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Illicium verum

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Title: Illicium verum  
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Subject: Illicium, Austrobaileyales, Anise, Lạng Sơn Province, Cayenne pepper
Collection: Austrobaileyales, Indian Spices, Medicinal Plants of Asia, Non-Timber Forest Products, Spices, Trees of China, Trees of Vietnam
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Illicium verum

Illicium verum
Star anise fruits and seeds
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
Order: Austrobaileyales
Family: Schisandraceae
Genus: Illicium
Species: I. verum
Binomial name
Illicium verum
Hook.f.
Synonyms[1]
  • Illicium san-ki Perr.

Illicium verum is a medium-sized native evergreen tree of northeast Vietnam and southwest China. A spice commonly called star anise, star anise seed, or Chinese star anise that closely resembles anise in flavor is obtained from the star-shaped pericarp of the fruit of Illicium velum which are harvested just before ripening. Star anise oil is a highly fragrant oil used in cooking, perfumery, soaps, toothpastes, mouthwashes, and skin creams. About 90% of the world's star anise crop is used for extraction of shikimic acid, a chemical intermediate used in the synthesis of oseltamivir.

Contents

  • Nomenclature 1
  • Use 2
    • Culinary use 2.1
    • Medicinal use 2.2
  • Standardization of its products and services 3
    • Identification 3.1
    • Differentiation with other species 3.2
    • Specifications 3.3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
    • External links 5.1

Nomenclature

Illicium comes from the from Latin illicio meaning "entice". In Persian, star anise is called بادیان bādiyān, hence its French name badiane. In India, it is called badian or phoolchakri and in Pakistan, it is called badian.

Use

Culinary use

Reverse side of fruit
Plate from François-Pierre Chaumeton's 1833 Flore Medicale

Star anise contains anethole, the same ingredient that gives the unrelated anise its flavor. Recently, star anise has come into use in the West as a less expensive substitute for anise in baking, as well as in liquor production, most distinctively in the production of the liquor Galliano. It is also used in the production of sambuca, pastis, and many types of absinthe. Star anise enhances the flavour of meat.[2] It is used as a spice in preparation of biryani and masala chai all over the Indian subcontinent. It is widely used in Chinese cuisine, and in Indian cuisine where it is a major component of garam masala, and in Malay and Indonesian cuisines. It is widely grown for commercial use in China, India, and most other countries in Asia. Star anise is an ingredient of the traditional five-spice powder of Chinese cooking. It is also a major ingredient in the making of phở, a Vietnamese noodle soup.It is also used in the French recipe of mulled wine : called vin chaud (hot wine).

Medicinal use

Star anise is the major source of the chemical compound shikimic acid, a primary precursor in the pharmaceutical synthesis of anti-

  • ITIS 505892
  • US FDA Advisory on star anise "teas"
  • Fooducation:Star Anise

External links

  1. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved 3 September 2015. 
  2. ^ "Spaghetti Bolognese".  
  3. ^ Wang, G. W.; Hu, W. T.; Huang, B. K.; Qin, L. P. (2011). "Illicium verum: A review on its botany, traditional use, chemistry and pharmacology". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 136 (1): 10–20.  
  4. ^ Bradley, D. . (Dec 2005). "Star role for bacteria in controlling flu pandemic?". Nature reviews. Drug discovery 4 (12): 945–946.  
  5. ^ Krämer, M.; Bongaerts, J.; Bovenberg, R.; Kremer, S.; Müller, U.; Orf, S.; Wubbolts, M.; Raeven, L. (2003). "Metabolic engineering for microbial production of shikimic acid". Metabolic Engineering 5 (4): 277–283.  
  6. ^ Johansson, L.; Lindskog, A.; Silfversparre, G.; Cimander, C.; Nielsen, K. F.; Lidén, G. (Dec 2005). "Shikimic acid production by a modified strain of E. Coli (W3110.shik1) under phosphate-limited and carbon-limited conditions". Biotechnology and Bioengineering 92 (5): 541–552.  
  7. ^ Louisa Lim (18 May 2009). "Swine Flu Bumps Up Price Of Chinese Spice".  
  8. ^ Perret, C.; Tabin, R.; Marcoz, J. -P.; Llor, J.; Cheseaux, J. -J. (2011). "Malaise du nourrisson pensez à une intoxication à l'anis étoilé". Archives de Pédiatrie 18 (7): 750–753.   ("Apparent life-threatening event in infants: think about star anise intoxication!")
  9. ^  
  10. ^ Joshi, Vaishali C.; Ragone, S; Bruck, IS; Bernstein, JN; Duchowny, M; Peña, BM (2005). Linn. by fluorescent microscopy and gas chromatography"Illicium anisatum Hook. f. and its adulterant Illicium verum"Rapid and easy identification of . Journal of AOAC International (AOAC International) 88 (3): 703–706.  
  11. ^ Lederer, Ines; Schulzki, G; Gross, J; Steffen, JP (2006). "Combination of TLC and HPLC-MS/MS methods. Approach to a rational quality control of Chinese star anise". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (American Chemical Society) 54 (6): 1970–1974.  
  12. ^  
  13. ^ 供销总杜南京野生植物综合利用研究院. "GB/T 7652-2006 八角". Retrieved 8 June 2009. 

References

See also

  • ISO 11178:1995 - a specification for its dried fruits[12]
  • GB/T 7652:2006 - a Chinese standard of the product[13]

Specifications

Joshi et al. have used fluorescent microscopy and gas chromatography[10] to distinguish the species, while Lederer et al. employed thin layer chromatography with HPLC-MS/MS.[11]

Differentiation with other species

Identification

  • ISO 676:1995 - contains the information about the nomenclature of the variety and cultivars[9]

Standardization of its products and services

anisatin, neoanisatin, and pseudoanisatin, which are noncompetitive antagonists of GABA receptors.[8]

In traditional Chinese medicine, star anise is considered a warm and moving herb, and used to assist in relieving cold-stagnation in the middle jiao.

Star anise is grown in four provinces in China and harvested between March and May. It is also found in the south of New South Wales. The shikimic acid is extracted from the seeds in a 10-stage manufacturing process which takes a year.

[7] led to another series of shortages, as stocks of Tamiflu were built up around the world, sending prices soaring.2009 swine flu outbreak bacteria. The E. coli now derives some of the raw material it needs from fermentation by Roche [6][5][4]

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