World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article
 

Johann Spurzheim

Johann Spurzheim
Johann Spurzheim
Born December 31, 1776
Trier, Electorate of Trier, Germany
Died November 10, 1832
Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Nationality German
Fields Phrenology
Influences Franz Josef Gall
Phrenology chart attributed to Dr. Spurzheim. Lithograph submitted to the Library of Congress by Pendleton's Lithography, 1834.

Johann Gaspar Spurzheim (1776–1832) was a German physician who became one of the chief proponents of phrenology, which was developed c. 1800 by Franz Joseph Gall (1758–1828).

Biography

Spurzheim was born near Trier, Germany, on December 31, 1776, and studied medicine at the University of Vienna. He became acquainted with Gall in 1800 and was soon hired by him as an assistant. Gall intended to have Spurzheim as his successor and added his name as a co-author to books and publications. In 1812, however, Gall and Spurzheim had a falling out, and Spurzheim started a separate career, lecturing and writing extensively on what he termed 'Drs. Gall and Spurzheim's physiognomical System'. He greatly popularised phrenology, and travelled extensively throughout Europe, achieving considerable success in England and France.

He died of typhoid in Boston in 1832, cutting short his first and only American tour. After the public autopsy of Spurzheim, his brain, skull, and heart were removed, preserved in jars of alcohol as relics, and put on display to the public.[1] Adoring Bostonians staged an elaborate public funeral and erected a monument in Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts.[2]

Spurzheim made many alterations to Gall's phrenological system, including an increase in the number of "organs", as well as its organization into a hierarchical system. Spurzheim also used images and busts to illustrate the craniographic approach of phrenology.

References

  1. ^ Walsh, Anthony, "The American Tour of Dr. Spurzheim", Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 27 (1972), pp. 187-205.
  2. ^ Spurzheim Monument at Mount Auburn Cemetery

External links

  • Johann Gaspar Spurzheim. WhoNamedIt.
  • Talking Heads: Phrenology at the Countway Library, 2002.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.