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Hungarian diaspora

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Hungarian diaspora

Areas with ethnic Hungarian majorities in the neighboring countries of Hungary, according to László Sebők.[1]

Hungarian diaspora (Magyar diaspora) is a term that encompasses the total ethnic Hungarian population located outside of current-day Hungary.

There are two main groups of the diaspora. In the first one are those, who are autochthonous to their homeland, and live outside Hungary since the border changes of the post-World War I Treaty of Trianon of 1920.[note 1] The victorious forces redrew the borders of Hungary so that it runs through Hungarian majority areas. As a consequence, 3.3 million Hungarians found themselves outside the new borders. These Hungarians are usually not counted into the term "Hungarian diaspora", regardless, they are listed in this article. The other main group are the emigrants, who left Hungary at various times (e.g., the Hungarian Revolution of 1956). There has been some emigration since Hungary joined the EU, especially to countries such as Germany,[2] although this has not been as drastic as for certain other Eastern European countries like Poland or Romania.

Distribution by country

Country Hungarian population Note Article
Neighbor countries of Hungary
Romania 1,227,623 (2011)[3] (not including Csángós[4]) Autochthonous in Transylvania,[5] Csángó people in Moldavia Hungarians in Romania
Slovakia 458,467 (2011)[6] Autochthonous[7] Hungarians in Slovakia
Serbia 253,899 (2011)[8] Autochthonous in Vojvodina Hungarians in Vojvodina
Ukraine 156,600 (2001) Autochthonous in Zakarpattia Oblast Hungarians in Ukraine
Austria 55,038 (2014)[9] Autochthonous in Burgenland Hungarians in Austria
Croatia 14,048 (2011)[10] Autochthonous in Croatia, except Istria and Dalmatia. Hungarians of Croatia
Slovenia 6,243 (2001) Autochthonous in Eastern Slovenia Hungarian Slovenes
Other countries
USA 1,563,081 (2006)[11] Immigrants Hungarian American
Canada 315,510 (2006)[12] Immigrants Hungarian Canadians
Israel 200,000 to 250,000 (2000s) Most immigrants are Hungarian Jews
Germany 120,000 (2004)[13] Immigrants Hungarians in Germany
France 100,000 to 200,000 (2000s)[14] Immigrants Hungarians in France
United Kingdom 52,250 (2011) [15] [16] [17] Immigrants Hungarians in the United Kingdom
Brazil 80,000 (2002)[18] Immigrants Hungarian Brazilian
Russia 76,500 (2002) Immigrants
Australia 67,616(2006)[19] Immigrants Hungarian Australian
Chile 50,000 (2012)[20] Immigrants Hungarians in Chile
Argentina 40,000 to 50,000 (2000s) Immigrants Hungarians in Argentina
Switzerland 20,000 to 25,000 (2000s) Immigrants
Sweden 16,193 (2014)[21] Immigrants
Czech Republic 14,672 (2001) Immigrants
Turkey 6,800 (2001) Immigrants
Ireland 3,328 (2006)[22] Immigrants
Poland 1,728 (2011)[23] Immigrants
New Zealand 1,476 (2006) Immigrants Hungarian New Zealander
TOTAL 4.9 - 5.1 million

Hungarian immigration patterns to Western Europe increased in the 1990s and especially since 2004, after Hungary's admission in the European Union. Thousands of Hungarians from Hungary sought available work through guest-worker contracts in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Finland, Sweden, Spain and Portugal.

Hungarian citizenship

A proposal supported by the [25]

In 2010 some amendments were passed in Hungarian law facilitating an accelerated naturalization process for ethnic Hungarians living abroad; among other changes, the residency-in-Hungary requirement was waved.[26] Between 2011 and 2012, 200,000 applicants took advantage of the new, accelerated naturalization process;[27] there were another 100,000 applications pending in the summer of 2012.[28] As of February 2013, the Hungarian government has granted almost 400,000 citizenships to Hungarians ‘beyond the borders’.[29] In June 2013, Deputy Prime Minister Zsolt Semjén announced that he expects the number to reach about half a million by the end of the year.[30]

The citizenship new law, which took effect on 1 January 2011, did not grant however the right to vote, even in national elections, to Hungarian citizens unless they also reside in Hungary on a permanent basis.[31] A month later however, the Fidesz government announced that it intended to grant the right to vote to its new citizens.[32] In 2014, the Hungarian citizens from abroad are able to participate in the parliamentary elections without Hungarian residency, however they can not vote for a candidate running for the seat in the single-seat constituency but for a party list.

In May 2010, Slovakia announced it would strip Slovak citizenship from anyone applying for the Hungarian one.[33] Romania's President Traian Băsescu declared in October 2010 that "We have no objections to the adoption by the Hungarian government and parliament of a law making it easier to grant Hungarian citizenship to ethnic Hungarians living abroad."[34]

Famous people of Hungarian descent

Country Name Occupation Source
List is sorted alphabetically.
Austria Ferenc Anisits Engineer
United States Albert-László Barabási Scientist scale-free networks
United States Drew Barrymore entertainer/actress [35]
Austria Béla Barényi Inventor: Most patents in Europe +2500
Germany Josef von Baky Filmdirector
United States Béla Bartók Composer
United States Zoltán Bay Scientist
United States György von Békésy Scientist-Nobel Prize winner
United States Pal Benko Chessplayer-Most US master ever
United States Adrien Brody entertainer/actor: Youngest ever AA winner in his category [36]
United States György Buzsáki[37] Scientist-"Brain Prize" winner (1st time)
United States Mihály Csíkszentmihályi Scientist: Concept: Flow (psychology)
United States Tony Curtis entertainer/actor [38]
France György Cziffra Pianist
United States Louis C.K. entertainer/comedian [39]
United States Rodney Dangerfield entertainer/comedian [40]
United States Frank Darabont Film-director/screenplaywriter (Shawshank Redemption: IMDb No. 1)
United States Ernst von Dohnanyi Composer/pianist/conductor
United States Bobby Fischer (Neményi) Chessplayer
Germany Ferenc Fricsay Conductor
United Kingdom Stephen Fry entertainer/comedian [41]
United States Zsa Zsa Gabor entertainer/actress [42]
United States Andrew Grove business/entrepreneur
United States Peter Carl Goldmark scientist/inventor
United States Mickey Hargitay artist/bodybuilder
United States Harry Houdini magician
Sweden
Germany
George de Hevesy scientist/inventor [43]
United States John George Kemeny scientist/inventor [44]
United States Laszlo B. Kish Scientist
Austria Ferenc Krausz Scientist
Belgium Alexandre Lamfalussy Economist
Germany Phillipp Lenard Scientist-Nobel Prize winner
United States Bela Lugosi Actor-"Dracula"
United States Ilona Massey Actress
United States Paul Nemenyi scientist/mathematician [45]
United States John von Neumann mathematician Father of the Computer. [46][47]
United States Thomas Peterffy engineer/NASDAQ-founder
United States Joaquin Phoenix entertainer/actor [48]
United States Joseph Pulitzer journalist [49]
Great Britain Árpád Pusztai Scientist Leader on plant lecitins.
Slovakia Ľudovít Rajter Conductor
Austria Franz Schmidt Composer
United States Monica Seles Tennis player
United States Gene Simmons entertainer/musician [50]
United States Jerry Seinfeld entertainer/comedian [50]
France Nicolas Sarkozy 23rd President of the French Republic [51]
Canada Hans Selye Scientist
United States Charles Simonyi Scientist
United Kingdom Péter Somogyi [52] Scientist (1st "Brain" Prize)
United States Victor Szebehely Scientist
United States Albert Szent-Györgyi Scientist-Nobel Prize winner
United States Maria Telkes Scientist
Great Britain Kálmán Tihanyi Scientist/Inventor Television
France Victor Vasarely Artist-Founder of OP-art
United States Gabriel von Wayditch Composer: 14 Grand operas, the longest ever
Germany Richárd Zsigmondy Scientist-Nobel Prize winner
United States Leó Szilárd scientist/inventor "Father of A-bomb" [53]
United States Edward Teller scientist/inventor "Father of H-bomb" [54]

Gallery

See also

Notes

  1. ^ During World War II, some areas were regained by Hungary, but lost with the 1947 Treaty of Paris

References

  1. ^ Sebők László's ethnic map of Central and Southeastern Europe
  2. ^ See page 21 of this report: [1]
  3. ^ 2011 Romanian census
  4. ^ 1,370 persons declared themselves Csángós at the 2002 Romanian census. Some estimates of the Csángó population run higher. For instance, the Council of Europe suggests a figure as high as 260,000.
  5. ^
  6. ^ Slovak census 2011
  7. ^
  8. ^ Serbian Census 2011
  9. ^ [2]
  10. ^
  11. ^ 2006 Community Survey
  12. ^ Canadian Census 2006
  13. ^ Hungarians in Germany
  14. ^ Hungarians in France
  15. ^
  16. ^
  17. ^
  18. ^ Hungarians in Brazil
  19. ^ Estimation 2002 Hungarian-Australians according to national census 2006, Australia.
  20. ^ Hungarian Immigration in Latin America
  21. ^ Statistics Sweden
  22. ^ Irish census 2006
  23. ^ Ludność. Stan i struktura demograficzno-społeczna. Narodowy Spis Ludności i Mieszkań 2011 (National Census of Population and Housing 2011). GUS. 2013. p. 264.
  24. ^
  25. ^
  26. ^ Mária M. Kovács, Judit Tóth, Country report: Hungary, Revised and updated April 2013, EUDO Citizenship Observatory, page 1 and 7
  27. ^ Mária M. Kovács, Judit Tóth, Country report: Hungary, Revised and updated April 2013, EUDO Citizenship Observatory, page 11
  28. ^ Mária M. Kovács, Judit Tóth, Country report: Hungary, Revised and updated April 2013, EUDO Citizenship Observatory, page 18
  29. ^ Hungary and Romania. Flag wars, 21 Feb 2013, The Economist
  30. ^ Open wound. Trianon remembered 93 years on, Budapest Times, 12 June 2013
  31. ^ New double citizenship law does not change voting rights, EUobserver, 28.05.2010
  32. ^ Dual citizenship at its logical conclusion. Policy Solutions’ analysis: A vote for lost Hungarians is a vote for the right, Budapest Times, 7 February 2011
  33. ^ Slovaks retaliate over Hungarian citizenship law, BBC, 26 May 2010
  34. ^ Romania backs Hungarian citizenship law, 18 October 2010, AFP text syndicated to eubusiness.com.
  35. ^ her mother is a Hungarian immigrant.[3] "She is half Hungarian on her mother's side" [4] "Drews Mother - Jaid Barrymore (nee Ildiko Jaid Mako) [was] Born on 8 May 1946 in Brannenburg, West Germany in a camp for displaced persons. Jaids parents (Drew's grandparents) were Hungarian."
  36. ^
  37. ^ http://www.thebrainprize.org/flx/prize_winners/prize_winners_2011/biography_gyoergy_buzs_ki/
  38. ^ [5] [6] "Born Bernard Schwartz in 1925 to Jewish-Hungarian parents, Curtis grew up in New York’s matinee movie-palaces..."
  39. ^
  40. ^ by Rodney DangerfieldRodney Dangerfield: A Lifetime of No Respect but Plenty of Sex and Drugs "The whole family had come to America from Hungary when my mother was four. My mother's father--my grandfather--was almost never referred to in that house. Rumor has it he's still in Hungary--and still drinking."
  41. ^
  42. ^ [7] "Zsa Zsa Gabor born, Budapest Hungary. Though some sources say 1918, 1919, or 1920. 1936 Elected Miss Hungary."
  43. ^ George de Hevesy: life and work : a biography, Hilde Levi, A. Hilger, 1985
  44. ^
  45. ^
  46. ^ Doran, p. 1
  47. ^ Nathan Myhrvold, "John von Neumann". Time, March 21, 1999. Accessed September 5, 2010
  48. ^
  49. ^ András Csillag, "Joseph Pulitzer's Roots in Europe: A Genealogical History," American Jewish Archives, Jan 1987, Vol. 39 Issue 1, pp 49–68
  50. ^ a b Biography. GeneSimmons.com. Retrieved on February 1, 2011.
  51. ^ her father was a Hungarian immigrant
  52. ^ http://www.thebrainprize.org/flx/prize_winners/prize_winners_2011/biography_peter_somogyi/
  53. ^
  54. ^ Video in which Teller recalls his earliest memories.
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