World Library  

Language

More than 700 living languages are spoken in Indonesia.[180] Most belong to the Austronesian language family, with a few Papuan languages also spoken. The official language is Indonesian (locally known as Bahasa Indonesia), a variant of Malay,[181] which was used in the archipelago, — borrowing heavily from local languages of Indonesia such as Javanese, Sundanese, Minangkabau, etc. The Indonesian language is primarily used in commerce, administration, education and the media, but most Indonesians speak other languages, such as Javanese, as their first language.[180]

Culture

Wayang Kulit (shadow puppet) in Wayang Purwa type, depicting five Pandava, from left to right: Bhima, Arjuna, Yudhishtira, Nakula, and Sahadeva, Indonesia Museum, Jakarta.

Indonesia has about 300 ethnic groups, each with cultural identities developed over centuries, and influenced by Indian, Arabic, Chinese, and European sources. Traditional Javanese and Balinese dances, for example, contain aspects of Hindu culture and mythology, as do wayang kulit (shadow puppet) performances. Textiles such as batik, ikat, ulos and songket are created across Indonesia in styles that vary by region. The most dominant influences on Indonesian architecture have traditionally been Indian; however, Chinese, Arab, and European architectural influences have been significant.

Sports in Indonesia are generally male-orientated and spectator sports are often associated with illegal gambling.[182] The most popular sports are badminton and football. Indonesian players have won the Thomas Cup (the world team championship of men's badminton) thirteen of the twenty-six times that it has been held since 1949, as well as numerous Olympic medals since the sport gained full Olympic status in 1992. Its women have won the Uber Cup, the female equivalent of the Thomas Cup, twice, in 1994 and 1996. Liga Indonesia is the country's premier football club league. Traditional sports include sepak takraw, and bull racing in Madura. In areas with a history of tribal warfare, mock fighting contests are held, such as caci in Flores and pasola in Sumba. Pencak Silat is an Indonesian martial art.

A selection of Indonesian food, including ikan bakar (roasted fish), ayam goreng (fried chicken), nasi timbel (rice wrapped in banana leaf), sambal, fried tempeh and tofu, and sayur asem.

Indonesian cuisine varies by region and is based on Chinese, European, Middle Eastern, and Indian precedents.[183] Rice is the main staple food and is served with side dishes of meat and vegetables. Spices (notably chili), coconut milk, fish and chicken are fundamental ingredients.[184] Indonesian traditional music includes gamelan and keroncong. The Indonesian film industry's popularity peaked in the 1980s and dominated cinemas in Indonesia,[185] although it declined significantly in the early 1990s.[186] Between 2000 and 2005, the number of Indonesian films released each year has steadily increased.[185]

The oldest evidence of writing in Indonesia is a series of Sanskrit inscriptions dated to the 5th century. Important figures in modern Indonesian literature include: Dutch author Multatuli, who criticized treatment of the Indonesians under Dutch colonial rule; Sumatrans Muhammad Yamin and Hamka, who were influential pre-independence nationalist writers and politicians;[187] and proletarian writer Pramoedya Ananta Toer, Indonesia's most famous novelist.[188][189] Many of Indonesia's peoples have strongly rooted oral traditions, which help to define and preserve their cultural identities.[190]

Media freedom in Indonesia increased considerably after the end of President Suharto's rule, during which the now-defunct Ministry of Information monitored and controlled domestic media, and restricted foreign media.[191] The TV market includes ten national commercial networks, and provincial networks that compete with public TVRI. Private radio stations carry their own news bulletins and foreign broadcasters supply programs. At a reported 25 million users in 2008,[192] Internet usage was estimated at 12.5% in September 2009.[193] More than 30 million cell phones are sold in Indonesia each year, and 27% of them are local brands.[194]

See also

Notes

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  16. ^ Brown, Colin (2003). A short history of Indonesia: the unlikely nation?. Allen & Unwin. p. 13.  
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  20. ^ "The Great Human Migration". Smithsonian. July 2008. p. 2. 
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  23. ^ Taylor, pp. 8–9
  24. ^ Taylor, pp. 15–18
  25. ^ Taylor, pp. 3, 9–11, 13–5, 18–20, 22–3
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  31. ^ Ricklefs, pp. 3–14
  32. ^ Ricklefs (1991), pp. 12–14
  33. ^ Ricklefs (1991), pp. 22–24
  34. ^ Ricklefs, p. 24
  35. ^ Dutch troops were constantly engaged in quelling rebellions both on and off Java. The influence of local leaders such as  
  36. ^ a b Ricklefs
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  39. ^ Cited in: Dower, John W. War Without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War (1986; Pantheon; ISBN 0-394-75172-8)
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  42. ^ Taylor, p. 325
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  47. ^ Friend, pp. 107–109
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  49. ^ Ricklefs, pp. 280–283, 284, 287–290
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  69. ^ Reforms include total control of statutes production without executive branch interventions; all members are now elected (reserved seats for military representatives have now been removed); and the introduction of fundamental rights exclusive to the DPR. (see Harijanti and Lindsey 2006)
  70. ^ Based on the 2001 constitution amendment, the DPD comprises four popularly elected  
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  74. ^ Indonesia temporarily withdrew from the UN on 20 January 1965 in response to the fact that Malaysia was elected as a non-permanent member of the Security Council. It announced its intention to "resume full cooperation with the United Nations and to resume participation in its activities" on 19 September 1966, and was invited to re-join the UN on 28 September 1966.
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  87. ^ Part of the autonomy package was the introduction of the Papuan People's Council, which was tasked with arbitration and speaking on behalf of Papuan tribal customs. However, the implementation of the autonomy measures has been criticized as half-hearted and incomplete. Dursin, Richel; Kafil Yamin (18 November 2004). "Another Fine Mess in Papua". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 5 October 2006. 
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  101. ^ "Globalis-Indonesia". Globalis, an interactive world map. Global Virtual University. Retrieved 14 May 2007. 
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  104. ^ "Lambertini, A Naturalist's Guide to the Tropics, excerpt". Press.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 10 April 2011. 
  105. ^ Tamindael, Otniel (17 May 2011). "Coral reef destruction spells humanitarian disaster". Antara news. Retrieved 30 May 2011. 
  106. ^ a b Severin, Tim (1997). The Spice Island Voyage: In Search of Wallace. Great Britain: Abacus Travel.  
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  109. ^ Higgins, Andrew (19 November 2009). "A climate threat, rising from the soil". The Washington Post. Retrieved 11 December 2009. 
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  117. ^ "RI 10th-largest economy: WB". The Jakarta Post. 5 May 2014. 
  118. ^ "World Bank: Indonesia World’s 10th Largest Economy". Jakarta Globe. 4 May 2014. 
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  124. ^ Schwarz, pp. 52–57
  125. ^ Following a slowing of growth in the 1980s, due to over regulation and dependence on declining oil prices, growth slowed to an average of 4.3% per annum between 1981 and 1988. A range of economic reforms were introduced in the late 1980s. Reforms included a managed devaluation of the rupiah to improve export competitiveness, and de-regulation of the financial sector (Schwarz, pp. 52–57).
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  147. ^ Small but significant populations of ethnic Chinese, Indians, Europeans and Arabs are concentrated mostly in urban areas.
  148. ^ Ricklefs, p. 256
  149. ^ Domestic migration (including the official  
  150. ^ "Kalimantan The Conflict". Program on Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research. Conflict Prevention Initiative, Harvard University. Archived from the original on 12 December 2009. Retrieved 7 January 2007. 
  151. ^ ; Kyoto University: Sulawesi Kaken Team & Center for Southeast Asian Studies Bugis Sailors PDF (124 KB)
  152. ^ Johnston notes that less than 1% of the country's 210 million inhabitants described themselves as ethnic Chinese. Many sociologists regard this as a serious underestimate: they believe that somewhere between six million and seven million people of Chinese descent are now living in Indonesia. The Republic of China (Taiwan)'s Overseas Compatriot Affairs Commission gives a figure of 7,776,000, including 207,000 of Taiwan origin; see Statistical Yearbook, Taipai: Overseas Compatriot Affairs Commission, 2007, pp. 11–13, ISSN 1024-4374. Retrieved 30 September 2010.
  153. ^ Schwarz, pp. 53, 80–81
  154. ^ Friend, pp. 85–87, 164–165, 233–237
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  164. ^ There are approximately 1 million Shia Muslims and 400,000 Ahmadi Muslims in the country which approximates to 0.5% and 0.2% of the total Muslim population. See:
    • Reza, Imam. "Shia Muslims Around the World". Retrieved 2009-06-11. approximately 400,000 persons who subscribe to the Ahmadiyya 
    • "International Religious Freedom Report 2008". US Department of State. Retrieved March 31, 2014. 
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References

  • Friend, T. (2003). Indonesian Destinies. Harvard University Press.  
  • Ricklefs, M. C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia since c.1300, Second Edition. MacMillan.  
  • Schwarz, A. (1994). A Nation in Waiting: Indonesia in the 1990s. Westview Press.  
  • Taylor, Jean Gelman (2003). Indonesia: Peoples and Histories. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.  
  • Vickers, Adrian (2005). A History of Modern Indonesia. Cambridge University Press.  

External links

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Collection: Countries in Oceania, Developing 8 Countries Member States, G15 Nations, G20 Nations, Indonesia, Island Countries, Liberal Democracies, Malay-Speaking Countries and Territories, Member States of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Member States of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Member States of the United Nations, Muslim-Majority Countries, Republics, Southeast Asian Countries, States and Territories Established in 1949
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Indonesia

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Malang East Java 820,243
8 Semarang Central Java 1,555,984 18 Denpasar Bali 788,589
9 Palembang South Sumatra 1,455,284 19 Samarinda East Kalimantan 727,500
10 Makassar South Sulawesi 1,338,663 20 Tasikmalaya West Java 635,464
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