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Holy Land (Biblical)

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Holy Land (Biblical)

For other uses, see Holy Land (disambiguation).

The Holy Land (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ הַקוֹדֵשׁ Eretz HaQodesh, Arabic: الأرض المقدسة Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah) is a term which in Judaism refers to the Land of Israel. Jews as well as non-Jews have traditionally referred to this area as "Palestine", as in the 1759 map (attached) which calls it "The Holy Land, or Palestine ... (with) the Ancient Kingdoms of Judah and Israel in which the 12 Tribes have been distinguished"

The term is also used by Muslims and Christians to refer to the area between the Jordan River and Mediterranean Sea i.e. it includes modern Palestine as well as Israel.

Part of the significance of the land stems from the religious significance of Jerusalem, the holiest city to Judaism, the assumed place of Jesus's ministry, and the Isra and Mi'raj event in Islam. The perceived holiness of the land to Christianity was part of the motivation for the Crusades, as European Christians sought to win the Holy Land back from the Muslim Suljuq Turks. They had taken it over after defeating the Muslim Arabs, who had in turn taken control from the Christian Byzantine Empire.

Many sites in the Holy Land have long been pilgrimage destinations for adherents of the Abrahamic religions, including Jews, Christians, Muslims, and Bahá'ís. Pilgrims visit the Holy Land to touch and see physical manifestations of their faith, confirm their beliefs in the holy context with collective excitation, and connect personally to the Holy Land.[1]

Judaism

The Land of Israel is explicitly referred in the Jewish diaspora.

According to Eliezer Schweid:

"The uniqueness of the Land of Israel is...'geo-theological' and not merely climatic. This is the land which faces the entrance of the spiritual world, that sphere of existence that lies beyond the physical world known to us through our senses. This is the key to the land's unique status with regard to prophecy and prayer, and also with regard to the commandments"[3]

"Four Holy Cities" in Israel: Jerusalem, Hebron, Tzfat and Tiberias, are regarded as Judaism's holiest cities. Jerusalem, as the site of the Temple, is considered especially significant.[4] According to Jewish tradition, Jerusalem is Mount Moriah, the location of the binding of Isaac. Jerusalem is mentioned 669 times in the Hebrew Bible, in part because many mitzvot can only be performed within its environs. Zion, which usually refers to Jerusalem, but sometimes the Land of Israel, appears in the Hebrew Bible 154 times.

Christianity


For Christians, the Land of Israel is considered holy because of its association with the birth, ministry, crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth, whom Christians regard as the Savior or Messiah, and because it is the land of his people, the Jews (according to the Bible). Christian books, including editions of the Bible, often had maps of the Holy Land (considered to be Galilee, Samaria, Judea. For instance, the Itinerarium Sacrae Scripturae (Travel book through Holy Scripture) of Heinrich Bünting (1545-1606), a German Protestant pastor, featured such a map.[5] His book was very popular, and it provided "the most complete available summary of biblical geography and described the geography of the Holy Land by tracing the travels of major figures from the Old and New testaments."[5]

As a distinct geographic area, the description "Holy Land" encompasses modern-day Israel, the Palestinian territories, Jordan and sometimes Syria.

Islam

In the Qur'an, the term الأرض المقدسة (Al-Ard Al-Muqaddasah, English: "Holy Land") is mentioned at least seven times, once when Surah 5:21)

Jerusalem (referred to as Al-Quds, meaning the "Holy") has particular significance in Islam. The Qur'an refers to Muhammad's experiencing the Isra and Mi'raj as "a Journey by night from the Sacred (Mecca) Mosque to the Farthest (al-Aqsa) Mosque, whose precincts We did bless" (17:1). Ahadith associate the "Farthest Mosque" as Al-Quds; for example, as narrated by Abu Huraira: "On the night journey of Allah's Apostle, two cups, one containing wine and the other containing milk, were presented to him at Al-Quds (Jerusalem). He looked at them and took the cup of milk. Angel Gabriel said, "Praise be to Allah, who guided you to Al-Fitrah (the right path); if you had taken (the cup of) wine, your Ummah would have gone astray". However, much modern scholarship argues that the 'Farthest Mosque' (al-Masjid al-Aqsa) was a building or prayer site just outside Medina. The present mosque of that name had not been built in Muhammad's day, nor does the Qur'an contain any reference to Jerusalem, apart from the reference to the change of the qibla from Jerusalem to Mecca. Jerusalem was Islam's first Qibla (direction of prayer), however, this was later changed to the Kaaba in Mecca following a revelation to the Prophet Muhammad by the Archangel Gabriel, by which it is understood by scholars that it was in answer to the rejection by the Jews of Muhammed's prophetship.

The exact region referred to as "Blessed Land" in the Qur'an verse [21:71] has been interpreted differently by various scholars: Abdullah Yusuf Ali likens it to a wide land range including, Syria, Palestine and the cities of Tyre and Sidon; Az-Zujaj describes it as, "Damascus, Palestine, and a bit of Jordan"; Qatada claims it to be, "the Levant"; Muadh ibn Jabal as, "the area between al-Arish and the Euphrates"; and Ibn Abbas as, "the land of Jericho".[6] The references to 'Palestine' here, instead of Syria, are achronological.

See also

Template:World Heritage Encyclopedia-Books

References

External links

  • American Travelers to the Holy Land in the 19th Century Shapell Manuscript Foundation
  • "Description of the Holy Land", 1585 map depicting the Holy Land at the time of Jesus, World Digital Library

Template:Characters and names in the Quran

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