this smaller state policy in that no coalition of regional parties can create an alternative, and politicians without any regional or electoral experience can hold on to power with inside-political-maneuvering in Delhi.

Evolution of multiple Telugu states

The state of Telangana was officially formed on 2 June 2014. [26] on 1 March 2014.The Gazette of India and was published in President The bill received the assent of the [25] On 30 July 2013, a Congress Working Committee unanimously passed a resolution to recommend the formation of a separate Telangana state. In February 2014, the bill was placed before the

Telangana (in white) and Andhra Pradesh (in yellow) after bifurcation

Bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh

Major actions aiming to revoke the merger of Telangana and Andhra occurred in 1969, 1972, and 2009.  On 9 December 2009, the Government of India announced the process of formation of the Telangana State. Public protests in the Coastal Andhra and Rayalseema regions occurred immediately after the announcement and on 23 December 2009, the decision was indefinitely deferred. The Telangana movement for statehood has continued with associated suicides, strikes and protests.[22][23]

Telangana movement

The central government led by Jawaharlal Nehru elected to merge Andhra State and Telangana to form Andhra Pradesh State on 1 November 1956 after providing safeguards to Telangana in the form of a Gentleman's agreement.

The States Reorganisation Commission (SRC) discussed the pros and cons of a merger of the Telugu speaking Telangana region of Hyderabad state with Andhra state. Paragraph 374 of the SRC report said, "The creation of Vishalandhra is an ideal to which numerous individuals and public bodies, both in Andhra and Telangana, have been passionately attached over a long period of time, and unless there are strong reasons to the contrary, this sentiment is entitled to consideration." Discussing the case of Telangana, paragraph 378 of the SRC report reads, "One of the principal causes of opposition of Vishalandhra also seems to be the apprehension felt by the educationally backward people of Telangana that they may be swamped and exploited by the more advanced people of the coastal areas." In its final analysis, the SRC recommended against the immediate merger. Paragraph 386 reads, "After taking all these factors into consideration we have come to the conclusion that it will be in the interests of Andhra as well as Telangana, if for the present, the Telangana area is to constitute into a separate State, which may be known as the Hyderabad State with provision for its unification with Andhra after the general elections likely to be held in or about 1961 if by a two thirds majority the legislature of the residuary Hyderabad State expresses itself in favor of such unification."

. Mysore state and its Kannada speaking region with Bombay state Due to public demand, the commission recommended the disintegration of Hyderabad state and the merging of its Marathi speaking region with [21]

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