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International recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia

  1. ^ Sonne, Paul (2008-08-18). "Why does South Ossetia want independence?". Associated Press. Retrieved 2009-08-08. 
  2. ^ a b "Georgia Says Vanuatu Has Withdrawn Recognition of Abkhazia".  
  3. ^ a b
  4. ^ a b
  5. ^ Ker-Lindsay, James (2012). The Foreign Policy of Counter Secession: Preventing the Recognition of Contested States (1st ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 113–14.  
  6. ^ "Abkhazia, S.Ossetia Formally Declared Occupied Territory". Tbilisi: Civil Georgia. 28 August 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-05. 
  7. ^ (Russian) Constitution of South Ossetia
  8. ^
  9. ^ The Foreign Policy of Russia: Changing Systems, Enduring Interests. Robert H. Donaldson, Joseph L. Nogee. M.E. Sharpe. 2005. p. 199.  
  10. ^ Constitution of Abkhazia (in Russian)
  11. ^
  12. ^ "Kosovo autonomy is no precedent for other territorial conflicts - U.S.". Interfax. 
  13. ^
  14. ^ [1]
  15. ^ "Abkhazia, S.Ossetia send sovereignty appeals to Russia". Sukhumi:  
  16. ^ "Abkhazia sends request to Russia for recognition". Sukhumi:  
  17. ^ a b "Russian upper house seeks independence for Georgian rebel regions".  
  18. ^ "Russia parliament asks president to recognise S.Ossetia, Abkhazia". Moscow:  
  19. ^ "Russia recognises Georgia's breakaway republics -2". Moscow:  
  20. ^ The New York Times, 26 August 2008: "Russia Backs Independence of Georgian Enclaves" by Clifford J. Levy.
  21. ^ See Text of the convention.
  22. ^ a b  
  23. ^ Why I had to recognise Georgia's breakaway regions Financial Times 2008-08-26.
  24. ^ "Transcript: CNN interview with Vladimir Putin". Moscow: CNN. 28 August 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-30. 
  25. ^ (Russian) Interview of Prime Minister Putin in original, RIA Novosti
  26. ^ "Russia says recognition of S.Ossetia, Abkhazia irreversible".  
  27. ^ "What the Russian papers say". Moscow:  
  28. ^ Russia: NATO interference means war
  29. ^ United Nations Security Council Verbatim Report 5969. S/PV/5969 page 16. Mr. Churkin Russia 28 August 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-03.
  30. ^ "Russia: UN hypocritical over Abkhazia and South Ossetia independence". Russia Today. 29 August 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-29. 
  31. ^ Reding, Andrew (28 August 2008). "That Caucasus hypocrisy". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 2008-08-29. 
  32. ^
  33. ^ RBC News.
  34. ^ (Russian) Михаил Саакашвили назвал действия России в отношении Грузии "силовой попыткой изменить границы внутри Европы
  35. ^ Russia recognises Georgian rebels BBC 2008-08-26.
  36. ^ Abkhazia, S.Ossetia Formally Declared Occupied Territory. Civil Georgia. 2008-08-28.
  37. ^ "Russia and Georgia to close embassies". Moscow:  
  38. ^ Безвизовые отношения. Россия закрыла свое посольство в Тбилиси, а Грузия - дипмиссию
  39. ^ Russian-Georgian Visa Ties Remain Kommersant 2008-09-04.
  40. ^ Georgia Cuts Ties with Nicaragua over S.Ossetia, Abkhazia Recognition «Civil Georgia» 29 Nov.'08 / 13:45
  41. ^ "Russia warns Georgia against seizing Abkhazia-bound ships". RT. 3 September 2009. Retrieved 2010-06-07. 
  42. ^
  43. ^ [2]
  44. ^ Georgia Seeks Cooperation With Rebel Regions, Forswears War
  45. ^ Government Adopts State Strategy regarding Occupied Territories
  46. ^ NATO's relations with Georgia NATO 2008-09-02.
  47. ^ OSCE Chair Condemns Russia’s Recognition of Abkhazia, S.Ossetia, Civil Georgia, 26 August 2008
  48. ^ US condemns Russia over Georgia BBC 2008-09-04
  49. ^ "Kosovo MPs proclaim independence", BBC News Online, 17 February 2008
  50. ^ Countries that have recognised the Republic of Kosova
  51. ^ "Security Council meets in emergency session following Kosovo's declaration of independence, with members sharply divided on issue" (Press release).  
  52. ^ "Argentina rules out recognition".  
  53. ^  
  54. ^ "Ambassador: India's Kosovo stand consistent".  
  55. ^ a b "'"Kosovo independence a 'terrible precedent.  
  56. ^ Statements by Congressman Rohrabacher (R-CA) during State Department testimony to U.S. House Foreign Affairs Committee, Washington D.C., 9 Sep 2008
  57. ^ U.S. House Foreign Affairs Committee Hearing on U.S.-Russia relations in the aftermath of the Georgia crisis, Washington D.C., 9 Sep 2008
  58. ^ a b Galen Carpenter, Ted (22 February 2008). "Kosovo Independence Grenade". Cato Institute. Retrieved 2008-09-09.  Archived by WebCite at
  59. ^ Friedman, George (20 February 2008). "Kosovar Independence and the Russian Reaction".  
  60. ^ McNamara, Sally (28 February 2008). "Russia's Recognition of Independence for South Ossetia and Abkhazia Is Illegitimate: They Are Not Kosovo".  
  61. ^ Romania ready to partner Serbia in World Court action against Kosovo
  62. ^
  63. ^ Указ «О признании Республики Южная Осетия»
  64. ^ Указ «О признании Республики Абхазия»
  65. ^ "Trend News : Russia Officially Established Diplomatic Relations with Abkhazia and South Ossetia". Retrieved 2008-10-03. 
  66. ^ Russia appoints ambassadors to Abkhazia and South Ossetia
  67. ^ Ambassadors to Abkhazia and South Ossetia present their credentials «ITAR-TASS» 16.12.2008, 18:43
  68. ^ [3]
  69. ^ Посольство России в Абхазии начало работу на постоянной основе. «Интерфакс» 01 мая 2009 года 23:26
  70. ^ Embassy of Abkhazia to Russia opened in Moscow
  71. ^ El Presidente de la República Nicaragua Decreto No. 47-2008 Archived by WebCite.
  72. ^ El Presidente de la República Nicaragua Decreto No. 46-2008 Archived by WebCite.
  73. ^
  74. ^ Nicaragua, Abkhazia establish diplomatic relations, "Itar-Tass", 11.09.2009, 07.37
  75. ^ Nicaragua signs deal on relations with ex-Georgian republic, "RIA Novosti", 08:27 11/09/2009
  76. ^ Южная Осетия установила дипотношения с Никарагуа. —, 14 апреля 2010 года.
  77. ^
  78. ^ a b
  79. ^ [4]
  80. ^ [5]
  81. ^ MPRR [6] (PDF)
  82. ^ MPRR: Embajador de Abjasia presentó copia de estilo ante autoridades venezolanas [7]
  83. ^
  84. ^
  85. ^
  86. ^ "Pacific island recognises Georgian rebel region".  
  87. ^ (Russian)
  88. ^ Науру признало Южную Осетию. - Грани.ру, 16.12.2009
  89. ^ [8]
  90. ^
  91. ^ a b "Абхазия, Южная Осетия и Приднестровье признали независимость друг друга и призвали всех к этому же".  
  92. ^
  93. ^ [9]
  94. ^ [10]
  95. ^ Вице-спикер парламента Абхазии: Выборы в НКР соответствуют всем международным стандартам: "Абхазия, Южная Осетия, НКР и Приднестровье уже давно признали независимость друг друга и очень тесно сотрудничают между собой", - сказал вице-спикер парламента Абхазии. ... "...Абхазия признала независимость Нагорно-Карабахской Республики..." - сказал он."
  96. ^ [11]
  97. ^ a b "Vanuatu recognizes Abkhazia independence - Abkhaz ministry".  
  98. ^ a b c "On the establishment of diplomatic relations between Republic of Abkhazia and Republic of Vanuatu".  
  99. ^ a b "Abkhazia & Pacific".  
  100. ^ a b Верительное факсимиле.  
  101. ^ "Независимость Абхазии признали острова Вануату".  
  102. ^ "Visa-free regime is launched between the Republic of Vanuatu and the Republic of Abkhazia.".  
  103. ^ "Vanuatu government confirms recognition of Abkhazia".  
  104. ^ "Natapei withdraws recognition of Abkhazia", Vanuatu daily Post, June 20, 2011
  105. ^ "Vanuatu new gov't annuls Abkhazian recognition". 17 June 2011. Retrieved 27 June 2011. 
  106. ^ "Relationship with Vanuatu is still discussed in Abkhazia". 22 June 2011. Retrieved 2013-08-08. 
  107. ^ "Vanuatu, Abkhazia play out odd couple farce". 21 June 2011. Retrieved 27 June 2011. 
  108. ^ Ligo, Godwin (14 July 2011). "Minister says oil an issue over non recognition of Abkhazia".  
  109. ^ "Vanuatu scraps recognition of Georgia breakaway region". 2013-05-20. Retrieved 2013-05-21. 
  110. ^ Распространенное грузинскими СМИ сообщение об отзыве Вануату официального признания Абхазии является не более чем фантазией Президента Грузии (in Russian).  
  111. ^ МИД Абхазии: отказ Вануату от признания Абхазии - фантазия Саакашвили (in Russian).  
  112. ^
  113. ^ [12]
  114. ^ Абхазию признало государство Тувалу. -, 23.09.2011
  115. ^ a b Острова Тувалу признали Южную Осетию. -, 23.09.2011
  116. ^
  117. ^ "Tuvalu takes back recognition of independence of Abkhazia and so-called South Ossetia". 2014-03-31. Retrieved 2014-03-31. 
  118. ^ Albania condemns Russia's recognition of Georgian breakaway regions
  119. ^ "Prime Minister Spencer in talks with officials of the Republic of Abkhazia".  
  120. ^ Smith not impressed by Russian stance
  121. ^ Smith to hold talks with Russia over rebel provinces
  122. ^ Austria condemns Russian move, urges international mediation
  123. ^ Armenia Rules Out Abkhazia, South Ossetia Recognition
  124. ^ Answer of Tigran Balayan, Head of MFA's Press Office to the questions by Regnum News Agency, Regnum News, 27 August 2008
  125. ^ Khazar Ibrahim: "Azerbaijan’s position remains unchanged, we recognise Georgia’s territorial integrity"
  126. ^ Belarus says to recognise Abkhazia, S. Ossetia by weekend
  127. ^ Diplomat: Belarus to recognise Abkhazia, South Ossetia soon
  128. ^ (Icelandic)Hvíta Rússland viðurkennir aðskilnaðarhéruðin in newsportal
  129. ^ (Russian)Белоруссия скоро признает независимость Абхазии и Южной Осетии
  130. ^ Presidents of Abkhazia and South Ossetia Address Letters to President Alexander Lukashenko with Request to Recognise their Independence
  131. ^ "Belarus could recognise Abkhazia, S.Ossetia next year". RIA Novosti. 2008-12-10. Retrieved 2008-12-13. 
  132. ^ "Belarus to consider recognizing S.Ossetia, Abkhazia on April 2". RIA Novosti. 2009-01-22. Retrieved 2009-01-22. 
  133. ^ Rutland, Peter (31 October 2008). "Georgia: Costly Illusions". Transitions Online. Retrieved 23 March 2009. 
  134. ^ EU Foreign Ministers Discuss Eastern Partnership
  135. ^ "New security arrangement needed – Russian FM".  
  136. ^ "EU expanding its 'sphere of influence,' Russia says".  
  138. ^ Lukashenko accuses Russia of blackmailing Belarus to recognize Georgian regions. Los Angeles Times. June 5, 2009
  139. ^ Belarus leader rejects conditions on Russian loan. Reuters. June 5, 2009
  140. ^ Парламент Белоруссии в этом году не будет рассматривать вопрос признания Абхазии и Южной Осетии
  141. ^ "Южная Осетия попросила Минск поступить с ней как с Абхазией". Rosbalt. 
  142. ^ Bulgaria "worried" by Russia's recognition of South Ossetia, Abkhazia independence
  143. ^ "Statement by Minister Emerson on Situation in Georgia - Canadian MOFA" 26 August 2008 Link accessed 26/08/08
  144. ^ FM spokesman: China "concerned" of situation in South Ossetia, Abkhazia
  145. ^ Mesić zabrinut zbog ruskog priznanja Južna Osetije i Abhazije
  146. ^ a b UN Security Council Meeting: Russian Recognition Decrees on Abkhazia and S. Ossetia 28 August 2008
  148. ^ Cyprus government 'concerned' about developments in Georgia
  149. ^ Cyprus concerned over developments in Georgia - 27/08/2008
  150. ^ a b EU leaders condemn Russia in shadow of Kosovo
  151. ^ "Dominican Republic MPs support the establishment of friendly relations with Abkhazia".  
  152. ^ Вице-премьер Доминиканской республики встретится с руководством Абхазии (in Русский).  
  153. ^ "US warns Dominican Republic against recognising South Ossetia, Abkhazia".  
  154. ^ "S.Ossetia, Abkhazia to ask Ecuador to recognize independence". RIA Novosti. 2009-10-30. Retrieved 11-1-2009. 
  155. ^ "Abkhazia requests Ecuador to recognise its independence".  
  156. ^ Estonia Disapproves Russia’s Decision to Recognise the Independence of Georgia’s Separatist Regions
  157. ^ "OSCE Chairman condemns Russia's recognition of South Ossetia, Abkhazia independence" 26 August 2008
  158. ^ a b Reaction to Russia's recognition of rebels, BBC, 26 August 2008.
  159. ^ Civil Georgia, 27 August 2008
  160. ^ a b In quotes: Russia support for rebels
  161. ^ Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Official Site
  162. ^ The Hungarian Foreign Ministry regrets that the Russian President signed the decree recognising South Ossetia and Abkhazia - Statement of the ministry. The Foreign Ministry of Hungary. Retrieved on 2008-08-26.
  163. ^ Nordic, Baltic countries condemn Russia
  164. ^ "Iran Not to Recognize Abkhazia, S. Ossetia's Independence Soon". FARS News Agency. 2009-02-07. Retrieved 2009-02-10. 
  165. ^ Statement by Minister for Foreign Affairs on Russian Recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia
  166. ^ Israeli MoFA website
  167. ^ Italy says Russian recognition of rebel regions lacks legal basis
  168. ^ Japan voices "grave concern" over Russia's recognition of rebel regions
  169. ^ "Kazakhstan understands Russia's actions-president". Georgian Daily. 2008-08-28. Retrieved 2008-08-28. 
  170. ^ "Trend News : Kazakhstan Concerns of Negative Influence of Conflicts on Regional Security: Ambassador". Retrieved 2008-10-03. 
  171. ^ Казахстан не станет признавать Южную Осетию
  172. ^ Руководство Казахстана не будет признавать независимость Абхазии и Южной Осетии
  173. ^ Independence of South Ossetia, Abkhazia needs thinking about, Kyrgyzstan ambassador says, National Legal Internet Portal of the Republic of Belarus, 27 August 2008
  174. ^ Foreign Minister Riekstiņš condemns Russia's decision to recognise independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia
  175. ^ "Президент Латвии заявляет, что его страна никогда не признает независимость Абхазии и Южной Осети". Retrieved 10 December 2009. 
  176. ^ Lebanon to Send Business Delegations to Abkhazia, S. Ossetia
  177. ^ Baltic states condemn Russian recognition of Georgian regions
  178. ^ Déclaration conjointe de Jean-Claude Juncker et de Jean Asselborn suite à la reconnaissance par la Russie de l’indépendance de l’Abkhazie et de l’Ossétie du Sud
  179. ^ Preocupa a México situación en Osetia del Sur y Abjasia.
  180. ^ "Moldova rejects recognition of Georgian regions".  
  181. ^ Текст обращения Народного собрания Гагаузии к руководству Молдавии о признании Абхазии и Южной Осетии (in Russian).  
  182. ^ Netherlands Fears for EU Relations with Russia
  183. ^ Norway regrets Russia's recognition of breakaway regions
  184. ^ "Peruvian opposition urges recognition of S.Ossetia, Abkhazia".  
  185. ^ Poland supports Georgia over Russian recognition crisis
  186. ^ Poland condemns Russian recognition of South Ossetia, Abkhazia
  187. ^ Governo português acompanha "com preocupação" crise no Cáucaso, Público, 26 August 2008
  188. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs official statement, 26 August 2008
  189. ^
  190. ^ In merito al riconoscimento dell'Abkhazia, Secretariat of State for Foreign and Political Affairs of San Marino 2012-04-06 (in Italian)
  191. ^ "Саудовская Аравия с пониманием отнеслась к действиям России в Южной Осетии".  
  192. ^ MFA expresses "concern" over Caucasus
  193. ^ Serbia Won’t Recognise Georgia Regions
  194. ^ Serbia mulls recognition of Abkhazia, S.Ossetia, Voice of Russia, 2012-05-27
  195. ^ Slovak Republic disapproves of recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia by Russian Federation
  196. ^ Three EU premiers call for Caucasus peace, stability
  197. ^ a b African Press Agency, 5 0ctober 2008
  198. ^ "Somalia to recognize Abkhazia, S.Ossetia - envoy".  
  199. ^ "Somalia welcomes Russian ships in pirate fight: ambassador".  
  200. ^ "RussiaToday : News : Somalia to recognise South Ossetia and Abkhazia". Retrieved 2008-10-03. 
  201. ^ [13] Mareeg Online, somalia:Somali government denies recognition of Abkhazia
  202. ^ "Outside View: Seoul's Russian partnership".  
  203. ^ España lamenta el reconocimiento de la independencia de Osetia y Adjazia
  204. ^ Sudan UN envoy says Georgia war eased international pressure on his country
  205. ^ Moscow recognises Georgian rebel regions, Warsaw Business Journal, 26 August 2008
  206. ^ Bildt: Russia 'violating international law', The Local, 26 August 2008.
  207. ^ Kremlin is told that move could backfire, Financial Times, 27 August 2008.
  208. ^ """Sweden: recognition of South Ossetia and Abkhazia by Russia is a "bad joke. Retrieved 10 December 2009. 
  209. ^ Swissinfo, 3 September 2008, Cabinet speaks out on Georgia conflict
  210. ^ People's Daily Online, 4 September 2008: "Switzerland calls for political solution to Georgia conflict"
  211. ^ Xuequan, Mu (4 September 2008). "Switzerland calls for political solution to Georgia conflict".  
  212. ^ Independence Demands in Georgia May Deepen Crisis
  213. ^ Syria backs Russia's move in Georgia
  214. ^ Krainova, Natalya (1 September 2008). "S. Ossetia Talks of Joining Russia".  
  215. ^ "Tajikistan urges Russia, Georgia to solve conflict through political, diplomatic means".  
  216. ^ NO:158, 26 Ağustos 2008, Gürcistan'ın bağımsızlığı hk.
  217. ^ Few countries more condemn Russian President’s decree
  218. ^ Заява МЗС України у зв’язку з визнанням Російською Федерацією незалежності Південної Осетії та Абхазії
  219. ^ "Ukraine will not support independence of South Ossetia, Abkhazia - President - Official web-site of President of Ukraine". Retrieved 2008-08-27. 
  220. ^ "Crimea urges recognition of Georgia separatists".  
  221. ^ Парламент Крыма поддержал независимость Южной Осетии и Абхазии (in Russian). 2008-09-17. Retrieved 2013-08-08. 
  222. ^ "Recognise Georgian regions says Ukraine's Crimea".  
  223. ^ "Eurasia Daily Monitor, The Jamestown Foundation — March 2, 2010 — Volume 7, Issue 41" (in Russian).  
  224. ^ Грищенко считает правильным непризнание Косово, Абхазии и Южной Осетии (in Russian). 11 October 2010. Retrieved 7 June 2010. 
  225. ^ "Yanukovych signals Ukraine may not recognize South Ossetia, Abkhazia". APA. 3 March 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-03-25. Retrieved 2013-08-08. 
  226. ^ "Ukraine not to recognize independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia – Gryshchenko". UNIAN. 14 May 2010. Retrieved 7 June 2010. 
  227. ^ "Yanukovych: Recognition of independence of Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Kosovo violates international law". Kyiv Post. 4 June 2010. Retrieved 7 June 2010. 
  228. ^ Miliband blasts Russia move
  229. ^ "Medvedev Tells EU Russia to Hit Back at Hostile Acts" 31 August 2008 Link accessed 02/09/08
  230. ^ President Bush Condemns Actions Taken by Russian President in Regards to Georgia. Office of the Press Secretary. 26 August 2008.
  231. ^ Russia recognises Georgian rebels BBC News 2008-08-26.
  232. ^ "Press Statement following Negotiations with French President Nicolas Sarkozy" (Press release).  
  233. ^ Bush criticizes Moscow's actions in Georgia Reuters 2008-09-15.
  234. ^ a b "President Bush Discusses Situation in Georgia, Urges Russia to Cease Military Operations" (Press release).  
  235. ^ "Russian MFA Spokesman Andrei Nesterenko Commentary in Connection with US President George Bush’s Statement on South Ossetia" (Press release).  
  236. ^ a b Cheney Backs Membership in NATO for Georgia New York Times 2008-09-04.
  237. ^ Defiant Cheney vows Georgia will join Nato Guardian 2008-09-05.
  238. ^ a b Bush Aides Say Russia Actions in Georgia Jeopardize Ties New York Times 2008-08-14.
  239. ^ Госсекретарь США Клинтон отказалась признать Абхазию и Юго-Осетию
  240. ^ "Security Council keen to hear Abkhaz, S.Ossetian views - Russia".  
  241. ^ Vietnam supports peaceful solutions to int’l disputes
  242. ^ "B92 - Vesti - "Kosovo nije Osetija i Abhazija" - Internet, Radio i TV stanica; najnovije vesti iz Srbije". Retrieved 2008-10-03. 
  243. ^ "Talat voices respect for will of peoples of S. Ossetia and Abkhazia".  
  244. ^ [14]
  245. ^
  246. ^ [15]
  247. ^ "UN chief voices concern about Russian move on South Ossetia, Abkhazia". Xinhuanet. 27 August 2008. Retrieved 29 June 2010. 
  248. ^ "UN: Don't compare Kosovo to anything" 1 September 2008 Link accessed 03/09/08
  249. ^ "InfoRos, Russia, New President of UN General Assembly: Georgia Violated UN Charter". Retrieved 2008-10-03. 
  250. ^ "RussiaToday : Interview with Miguel d’Escoto Brockmann on 2008-09-19 10:45". September 19, 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-03. 
  251. ^ Russia & security partners agree on South Ossetia Russia Today Retrieved on 04-09-08
  252. ^ a b CSTO backs Russia's actions in S.Ossetia, condemns Georgia RIA Novosti Retrieved on 04-09-08
  253. ^ Russia allies fail to back Moscow on enclaves, Reuters.UK
  254. ^ (Russian)Партнеры России по ОДКБ отложили решение по статусу Абхазии и Южной Осетии
  255. ^ Нынешняя ситуация толкает Абхазию и ЮО в систему коллективной безопасности – Бордюжа (in Русский).  
  256. ^ Danielyan, Emil (2 September 2008). "Sarkisian discusses Georgia crisis with Russian leader".  
  257. ^ Presidency conclusions of the Extraordinary European Council held in Brussels (1 September 2008).. BBC News. 2008-09-01
  258. ^ "Russian irritation over Sweden’s stance" (Press release).  
  259. ^ Rysk irritation över svensk hållning, Dagens Nyheter, 28 August 2008.
  260. ^ Onsdag i den europeiska krisen, Carl Bildt : Alla dessa dagar, 27 August 2008.
  261. ^ EU condemns Russian decision to recognise Abkhazia independence
  262. ^ Luchterhandt, Otto (29 August 2008). "Ex-Soviet States Fear Russian Aggression".  
  263. ^ L’Europe parle de "sanctions" contre Moscou, Europe 1 Radio, 28 August 2008.
  264. ^ Walker, Marcus; Galloni, Alessandra; Chazan, Guy; Miller, John W. (28 August 208). "EU Remains Divided Over Punishment of Russia".  
  265. ^ Foreign Ministers' Joint Statement on Georgia. 2008-08-27.
  266. ^ "Russian MFA Information and Press Department Commentary in Connection with G7 Statement Concerning Russia's Recognition of the Independence of South Ossetia and Abkhazia" (Press release).  
  267. ^ "G7 Justified Georgian Aggression".  
  268. ^ "НАТО ОТКАЗАЛОСЬ ПРИЗНАТЬ ЮЖНУЮ ОСЕТИЮ". Retrieved 10 December 2009. 
  269. ^ OSCE Chairman condemns Russia's recognition of South Ossetia, Abkhazia independence
  270. ^ OSCE Parliamentary Assembly from 5 to 9 July 2012, Final Declaration and Resolutions
  271. ^ Support for Russia at SCO Summit The Hindu- Author: Vladimir Radyuhin, Moscow
  272. ^ SCO leaders say no int'l problems can be solved by merely using force Xinhua News Agency
  273. ^ Mark Tran, Julian Borger in Kiev and Ian Traynor in Brussels (28 August 2008). "EU threatens sanctions against Russia | World news |". London: Retrieved 2008-10-03. 
  274. ^ The Kremlin tries to put on brave face following diplomatic slap over Georgia
  275. ^ , "Allies Let Him down"kommersant, August-29-2008
  276. ^ (Chinese) Official declaration of the Organisation at the Dushanbe summit on 28 August 2008
  277. ^ (Russian) Official declaration of the Organisation at the Dushanbe summit on 28 August 2008
  278. ^ (Chinese) Official declaration of the Organisation
  279. ^ Бородин предсказал абхазам и осетинам скорое вступление в Союзное государство
  280. ^ ХАМАС приветствует признание независимости Абхазии и Южной Осетии (in Russian). 2008-08-26. Retrieved 2008-08-26. 
  281. ^ "Only Palestine's Hamas Backs Kremlin's Recognition of Abkhazia, South Ossetia". Georgian Daily. 2008-08-27. Retrieved 2008-08-27. 
  282. ^ Coughlin, Con; Blomfield, Adrian (2008-08-27). "Georgia: Europe unites to condemn Kremlin". London: Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2008-08-27. 
  283. ^ "General Secretary Statement on Abkhazia". UNPO. 2008-08-29. Retrieved 2009-09-13. 
  284. ^ "General Questions". ISO - Maintenance Agency for ISO 1366 country codes. Retrieved 2009-03-28. 
  285. ^ "ISO 3166-1 and country coded Top-Level Domains (ccTLDs)". ISO – Maintenance Agency for ISO 3166 country codes. Retrieved 2009-06-29. 
  286. ^ "Kosovo, Transnistria, Abkhazia Top Level Domains". DNXpert. 2008-09-04. Retrieved 2009-03-28. 


  1. ^ a b c It is unclear whether there is a date on which Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Transnistria officially recognised each other or whether they have always done so, and when they established diplomatic relations. Abkhazia and Transnistria signed a Treaty on Friendship and Cooperation on 22 January 1993, South Ossetia and Transnistria a Treaty on Friendship and Cooperation on 12 October 1994 and Abkhazia and South Ossetia a Treaty on Friendship and Cooperation on 19 September 2005.


See also

International organisation Position
Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO) [283]
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Neither Abkhazia nor South Ossetia is currently a member of the governing structures for the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).

Independently of their ISO membership status, ISO will also potentially issue a standardised country code for each. According to rules of procedure followed by the ISO 3166 Maintenance Agency based in Geneva, a new ISO 3166-1 code for Abkhazia and/or South Ossetia will only be issued once it appears in the United Nations Terminology Bulletin Country Names or in the UN Statistics Division's list of Country and Region Codes for Statistical Use.[284] To appear in the terminology bulletin, it must either (a) be admitted into the United Nations, (b) join a UN Specialised Agency or (c) become a state party to the Statute of the International Court of Justice.[285] None of these criteria have been met.

Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) country code top-level domains (ccTLDs) for use in Internet addressing. Rules of procedure dictate Abkhazia and/or South Ossetia must first receive an ISO 3166-1 code (discussed above) before the ccTLD can be introduced[286]

International non-governmental organisations

Entity Position
Hamas (government in Gaza Strip) On 26 August 2008 a spokesman for the Palestinian group Hamas, which governs the Gaza Strip, welcomed the diplomatic recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. He said that there were similarities between the situations of the Abkhazian, South Ossetian peoples, and the Palestinian people. The spokesman said, "We, Palestinians, also struggle to attain recognition for our rights, the main of which is the right to be an independent state. We hope that the decision of Moscow becomes the beginning of recognition of peoples which combat for freedom and justice".[280][281][282]

Regions with independent governments

Positions taken by non-state actors

Union of Russia and Belarus On 4 August 2008 Pavel Borodin, State Secretary of the Union of Russia and Belarus, told the radio station Ekho Moskvy that he supported Russia and that South Ossetia and Abkhazia could be accepted into the Union before the end of 2008.[279]
Shanghai Cooperation Organisation According to different sources it seems disputed that Russia has gained global support from the member states in the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO). [275][276][277][278]
Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) OSCE Chairman-in-Office, Finnish Foreign Minister [270]
 NATO [160]
In December 2009, following NATO summit it was announced that NATO member states will not recognise Abkhazia and South Ossetia and called on Russia to reverse its decision.[268]
G7 On 27 August 2008, the seven foreign ministers of the G7 member states – Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United States and the United Kingdom – issued a Joint Statement on Georgia, condemning the action of a fellow Caucasus region.[266][267]
 European Union The EU leaders held an emergency summit on 1 September 2008, "strongly condemned" Russia's unilateral decision and recalled "that a peaceful and lasting solution to the conflict in Georgia must be based on full respect for the principles of independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity recognised by international law, the Final Act of the Helsinki Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe and United Nations Security Council resolutions." They also called on other states not to recognise this proclaimed independence and asked the European Commission to examine the practical consequences to be drawn.[257] Swedish Foreign Secretary and Chairman of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, sphere of influence,[262] directly bordering the EU, such as Moldova and Ukraine. Their fears are prompted by rising tension between Ukraine and Russia, and fresh calls for independence from Moldova by separatists in the breakaway region of Transnistria.[263] Sergei Lavrov stated "I think it's a manifestation of the complete embarrassment at the fact that the favourite pet of Western capitals... didn't justify their hopes" and said that comments from Bernard Kouchner suggesting Russia has plans for Moldova and Ukraine, is a "sick fantasy".[264]
Council of Europe Secretary General Terry Davis said "The unilateral recognition of the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia by the Russian Federation violates the territorial integrity of a fellow Council of Europe member state. It jeopardises prospects for a negotiated settlement of the dispute about the future status of these two regions. Russia cannot have it both ways. In the past, Russia has strongly supported the principle of territorial integrity. The decision to recognise Abkhazia and South Ossetia must strike any objective observer as being inconsistent with this principle. The ultimate victim of this decision is the international credibility of the Russian Federation. The Russians cannot invoke international law only when they feel like it".[158]
Collective Security Treaty Organisation On 3 September, The CSTO member countries supported Russia's stance on the events in the Caucasus in a collective statement. According to Russian Foreign Minister Secretary General Nikolai Bordyuzha stated at a press conference in Yerevan that the present situation is "driving Abkhazia and South Ossetia into the collective security system",[255] and further stated his belief that "South Ossetia and Abkhazia can not successfully and steadily develop without [being part of] a collective security system, without the backing of other states."[256]
 United Nations In August 2008, [250][249]
International organisation Position
State Position
 Kosovo President of Kosovo Fatmir Sejdiu said that Kosovo cannot serve as an example for Russia to recognise South Ossetia or Abkhazia. He said, "We have always stressed that Kosovo has special characteristics; that it is sui generis and it cannot be used as a precedent for other conflict zones, areas or regions". He did not comment on Russia’s recognition of South Ossetia and Abkhazia, but said that Kosovo was "on the side of great world powers" on that issue.[242]
 Northern Cyprus President of Northern Cyprus Mehmet Ali Talat said he respected the will of the people in South Ossetia and Abkhazia. A spokesman for Talat called for Moscow to review its policy on Cyprus and said there were lessons in the developments for the Greek Cypriots.[243]
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic On 29 September 2010 the SADR Minister for African Issues Mohamed Yeslem Beyssat said referring to South Ossetia: “Western Sahara de facto recognizes the independence of South Ossetia. Now we have to formalise relations de jure, including the establishment of diplomatic relations".[244] The two states have had various formal and informal contacts.[245]
 Republic of China Head of Republic of China's representative office in Russia Antonio Chen said on 10 November 2011 in an interview published in the Kommersant newspaper: "Taiwan is ready for trade-economic and cultural cooperation with Abkhazia and South Ossetia. But as far as their political recognition is concerned, a mutual exchange of opinions on this issue has not been held yet".[246]

Other states

State Position
 Albania The Albanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs issued a statement condemning Russia's decision to recognise Abkhazia and South Ossetia, calling the move "totally unacceptable" and "contrary to UN Security Council resolutions". The Ministry denied any parallels to its own recognition of Kosovo, claiming Kosovo to be a special case.[118]
 Antigua and Barbuda The Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda Baldwin Spencer held talks in May 2012 with Irakli Khintba, Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Abkhazia, regarding that country’s desire to obtain official recognition from Antigua and Barbuda. Baldwin Spencer pledged to continue dialogue on the issue with Abhazian officials.[119]
 Australia [120][121]
 Austria [122]
 Armenia President Serzh Sargsyan has stated that Armenia will not formally recognise Abkhazia and South Ossetia as independent states any time soon but reiterated his support for their residents’ right to self-determination. He also said that Armenia will not recognise them for the same reason that it did not recognise Kosovo’s independence and that Armenia can not recognise another entity in the same situation as long as it has not recognised the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic.[123] Tigran Balayan, Head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Press Office said, "Armenia has always favoured and continues to believe that any attempt for military solution to conflicts is futile. Such conflicts should be resolved on the basis of free expression of the will of the people".[124]
 Azerbaijan [125]
 Belarus On 28 August 2008, [141] South Ossetia asked for a symmetrical approach between them and Abkhazia.[140]
 Belgium Belgian foreign minister Karel De Gucht called the recognition of South Ossetia and Abkhazia unacceptable and a violation of the territorial integrity of Georgia. He added that Russia has created a dangerous precedent that threatens the stability of Europe.
 Bulgaria Foreign Ministry spokesperson Dimitar Tsanchev said, "The decision of Russian authorities to recognise the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia is causing serious worry. Bulgaria once again re-iterates its unconditional support for the independence, sovereignty and internationally recognised borders".[142]
 Canada [143]
 People's Republic of China On 27 August Foreign Ministry spokesman Qin Gang said that China is "concerned of the latest development in South Ossetia and Abkhazia". He also said "We have a knowledge of the complicated history and reality of the South Ossetia and Abkhazia issues. In accordance with China's consistent and principled stance on issues of this kind, we hope the relevant parties can resolve the issue through dialogue and consultation".[144]
 Croatia Former [146]
 Costa Rica At a UN Security Council meeting regarding the Georgia situation, [147]
 Cyprus Cyprus Government supports peaceful resolution of international disputes by political means through negotiations, avoiding unilateral actions that could aggravate the situation in this sensitive region".[149]
 Czech Republic The [150]
 Denmark [150]
 Dominican Republic Dominican Republic MPs Francisco Matos and Ramon Fernandez travelled to Abkhazia in December 2010 and met with Abkhaz officials, including Sergey Shamba, Maxim Gvindzhia and Nugzar Ashuba. The Dominican Republic politicians voiced their support for the establishment of friendly ties with Abkhazia, and invited their Abkhazian counterparts to visit their country to establish inter-parliamentary ties.[151] Dominican Republic Deputy Prime Minister José Miguel Abreu visited Abkhazia in May 2011 and met with senior Abkhaz government officials. Sergey Bagapsh stated in Moscow that recognition from a Latin American nation could be expected in May.[152] Philip Gordon, the American Assistant Secretary of State for European and Eurasian Affairs, later warned the Dominican Republic against recognising the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia.[153]
 Ecuador Ecuador's President Rafael Correa promised to consider recognition if Abkhazia and South Ossetia requested it. Leaders from Abkhazia and South Ossetia responded saying they would send official requests for recognition.[154] Abkhazia submitted such a request in December 2009.[155]
 Estonia [156]
 Finland [157]
 France The [159]
 Germany Chancellor Angela Merkel said, "this contradicts the principle of territorial integrity, a principle based on the international law of nations and for this reason it is unacceptable".[160]
 Greece Minister of Foreign Affairs Dora Bakoyannis stated that among the principles of Greek foreign policy is "respect for the independence and territorial integrity of states". Furthermore, she expressed dismay at the developments and stated that they subscribed to the French Presidency's statement condemning the decision to recognise the regions of South Ossetia and Abkhazia.[161]
 Hungary The Hungarian Foreign Ministry issued a statement, regretting the decision of the Russian government and stating that "these decisions do not serve the stability of the Caucasus region and do not advance negotiations over a settlement of the very conflict which has produced severe humanitarian and material consequences".[162]
 Iceland [163]
 Indonesia [146]
 Iran The Ambassador of Iran to Russia, Mahmoud Reza Sajjadi, said in early February 2009 that his nation will not recognise Abkhazia and South Ossetia's independence in the near future, "as it can cause war in many areas," but on the other hand he did not rule out eventual Iranian recognition of the independence of the two areas. Sajjadi defended Russia's measures in the 2008 South Ossetia war and its decision to recognise Abkhazia and South Ossetia as independent nations. Sajjadi also said he sympathised with the people of Abkhazia and South Ossetia and that Tehran will work with Moscow to develop the two areas' economy.[164]
 Ireland [165]
 Israel The [166]
 Italy Foreign Minister Franco Frattini said "The move does not apply in an international legal framework. An ethnic-based balkanisation of the Caucasus is a serious danger for all".[167]
 Japan Yasuaki Tanizaki, director general of the Japanese Foreign Ministry's European bureau, said "Our country is gravely concerned about the move. Our country hopes that Russia ... will take responsible actions for the region's stability".[168]
 Kazakhstan Kazakhstan's President Nursultan Nazarbayev said he understood the measures taken by Russia and urged the international community against raising the prospect of a new Cold War,[169] while also saying he considers that "Russia's actions were directed to protect the residents of long-suffering regions. In response Russia could either ignore or prevent the bloodshed".[170]
In October 2008, Foreign Minister Marat Tazhin said that "the principle of territorial integrity is key in international law" and that for this reason Kazakhstan did not recognise Abkhazia and South Ossetia or Kosovo.[171] In December 2008, Prime Minister Karim Masimov stated that "We have an official position. Kazakhstan did not recognise Kosovo and does not recognise Abkhazia and South Ossetia. We consider that borders are defined and Kazakhstan will not recognise any new states."[172]
 Kyrgyzstan At a [173]
 Latvia [174]
In December 2009, President of Latvia Valdis Zatlers, said that Latvia will never recognise the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia.[175]
 Lebanon The leader of Lebanon's parliamentary majority Saad Hariri statement states, "The recognition issue will be solved at the highest state level. But we will fine-tune contacts with South Ossetia and Abkhazia now. For example, delegations of our businessmen will leave for there soon; Lebanon feels what situation South Ossetia was stuck in; Lebanon is also a small state which comes under threats. On one side there is Israel, which has attacked us many times. On the other side there is Syria which threatens Lebanon from time to time; Russians were taking measures to protect their citizens and local residents in South Ossetia; Russia is one of the states which in no way wants to get involved in military conflicts; Moscow's negative attitude to the beginning of the war in Iraq and efforts made to prevent military scenario in Iran's situation are examples for this. Russia advocates peaceful resolution everywhere".[176]
 Lithuania [177]
 Luxembourg A joint Ministry of State and Ministry of Foreign Affairs statement states "We noted with regret the decision taken by the Russian authorities to recognise the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, a decision contrary to the basic principles of the UN Charter and the OSCE. It is contrary with the obligations which Russia took on several occasions at the time of Security Council resolution votes, in particular Resolution 1808".[178]
 Mexico The government of Mexico expressed concern for stability, peace and international security following the Russian recognition and urged all parties to achieve a peaceful solution and lasting peace in the Caucasus region through dialogue. It also called on those involved to respect the principles of the Charter of the United Nations and international law.[179]
 Moldova Faced with its own breakaway region, Transnistria, the government of Moldova released a statement saying it would not recognise the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia.[180] Gagauzia, an autonomous region of Moldova, passed a resolution, recognising independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, backing Russia's actions in the regions, and asking central Moldova's government to recognise these states.[181]
 Netherlands [182]
 Norway [183]
 Panama [147]
 Peru Ollanta Humala, leader of the Peruvian Nationalist Party, said his party had submitted a proposal to the Peruvian Congress for recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. He cited Peru's recognition of Kosovo as a justification.[184]
 Poland [186]
 Portugal The [187]
 Romania The [188]
 San Marino The San Marino authorities are planning to establish political, cultural and scientific contacts with Abkhazia.[189] In April 2012, the Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs, Antonella Mularoni, said that the San Marino government will continue to respect Georgia's territorial boundaries and will not recognize Abkhazia.[190]
 Saudi Arabia During a meeting with Prime Minister Vladimir Putin, the Secretary of the Saudi National Security Council, Bandar bin Sultan, told that King Abdullah and the whole leadership of the country had full understanding for the actions of the Russian side in South Ossetia.[191]
 Serbia The Serbian Ministry of Foreign Affairs issued a statement saying that they respected the "territorial integrity of internationally recognized states" but that the declaration of independence by the Republic of Kosovo and its subsequent international recognition has had a destabilising effect by setting a precedent for similar declarations by other regions.[192] On 3 September 2008, President Boris Tadić stated the position of Serbia as "Serbia is not going to recognise these so-called new countries."[193] In May 2012, the Serbian Parliament was to consider formal recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia.[194]
 Slovakia A statement issued by the [195]
 Slovenia Mirek Topolánek and Ivars Godmanis.[196]
 Somalia Somalia’s External Affairs and International Co-operation ministry said on 5 October 2008 in Mogadishu that Somalia recognises the territorial integrity of Georgia.[197] Somalia’s ambassador to Russia Mohammed Mahmud Handule on 1 October 2008 was reported as saying Somalia's Transitional Federal Government would recognise the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia.[198][199][200] This stance was rebuffed by Mohamed Jama Ali, the General Director of the External Affairs and International Co-operation ministry (Somali Ministry of Foreign Affairs ) as "an irregular statement"," which does not represent our government’s foreign policy".[197][201]
 South Africa Dumisani Kumalo, the Permanent Representative of South Africa to the United Nations, said that his country "had repeatedly stressed the need for countries to resolve differences through negotiations. A resort to the use of force diminished the chance for a lasting solution to a situation and it increased the suffering of all the people involved".[147]
 South Korea Aligning itself with Russia, [202]
 Spain [203]
 Sudan On 28 August Sudan's envoy to the UN, Abdel-Haleem Abdel-Mahmood, stated that Sudan's recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia is contingent upon developments on the issue of Kosovo's declaration of independence in the International Court of Justice. As Sudan remains opposed to Kosovo's independence, their negative view about such declarations may change only if it is declared legal by the ICJ.[204]
 Sweden Swedish Minister of Foreign Affairs Carl Bildt condemned Russia's recognition, saying that "the Russian government leadership now has chosen this route means they have chosen a policy of confrontation, not only with the rest of Europe, but also with the international community in general".[205][206] Carl Bildt predicted that the recognition of the independence of South Ossetia and Abkhazia is likely to be followed by only a "miserable" lot of other countries, such as Belarus, Syria, Cuba and Venezuela. Bildt also said that "South Ossetian independence is a joke. We are talking about a smugglers' paradise of 60,000 people financed by the Russian security services. No one can seriously consider that as an independent state".[207]
In December 2009, Carl Bildt said that "this idea of South Ossetia's independence is increasingly seen as bad joke in Moscow, which it obviously is."[208]
  Switzerland The [211][210][209]
 Syria [213]
 Tajikistan The [215]
 Turkey A [216]
 Ukraine Ukrainian Deputy [227] said, "I have never recognized Abkhazia, South Ossetia or Kosovo's independence. This is a violation of international law".Viktor Yanukovych On 4 June 2010, Ukrainian President
[226] Kostyantyn Gryshchenko on 14 May 2010: "An issue of territorial integrity and inviolability of frontiers is a matter of principle for us. Period".Minister for Foreign Affairs This was confirmed by the [225] said that the recognition of South Ossetia and Abkhazia was "not currently on the agenda."Viktor Yanukovych In March 2010, President
[224] said that "We must not recognize neither Kosovo nor Abkhazia, nor South Ossetia in no case".Kostyantyn Gryshchenko In October 2009, Ukrainian Ambassador to Russia [223] However, the
[219] stressed that Ukraine does not support the decision of Russia to recognise the independence of South Ossetia and Abkhazia. "We are sorry about [the] adoption of such a decision. For Ukraine it is unacceptable therefore we cannot support the position."Viktor Yushchenko President
said "only the United Nations can rule on this question. This is factually a violation of international law".Arseniy Yatsenyuk Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada The [218]
 United Kingdom WTO, you must accept that with rights and responsibilities". Brown said that Russia "cannot pick and choose which rules to adhere to."[229]
 United States [238]
In October 2009, State Secretary Hillary Clinton said that the United States would not recognise the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia.[239]
 Uzbekistan Vladimir Norov, the foreign minister of Uzbekistan, said following a regular session of the Uzbekistan-EU Cooperation Council in Brussels that his country has not reached a decision on recognition.[240]
 Vietnam Ministry of Foreign Affairs Spokesman Le Dung reiterated that Vietnam's "consistent policy is to promote peaceful resolution of international disputes in accordance with basic principles of international law and the United Nations Charter".[241]

UN member states

States that do not recognise Abkhazia or South Ossetia as independent

Date of recognition Diplomatic relations established Notes
 Vanuatu 23 May 2011 (Abkhazia)[97][98][99] 23 May 2011 (With Abkhazia)[98][100]

On 23 May 2011 Vanuatu recognised Abkhazia's independence and established diplomatic relations and a visa-free travel regime with Abkhazia.[97][98][99][100][101][102][103]

On 19 June 2011, the new interim Prime Minister of Vanuatu [107] However, on 12 July 2011 Foreign Minister Alfred Carlot reconfirmed Vanuatu's recognition of Abkhazia.[108]

On 20 May 2013, Moana Carcasses Kalosil, Vanuatu's PM, confirmed that Vanuatu had withdrawn its recognition of Abkhazia.[2][109] However, the next day the Deputy Foreign Minister of Abkhazia, Irakli Khintba, responded by saying that no decision to cancel diplomatic relations between Abkhazia and Vanuatu had been taken, and that Kalosil's statements were only his personal point of view which was not the result of an official decision by the government.[110][111]

On 12 July 2013 Georgia and Vanuatu signed an agreement on establishing diplomatic and consular relations. The agreement, which was signed at the United Nations headquarters, states: "the Republic of Vanuatu recognises territorial integrity of Georgia within its internationally recognised borders, including its regions - the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia and the Tskhinvali Region/South Ossetia." [112] The Foreign Minister of Abkhazia, Vyacheslav Chirikba, responded by claiming that Vanuatu had not officially withdrawn its recognition of Abkhazia.[113]

 Tuvalu 18 September 2011 (Abkhazia)
19 September 2011 (South Ossetia)[114][115]
18 September 2011 (With Abkhazia)
19 September 2011 (With South Ossetia)[115][116]
On 31 March 2014 Georgia and Tuvalu signed an agreement on establishing diplomatic and consular relations. The agreement was signed by Tuvalu's Minister of Environmental Protection, Foreign Affairs, Labour and Trade, and Georgian Foreign Minister Maya Panjikidze during the visit of Tuvalu's governmental delegation to Georgia. The agreement stipulates that both sides agreed to develop relations on the grounds of the principles of sovereign equality, friendly relations and cooperation, territorial integrity, non-violation of borders and non-interference in homeland affairs. It emphasises that Tuvalu recognises the territorial integrity of Georgia within its international recognised borders, including its regions – Abkhazia’s autonomous republic and Tskhinvali region.[3][4][117]

UN member states

States which recognised Abkhazia or South Ossetia as independent, but subsequently withdrew recognition

State Date of recognition Diplomatic relations established Notes
1  Abkhazia
 South Ossetia
[note 1] 26 September 2007 [90] Abkhazia and South Ossetia mutually recognise each other.[91]
Embassy of South Ossetia to Abkhazia was opened on 15 April 2008.[78]
Ambassador of Abkhazia Nodar Pliev presented his credentials to South Ossetian President Eduard Kokoity on 10 December 2010.[92]
2  Transnistria [note 1] [note 1] Transnistria, Abkhazia and South Ossetia mutually recognise each other.[91]
Consulate of South Ossetia to Transnistria was opened. Embassy of Transnistria to South Ossetia to open.[93]
3  Nagorno-Karabakh 17 November 2006 [94] Nagorno-Karabakh, Abkhazia and South Ossetia mutually recognise each other.[95] On 12 February 2010 it was announced that it is expected to establish diplomatic relations with Abkhazia.[96]

Other states

State Date of recognition Diplomatic relations established Notes
1  Russia 26 August 2008[22][63][64] 9 September 2008[65] Ambassadors Semyon Grigoriyev and Elbrus Kargiyev presented their credentials to Abkhaz President Sergey Bagapsh and South Ossetian President Eduard Kokoity on 16 December 2008.[66][67]
Embassy of Russia to South Ossetia was opened on February 2009.[68]
Embassy of Russia to Abkhazia was opened on 1 May 2009.[69] Embassy of South Ossetia to Russia was opened in 2009. Embassy of Abkhazia to Russia was opened on 18 May 2010.[70]
2  Nicaragua 5 September 2008[71][72][73] 10 September 2009 (With Abkhazia) [74][75]
14 April 2010 (With South Ossetia) [76]
Ambassador of Nicaragua to Abkhazia resident in Moscow.[77]
"The formal part of the process to open diplomatic missions of Abkhazia and S. Ossetia in Managua has been completed" told Samuel Santos, foreign minister of Nicaragua.[78]

Embassy of South Ossetia to Nicaragua was opened on 30 August 2011.[79]

3  Venezuela 10 September 2009[80] 9 July 2010 (With South Ossetia)
12 July 2010 (With Abkhazia) [81][82]
President Hugo Chávez met the leaders of both states in Caracas and said "I'm sure we, together with Abkhazia and South Ossetia, will be able to build strong relations with Latin American nations such as Paraguay, Uruguay, Cuba, Bolivia, Ecuador, Brazil and Argentina."[83]
Ambassador of Venezuela Hugo José García Hernández presented his credentials to Abkhaz President Sergey Bagapsh on 12 July 2010."[84]
Embassy of Abkhazia to Venezuela was opened on 12 July 2010.[85]
4  Nauru 15 December 2009 (Abkhazia)
16 December 2009 (South Ossetia) [86][87]
15 December 2009 (With Abkhazia)
16 December 2009 (With South Ossetia) [88]
Representatives of Nauru were present as observers for the presidential elections in Abkhazia on 26 August 2011.[89]

UN member states

States formally recognising Abkhazia or South Ossetia as independent

A world map, showing the status of international recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia independence by nation:
  Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
  States that recognise both Abkhazia and South Ossetia as independent.
  States that do not recognise either.

Positions taken by states

Abkhazia said it would not take part in the "Geneva Talks on Security and Stability in the Caucacus" in June 2010 because of concerns over the objectivity of the co-chairmen who were representatives of the UN, the EU, and OSCE. A spokesman said "Our proposals are being ignored, discussions on the non-renewal of war are being procrastinated, instead secondary questions are being discussed. Thereupon we feel the co-chairmen have no real proposals, and we want to give them time till September to prepare a document, concerning security, and acceptable for all sides. The Geneva discussions are necessary, and it is normal that each party voices its position, but the mediators must be neutral and non-biased. But the mediators fail to conduct discussions in a constructive impartial manner."[62]

Other events

In September 2009, Russian Permanent Representative to the United Nations, Vitaly Churkin, when asked by journalists why Abkhazia and South Ossetia should be internationally recognised and Kosovo not, said that "the strongest argument is the fact that at the time when Kosovo’s authorities made the UDI, nobody was threatening them or putting them in a position where they had to secede. On the contrary, Belgrade even went so far as to refrain from exerting any military or economic pressure on Pristina."[61]

Some analysts at the time called ignoring Russian objections and the move by the United States and the EU-3 a mistake, with Ted Galen Carpenter of the Cato Institute stating that their view of Kosovo being sui generis and setting no precedent as "extraordinarily naïve".[58] It was also suggested at the time that Russia could use the case of Kosovo as pretext for recognising Abkhazia and South Ossetia in the future.[58][59] Other analysts, including the Heritage Foundation, offer that Kosovo is no precedent due to its administration by the United Nations as a protectorate for seven years and was blocked from being recognised by the United Nations due to Russia and China being able to use their veto in the Security Council.[60]

"Now we can talk until we're blue in the face trying to say there is no analogy here, but it doesn't cover up the obvious analogy between Kosovo and what's going on in Georgia where you have breakaway republics similar to what the Serbs face. Now the only difference is of course, we're Americans and they're Russians. And the people trying to break away there were pro-Russian.
And either we're for democracy — either we're for those people in Kosovo and in Ossetia and elsewhere — and in, I might say, in Georgia and their right to be separate from Russia in the beginning — to begin with — if we lose that, we've lost the high ground. We're already losing our credibility right now, let's not lose the high ground."[57]

In the United States, in hearings before the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, Congressman Dana Rohrabacher said:[56]

The setting of a precedent was mentioned by many countries, including Argentina,[52] the People's Republic of China, Cuba,[53] Greece and Spain. India stated that Kosovo "can set a very dangerous precedent for similar cases around the world."[54] The then Russian President Vladimir Putin described the recognition by Western powers of Kosovan independence as a "terrible precedent, which will de facto blow apart the whole system of international relations, developed not over decades, but over centuries."[55] He then went on to say, "they have not thought through the results of what they are doing. At the end of the day it is a two-ended stick and the second end will come back and hit them in the face."[55]

In an emergency session of the UN Security Council, Serbian President Boris Tadić asked the Council, "Are we all aware of the precedent that is being set and are we aware of the catastrophic consequences that it may lead to?" The permanent representatives of the United States, United Kingdom and France presented their opinion that the Kosovo case is sui generis in nature and could not be perceived as a precedent.[51]

The Assembly of Kosovo, under temporary administration of the United Nations (UNMIK) since 1999, unilaterally declared independence as the "Republic of Kosovo" on 17 February 2008.[49] The Republic of Kosovo was instantly recognised by the United States and the EU-3 and now has been recognised by 108 United Nations member states.[50]

Comparisons with Kosovo

South Ossetia is recognised by Russia and three other countries
Abkhazia is recognised by Russia and three other countries


The OSCE,[47] and the United States[48] immediately voiced displeasure with Russia's decision.

Western response

In January 2010, Georgia adopted a strategy regarding the reintegration of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. The strategy is called Involvement through Cooperation and it was presented to the international organisations as well as to Abkhazia and South Ossetia. The document says Georgia views peaceful methods as the only way for conflict solution and that there won’t be a war with these regions. It envisions engagement of people of these two regions through education as well as social, economic and business projects, instead of isolation.[44][45]

Georgia criticised Nauru following the small island state's recognition of Abkhazia. Minister of Reintegration Temur Yakobashvili stated "The recognition of Abkhazia's independence by Nauru is more like a comedy ... it changes nothing on the international arena".[43]

[42] On 28 August, the


The question of the re-establishment of the territorial integrity of Georgia and the protection of its freedom — this is not an internal Georgian problem, or a question of Georgia and Russia. This is now a question of Russia and the rest of the civilised world. Georgia's future, is not only the future of Georgia, this is the future of the whole civilised world...
This is inconceivable lawlessness and insolence ... Russia has done unthinkable damage to its place in the international community.
This is the first attempt on European territory ... since Hitler's regime and Stalin's Soviet Union where a large state is trying unilaterally, with the use of force, to completely crush a neighbouring country and openly annex its territory.

Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili considered Russia's move as an attempt to alter the borders of Europe by force. Below are some excerpts from his statement:[34]

Georgia's response

[33] The Russian government also welcomed Nicaragua's recognition of the two states, and called on other countries to "recognise reality" and follow Nicaragua's example.

In the UN Security Council, the territorial integrity. In response, Vitaly Churkin, the Permanent Representative of Russia to the UN, attacked the U.S. claim to moral high ground by recalling its invasion of Iraq in 2003.[29][30] Others accused the United States of hypocrisy, citing its support of the violation of Serbian territorial integrity when it recognised the independence of Kosovo in 2008.[31]

The Russian representative to NATO, Dmitry Rogozin stated that Russia's recognition of the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia is "irreversible" but called upon "NATO countries to withdraw and review their decision concerning Kosovo's independence" and subsequently "act on the premise that this is the new political reality."[26][27] He warned, moreover, that any NATO attack on Russia-supported regions would "mean a declaration of war on Russia."[28]

[25][24] Russian

President Medvedev stated that "Western countries rushed to recognise Kosovo's illegal declaration of independence from Serbia. We argued consistently that it would be impossible, after that, to tell the Abkhazians and Ossetians (and dozens of other groups around the world) that what was good for the Kosovo Albanians was not good for them. In international relations, you cannot have one rule for some and another rule for others."[23]

On 26 August 2008, President Medvedev signed decrees recognising the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia as sovereign states (see images, right),[19][20] and made the following statement:

After hearing the aforementioned appeals from both the Abkhazian and South Ossetian leadership, on 25 August 2008, the Federation Council and State Duma passed motions calling upon President Dmitry Medvedev to recognise the independence of both states and establish diplomatic relations.[17][18]

Russian Presidential Decree No. 1261 recognising South Ossetian independence.
Russian Presidential Decree No. 1260 recognising Abkhazian independence.
President Medvedev announcing that he has signed decrees recognising the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia (in Russian) Transcript in English

Russia's recognition

The [17]

In April 2008, the [13][14]

Kosovo's declaration of independence on 17 February 2008 and its divided international acceptance prompted speculation that there could be implications for the frozen South Caucasus situation.[12]

Developments in 2008

South Ossetia declared independence from Georgia during the Constitution was adopted on 26 November 1994.[10][11]



  • History 1
    • Developments in 2008 1.1
  • Russia's recognition 2
    • Georgia's response 2.1
    • Western response 2.2
  • Controversy 3
    • Comparisons with Kosovo 3.1
    • Other events 3.2
  • Positions taken by states 4
    • States formally recognising Abkhazia or South Ossetia as independent 4.1
      • UN member states 4.1.1
      • Other states 4.1.2
    • States which recognised Abkhazia or South Ossetia as independent, but subsequently withdrew recognition 4.2
      • UN member states 4.2.1
    • States that do not recognise Abkhazia or South Ossetia as independent 4.3
      • UN member states 4.3.1
      • Other states 4.3.2
  • Positions taken by intergovernmental organisations 5
  • Positions taken by non-state actors 6
    • Regions with independent governments 6.1
    • International non-governmental organisations 6.2
  • See also 7
  • Notes 8
  • References 9

Georgia and the majority of countries of the world do not recognise them as independent.[5] Georgia officially considers them as sovereign territory of the Georgian state under Russian military occupation.[6]

Following the 6 and 5 UN member states respectively, though Vanuatu subsequently withdrew its recognition of Abkhazia in 2013 as did Tuvalu of both in 2014.[2][3][4] The two regions recognise each other, and also have some recognition from other non-UN member states.


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