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Illawarra

Illawarra
New South Wales
Sunset over Lake Illawarra.
Coordinates
Population 456,724 (2011 census)
LGA(s) Kiama, Shellharbour, Wingecarribee, Wollongong
State electorate(s) Wollongong, Kiera, Shellharbour, Heathcote, Kiama
Federal Division(s) Cunningham, Throsby, Gilmore
Localities around Illawarra:
Macarthur Southern Sydney Tasman Sea
Southern Highlands Illawarra Tasman Sea
Southern Tablelands South Coast Tasman Sea
Lookout from the Illawarra Escarpment above Wombarra over the northern Illawarra plain viewing Austinmer, Thirroul, Bulli, Wollongong up to Port Kembla in the far.

Illawarra is a region in the Australian state of New South Wales. It is a coastal region situated immediately south of Sydney and north of the Shoalhaven or South Coast region. It encompasses the cities of Wollongong, Shellharbour, the town of Kiama and the shire of Wingecarribee.

The Illawarra region is characterised by three distinct districts: the north-central district, which is a contiguous urban sprawl centred on Lake Illawarra; the western district defined by the Illawarra escarpment, which leads up to the south-west fringe of Greater Metropolitan Sydney including the Macarthur and Southern Highlands regions; and the southern district, which is historically semi-rural (area undefined), yet now defined by increasing urbanisation.

Contents

  • Geography 1
  • Etymology 2
  • Government administration 3
  • Illawarra cattle 4
  • Coal Mining 5
  • Sport 6
    • Rugby League 6.1
    • Basketball 6.2
    • Soccer 6.3
    • Rugby union 6.4
    • Cricket 6.5
    • Sambo 6.6
  • See also 7
  • References 8
  • External links 9

Geography

Illawarra Escarpment above Austinmer, showing Hawkesbury sandstone, Rainforest and Eucalyptus forest.
A section of the Illawarra coastline, circa 1900

The region consists of a coastal plain, narrow in the north and wider in the south, bounded by the Tasman Sea on the east and the mountainous, almost impassable Illawarra escarpment (forming the eastern edge of the Southern Highlands plateau) to the west. In the middle of the region is Lake Illawarra, a shallow lake formed when sediment built up at the entrance to a bay. The district extends from the southern hills of the Royal National Park in the north to the Shoalhaven River in the south, and contains the city of Wollongong, the third-largest urban area in New South Wales. North of Wollongong the plain narrows to a small strip of land between the coast and the escarpment. At Coalcliff and Stanwell Park small valleys are formed allowing further settlement. To the south it widens, and becomes increasingly hillier before reaching Stockyard Mountain, a long divide between the main plain and the Jamberoo Valley, which stretches until it reaches Kiama. South of Kiama is Saddleback Mountain and south of that the Shoalhaven plains and the outcrop of Coolangatta Mountain.

The main industries in the area have traditionally been farming, coal mining and steel making. Australia's largest steel-works, BlueScope Steel, operates at Port Kembla. The area, especially around Port Kembla and Wollongong, was once known for its mainly industrial jobs, but since the 1990s commerce has played an increasing role in the city, overtaking industry in many areas.

The Illawarra region is linked to Sydney by several passes and a motorway (Southern Freeway) and electric railway (see Illawarra railway line); to the west by the Illawarra Highway and Picton Road; and to the south by the Princes Highway. At Albion Park Rail the Illawarra Regional Airport serves the region.

Etymology

The word "illawarra" is derived from the Matthew Flinders were the first Europeans to visit the area, with Flinders recording that it 'was called "Allowrie" by the natives'.[1]

For the period around 1806, the region was called "Five Islands"; referring to the group of five islands off Red Point.[1][3] In 1817 Governor Macquarie, referring to region, wrote: 'part of the coast known generally by the name of the Five Islands, but called by the natives "Illawarra".[1]

Government administration

For the purposes of Australian federal elections for the House of Representatives, the Illawarra region is contained within the electoral Divisions of Cunningham, Throsby and Gilmore.[4][5][6]

For the purposes of New South Wales elections for the NSW Legislative Assembly, the Illawarra region is contained within the electoral Districts of Wollongong, Kiera, Shellharbour, Heathcote, and Kiama.

For the purposes of local government administration, the Illawarra region is contained within the cities of Wollongong, Shellharbour and Shoalhaven, the Municipality of Kiama, and the Wingecarribee Shire.

  • The City of Wollongong forms the northernmost boundary, ranging from Helensburgh to Lake Illawarra, with northernmost coastal suburb Helensburgh and southernmost suburbs including Windang, Yallah and Haywards Bay.
  • The City of Shellharbour is south of Wollongong City, and ranges from Albion Park Rail in the north, west to Macquarie Pass near the escarpment, south to Dunmore near the Minnamurra River, and bordered on the east by ocean stretching from Lake Illawarra, Warilla, Barrack Point and Shellharbour.
  • The Municipality of Kiama is south of Shellharbour City, and ranges from the Minnamurra River, west to Bald Hill, and south to about 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) south of Gerroa.
  • The City of Shoalhaven is south of Kiama Municipality, and covers the southernmost reaches of the Illawarra to Ulladulla.
  • The Wingecarribee Shire covers the western most reaches of the Illawarrra, and further on becomes part of the Southern Highlands region.

Illawarra cattle

Illawarra cattle were originally bred in Illawarra and are now Australia's 3rd largest breed in population. They are large Dark red cows sometimes with white patches. They produce large amounts of high butter fat and high protein milk and are really durable and suited to the Australian climate.[7]

Coal Mining

Coal Mining has been a key part to the Illawarra's economy for over 200 years

Sport

Rugby League

The WIN Stadium in Wollongong. The Illawarra Steelers still field teams in the lower rugby league divisions.

Many famous footballers, such as Bob Fulton, Graeme Langlands, Mick Cronin, Rod Wishart, Paul McGregor, Craig Fitzgibbon, Luke Bailey, Steve Roach, Garry Jack, Warren Ryan, and the Stewart brothers Brett and Glenn, have come from the Illawarra region.

Basketball

The Illawarra Hawks have represented the region (previously known as the Woollongong Hawks) since the foundation year of the NBL, 1979. They won the NBL championship in 2001 defeating the Townsville Crocs 2-1 in the best of 3 finals. They also finished as runners-up in 2005 and 2010 seasons.

Soccer

The Wollongong Community Football Club. The Wolves have continued to play in the New South Wales Premier League.

Rugby union

The Illawarriors are a Rugby Union club that have contested the Shute Shield since 2007.

Cricket

Cricket has also been played in the Illawarra for at least one hundred and fifty years with the Keira Cricket Club founded in 1862.

Sambo

As of 2012 and 2014 the clubs Highland Sambo, based in Mittagong, and Southern Sambo, based in Woonona, have fielded athletes at the World Sambo Wrestling Championships.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d  
  2. ^ a b "Illawarra Range". Geographical Names Register (GNR) of NSW.  
  3. ^ "Northern Illawarra". NorthernIllawarra.com.au. Retrieved 22 March 2007. 
  4. ^ "Profile of the electoral division of Cunningham (NSW)". Current federal electoral divisions.  
  5. ^ "Profile of the electoral division of Throsby (NSW)". Current federal electoral divisions.  
  6. ^ "Profile of the electoral division of Gilmore (NSW)". Current federal electoral divisions.  
  7. ^ "Information about Illawarra Cattle". Illawarras Australia. 2012. Retrieved 29 December 2013. 

http://www.illawarramercury.com.au/story/2303386/gloomy-times-for-mining-in-the-illawarra/

External links

  • "Satellite and Aerial Video of the Illawarra and Wollongong"
  • "Northern Illawarra Chamber of Commerce"
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