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Jatropha

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Title: Jatropha  
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Subject: Aviation biofuel, Biofuel in India, Jatropha curcas, Polyura agraria, Bioenergy in China
Collection: Jatropha, Medicinal Plants, Poisonous Plants
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Jatropha

Jatropha
Spicy Jatropha (Jatropha integerrima)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Subfamily: Crotonoideae
Tribe: Jatropheae
Genus: Jatropha
L.[1]
Species

Approximately 170, see Section Species.

Jatropha is a genus of flowering plants in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae. The name is derived from the Greek words ἰατρός (iatros), meaning "physician," and τροφή (trophe), meaning "nutrition," hence the common name physic nut. Another common name is nettlespurge.[2] It contains approximately 170 species of succulent plants, shrubs and trees (some are deciduous, like Jatropha curcas). Most of these are native to the Americas, with 66 species found in the Old World.[3] Plants produce separate male and female flowers. As with many members of the family Euphorbiaceae, Jatropha contains compounds that are highly toxic.

In 2007, pests, and produces seeds containing 27-40% oil,[5] averaging 34.4%.[6] The remaining press cake of jatropha seeds after oil extraction could also be considered for energy production.[7] However, despite their abundance and use as oil and reclamation plants, none of the Jatropha species have been properly domesticated and, as a result, their productivity is variable, and the long-term impact of their large-scale use on soil quality and the environment is unknown.[8] Igbinosa and colleagues (2009) demonstrated potential broad spectrum antimicrobial activity of J. curcas.[9]

Contents

  • Uses 1
  • Toxicity 2
  • Selected species 3
  • Gallery 4
    • Formerly placed here 4.1
  • Synonyms 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

Uses

Jatropha pandurifolia in China

The stems of haat (Jatropha cuneata) are used for basketmaking by the Seri people in Sonora, Mexico. The stems are roasted, split and soaked through an elaborate process. The reddish dye that is often used is made from the root of another plant species, Krameria grayi. Spicy jatropha (J. integerrima) is cultivated as an ornamental in the tropics for its continuously blooming crimson flowers. Buddha belly plant (J. podagrica) was used to tan leather and produce a red dye in Mexico and the southwestern United States. It is also used as a house plant.

The oil from fertilizer. It can also be used as a bio-pesticide and for medicinal purposes.

Furthermore, it has been found that Jatropha curcas can be planted in arid and hot regions such as the desert areas of Egypt, India, and Madagascar, and contribute a reduction of up to 25 t of CO2 per hectare per year from the atmosphere (over a 20 yr period),[10] while still producing bio fuel and also the dry cakes from the oil extraction. Currently, research plantations are being planted to test the results and see the viability of this.

Toxicity

Much like other members of the family Euphorbiaceae, members of the genus Jatropha contain several toxic compounds. The seeds of Jatropha curcas contain the highly poisonous toxalbumin curcin, a lectin dimer. They also contain carcinogenic phorbol.[11] Despite this, the seeds are occasionally eaten after roasting, which reduces some of the toxicity. Its sap is a skin irritant, and ingesting as few as three untreated seeds can be fatal to humans. In 2005 Western Australia banned Jatropha gossypiifolia as invasive and highly toxic to people and animals.[12]

Selected species

Jatropha multifida

Gallery

Formerly placed here

Synonyms

References

  1. ^ a b L"Jatropha"Genus: . Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-10-05. Retrieved 2010-08-13. 
  2. ^ "Jatropha".  
  3. ^ Heller, Joachim (1996). Promoting the Conservation and Use of Underutilized and Neglected Crops Volume 1: Physic Nut, Jatropha Curcas L. Bioversity International. p. 7.  
  4. ^ Jatropha Plant Gains Steam In Global Race for Biofuels
  5. ^ Achten WMJ, Mathijs E, Verchot L, Singh VP, Aerts R, Muys B 2007. Jatropha biodiesel fueling sustainability?. Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining 1(4), 283-291.[3] doi:10.1002/bbb.39 The Jatropha Archives
  6. ^ Achten WMJ, Verchot L, Franken YJ, Mathijs E, Singh VP, Aerts R, Muys B 2008. Jatropha bio-diesel production and use. (a literature review) Biomass and Bioenergy 32(12), 1063-1084.[4] doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2008.03.003 The Jatropha Archives
  7. ^ Jongschaap REE, Blesgraaf RAR, Boogaard TA, Van Loo EN, Savenije HHG. The water footprint of bioenergy from Jatropha curcas L. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 106(35)E92. doi:10.1073/pnas.0907272106
  8. ^ World Agroforestry Centre (2007) When oil grows on trees World Agroforestry Centre press release. 26 April 2009.
  9. ^ Igbinosa OO, Igbinosa EO and Aiyegoro OA (2009) Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening of stem bark extracts from Jatropha curcas (Linn). African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology Vol. 3(2). pp. 058-062
  10. ^ K. Becker, V. Wulfmeyer, T. Berger, J. Gebel, and W. Münch: "K. Becker1, V. Wulfmeyer2, T. Berger3, J. Gebel4, and W. Münch", Earth system dynamics, 4, 237-251, 2013.
  11. ^ http://www.drugsandpoisons.com/2008/01/lectins-peas-and-beans-gone-bad.html
  12. ^ MacIntyre, Ben (2007-07-08). "Poison plant could help to cure the planet". London: The Times. Retrieved 2008-06-09. 
  13. ^ Staff, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Jatropha pandurifolia
  14. ^ a b "Jatropha"Species Records of . Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2011-03-19. 
  15. ^ "Jatropha".  

External links

Media related to at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Jatropha at Wikispecies

  • BBC report of Jatropa Biofuel
  • "Size does matter - The possibilities of cultivating Jatropha curcas for biofuel production in developing countries".  Case study report on the relationship with food security. Contains lots of references and background information.
  • Polgreen, Lydia (September 9, 2007). "Mali’s Farmers Discover a Weed’s Potential Power". New York Times. Retrieved 2007-09-09. 
  • Any lessons for Ghana? India jatropha failure
  • Is jatropha really the miracle?
  • Jatropha: what the public should know
  • Jatropha not a miracle biofuel crop after all
  • Jon R. Luoma (May 4, 2009). "Hailed as a Miracle Biofuel, Jatropha Falls Short of Hype". environment360. Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies. Retrieved 2011-10-11. 
  • Jatropha in West African plants – A Photo Guide.
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