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Kanwari

Kanwari, Hisar district, Haryana, India
कंवारी, हिसार ज़िला, हरियाणा, भारत
Kunwari, Knwari or Kwari
Village
Kanwari in Haryana, India
Coordinates:
Country  India
State Haryana
District Hisar
Founded by Indus Valley Civilization
Named for Bua Kanwari (Virgin Goddess)
Government
 • Type Local government
 • Body Panchayat
 • Sarpanch Ms. Rajpati
Elevation 215 m (705 ft)
Population (2010)
 • Total 5,733
Languages
 • Official Hindi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 125037[1]
Vehicle registration HR
Website http://kanwari.webnode.com
Kanwari & Haryana in India

Kanwari (Hindi: कंवारी), also spelled Kunwari, Knwari or Kwari, is still-inhabited ancient village of less than 7000 population, as well as an archaeological site of 4000 years old Indus Valley Civilization (Indus-Saraswati civilization), in Hansi-I Tehsil of Hisar District (ज़िला: हिसार) of Haryana (हरियाणा) state in north India (भारत).

It is situated 166 kilometres (103 mi) from national capital Delhi and 24 kilometres (15 mi) from district head quarter Hisar (city) on Hisar-Tosham road.[2] Kanwari has earned the reputation of being a village that has brought glory to the nation by giving many journalists, army soldiers, international and national sports stars.

History

Kanwari is an ancient village, existing during the Indus Valley Civilization, Tomara Dynasty and Chauhan rulers of Delhi, Delhi Sultanate, Mughal Empire, Maratha Empire, Jat-Sikh rulers, later under British Raj and finally in independent India since 1947 mostly ruled under Jat Chief Ministers in a democratic setup. After Independence of India in 1947, Kanwari became part of Punjab. Once Haryana was formed as a separate state in 1966, Kanwari became part of Hisar district in Haryana State.

The village is also the location of the Indus Valley Civilization (2500 to 4000 years old) archaeological mound.[3][4] More details at Kanwari Indus Valley Archaeological Mound.

Kanwari has an old Shiva temple called 'Baba Siri Gir' and an Akhara (abode) for sadhus (Hindu mystics) as well as a temple of the village deity called 'Bua Kanwari' (Virgin Deity) where newlyweds go for blessings before entering the village.


Transport connectivity

Road connectivity

Road Distance From Kanwari
Place & Direction km
Hisar (North-West)
  
25
Kaimri (North-West)
  
22
Hisar (North-West)
  
15
Hansi (North-East)
  
32
Chandigarh (North-East)
  
254
Shimla (North-East)
  
356
Muzadpur (East)
  
2
Rohtak (East)
  
87
Delhi (East)
  
166
Balawas (South)
  
2
Nalwa (South-East)
  
4
Tosham (South-East)
  
16
Bhiwani (South-East)
  
40
Bidhwan (South-West)
  
52
Jhumpa (South-West)
  
76
Loharu (South-West)
  
79
Badya Jattan (West)
  
4
Clock-wise from Kanwari

Kanwari is well-connected by the Matelled Asphalt (paved bitumen) road and 5 different roads converge at Kanwari. Places in clock-wise direction from Kanwari are:[5]

To North is Hisar (city) 24 km on Hisar-Tosham-Bhiwani MDR 108 (Major District Road 108).

To North-East is Hansi 43 km via Umra link road number 1409.

To East is Muzadpur 2 km via link road.

To South are Balawas 2 km and Nalwa 4 km; further South-West continuing on the same Hisar-Tosham-Bhiwani MDR 108 (Major District Road 108) are Tosham 16 km and Bhiwani 40 km.

To West is Badya Jattan 4 km via a link road, that also leads to Hisar via Mangali 15 km and Kaimri 22 km.

Train connectivity

Kanwari does not have a rail station. Nearest major train stations accessible by road are 24 km (15 mi) at Hisar, 24 km (15 mi) at Hansi and 45 km at Bhiwani city.

Airport connectivity

Hisar Airport, the nearest functional airport and flying training club is 24 km (15 mi) away. Currently no commercial domestic or international flights from this airport. Nearest domestic and international airport is 200 km (120 mi) at Delhi.

Demographics

Demography of Kanwari, 2011 Census
Category Population
Number of Household
1,147
Total Population
5,733
Scheduled Caste
1,196








Religions in Kanwari as of 2011.

  Hindus (100%)
  Other (0%)
A home in the village
Another view of a home in the village

As per a July 2010 official report,[6] Kanwari has 1,147 households with a total population of 5,733 with 1,196 Scheduled Caste inhabitants.

All of the people living in the village are Hindus. The majority of people living in the village are Jats. There are Brahmins, Lohar, Khati, Balmiki, Harijans, Nai, Baniya, and other Hindu castes.

There were a few Kumhar (potter) families who converted to Islam during the Mughal Empire era (1526–1858). After the 1947 partition of India, these families reconverted to and were accepted into the Hindu religion. Since 1947, Kanwari is a 100% Hindu village.

Kanwari is influenced by the reformist Hindu Movement of Arya Samaj.

As per 2001 census, Kanwari had 896 households and a population of 5,119. There were 2,712 males and 2,407 females. 835 people were below the age of 6. The number literate were 2,655, of which 1,739 were male and 916 were female. The working population was 2,581.[7]

Kanwari is covered by The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act and 135 Job cards were issued under this legislation as of July 2010.[8]

Administration

Kanwari is under Hisar Lok Sabha Constituency (lower house).

Jan Sahayak e-Governance Services

Government of Haryana services are accessible via their Official website.

Government of India e-governance services can be availed online at their website for various govt departments including land & revenue (land rights and ownership records), transport (driving license and vehicle registration), health (birth and death ceritifcates), public health (water and swerage connection), food (ration cards), Power (electricity connection) and HUDA or Municipal Committee/council (house tax and building plans), etc.[9]

Haryana Govt e-services Hissar District e-services e-Disha e-services Govt of India e-services

Panchayat & Local Governance

Kanwari is an administrative unit and has a democratically elected panchayat samiti (local council). Currently, Ms. Rajpati is Sarpanch (elected head of the village council) of Kanwari.[10]

Currently, Kanwari is under Hisar Zilla Panchayat Smiti & Hansi-I Intermediate panchayat, and has its own unreserved Gram Panchayat under Gram Panchayat code 25444 [11] and census village code 00412900.[12]

Geographical & Electoral Administration

Kanwari has been assigned to Hansi-I block of Hansi Tehsil in Hisar district under Hisar Division of Haryana state in India. Kanwari is under Hansi Vidhan Sabha and Hisar Lok Sabha constituency in Hisar District.[13]

Revenue, Agriculture, Health and Other Services

There is a Patwari (Government Land Records Officer), an ADO (Agriculture Development Officer),[14] a Rural Health Officer (RHO), and an Anganwadi (Community) Worker based at Kanwari.

There is Yuva Mandal (Youth club) established in 1990 by the youths of the village to spread the social awareness among the villagers about the importance of education, their rights and creation of attitude for a positive change. Currently, Baljeet Jangra is the Pardhan (Chairman) and Sudarshan Sheoran is the Cashier for the same. It received an award for the Best Yuva Mandal in the Hissar district.


Education

A child playing at water tank at the Government Girl's Middle school (former co-ed Govt school)

Kanwari has a two government schools, a private government approved teachers training college and few more private schools.

  • Government Girl's High school (former co-ed Govt school)
  • Senior Secondary Government school for Boys
  • There are 2 private schools in the village (e.g. J.D> Senior Secondary School) and a famous private school in the nearby Bure village in which a number of students have joined
  • RDS College of Education [15] that imparts Bachelor of Education (B.Ed) degrees
  • There is a Government Degree college at Nalwa (6 km or 4mile from Kanwari)
  • There are many more educational institutes and 3 universities at Hisar (city) (24 km or 17mile from Kanwari).

Climate

Kanwari is a semi-arid region and agriculture is supported mainly by canals and ground water irrigation. Kanwari lies 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) away from the northeast edge of the Thar Desert.[16] Hot winds, locally known as 'Loo', are strong and frequent from May to July. Intermittent dust storms are common. In the winter some rain is received due to western disturbances.

Climate data for Hisar (1951–1980)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 21.4
(70.5)
24.7
(76.5)
30.5
(86.9)
36.8
(98.2)
40.7
(105.3)
41.0
(105.8)
37.0
(98.6)
35.1
(95.2)
35.4
(95.7)
34.3
(93.7)
29.1
(84.4)
23.5
(74.3)
32.5
(90.5)
Average low °C (°F) 05.5
(41.9)
08.3
(46.9)
13.7
(56.7)
19.4
(66.9)
24.2
(75.6)
27.7
(81.9)
27.0
(80.6)
26.0
(78.8)
23.7
(74.7)
17.8
(64)
11.0
(51.8)
06.5
(43.7)
17.6
(63.7)
Rainfall mm (inches) 013.4
(0.528)
015.5
(0.61)
012.1
(0.476)
005.6
(0.22)
020.3
(0.799)
042.9
(1.689)
140.7
(5.539)
146.9
(5.783)
065.0
(2.559)
014.8
(0.583)
006.1
(0.24)
007.3
(0.287)
490.6
(19.313)
Avg. rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 1.1 1.2 1.3 0.6 1.3 3.0 6.9 7.5 3.5 0.9 0.5 0.7 28.5
Source: India Meteorological Department[17]

Kanwari has a continental climate, with very hot summers and relatively cool winters. Summer starts in April and lasts till the middle of October. May is the hottest month, with the maximum day temperatures in the 48 °C (118 °F) range. Hisar experiences a weak monsoon, from late June to September, with about 15 inches (380 mm) of rain. Winter starts in November and is mild and sunny, although temperatures may reach freezing on some nights.

Main ecological issues are desertification, deforestation, encroachment and land grabbing of common Panchayat forest and grazing land called "bani". Deterioration of scant Acacia vegetation on the slopes of stable sand dunes has reactivated the dune building activity. The active and reactivated dunes are Sub-Recent in age.[18]

Indus Valley Archaeological Mound

Kanwari Indus Valley Civilization Mound-1

There are three unexcavated Indus Valley Civilization archaeological sites at Kanwari village waiting to be explored by the archaeologists.

The primary mound is located at coordinates longitude:28.977120N & longitude= 75.820861E, bounded by the Bua Rani Kanwari Dham to the east, bitumen paved village approach road to the north and the main village Pond/johad running below the site from south to west, to the south there are two old disused Wells. For the location of the mound-1 click here.

Kanwari Indus Valley Civilization Mound-2

This is located at coordinates longitude:28.977120N & longitude=75.820861E. Mound 1, 2 and 3 were one large contiguous mound. But area between mound 1 and 3 has been encroached upon by the villagers who are unaware of the Indus Valley Civilization archaeological mounds and their ancient heritage, and they expanded the small Bua Kunwari MADHI into a large DHAM (temple) and adjacent Gaushala (Cow refuse/shelter) on top of the mound. This encroached upon part of the mound is designated as mound-2. For the location of the mound-2 click here.

Kanwari Indus Valley Civilization Mound-3

Another location for the second archaeological mound is located at coordinates longitude:28.977122N & longitude=75.820861E, within the south-east corner of the Bua Rani Kanwari Dham[19] boundary walls bounded by the Hissar-Tosham Road to the east, Jharna Johad/pond to the south, main Bua Kanwari Temple structure to the west, bitumen paved village approach road to the north. The residents of Bua Rani Kanwari Dham use the top of this mound to grow vegetables and in the process damaging the mound. The location of the mound-3 click here.

Location Map of the Mounds

Location of both these mounds can be identified in this wikimap.

Excavation of the Mounds

Solak Ram in his 1972 unpublished thesis from Kurukshetra University reported that, during priliminary excavation at the archaeological dig early gray ware and ancient materials were found.[3][4][20] This 1972 thesis of Silak Ram and more details must be available at Kurukshetra university library.

Dangers to the Mounds: Lack of Awareness of the Villagers

Mounds have been encroached upon by the villagers and in the severe danger of vanishing soon if urgent actions are not taken. Villagers dig the mound to take away the mud for construction, a Goshala (cow shelter), an old age home and Bua Kanwari temple complex has been built on top of parts of the mound.

There is urgent need to educate the villagers and school kids about preserving these mounds. Panchayat and people of the village need to make formal and repeated demands from the archaeological department of Government of Haryana and Archaeological Survey of India of Government of India, as well as the history department of the Kurukshetra University and local collages to excavate the mounds.

Other Nearby Archaeological Sites

Other nearby Indus Valley Civilization archaeological sites are Agroha Mound, Banawali, Lohari Ragho, Masudpur, Rakhigarhi and Siswal all within Hisar district as well as Burj, Bhirrana, Kunal and Balu in Fatehabad district[21] and Mitathal and Naurangabad in Bhiwani district. Here is the List of Indus Valley Civilization sites.

The Bua Kanwari Dham: Virgin Goddess Temple of Ancestor Worship

Bua Kanwari Temple

The Bua Rani Kanwari Dham is a temple complex of the village deity called 'Bua Kanwari' (Virgin Deity) where newlyweds go for blessings before entering the village.

Antiquity of the Bua Rani Kanwari Dham

During renovations of the Bua Kanwari temple carried out in 2001 to 2003, ancient stone statues of Hindu deities were found. These stone statues are yet to be scientifically dated or examined by trained archaeologists. The statues are stored in the basement under the temple.

The Bua Rani Kanwari Dham Temple Complex

The complex encompasses the main temple structure that on top of the site of older temple that was excavated and rebuilt in 2001-03 using marble, residential quarters for the priests and travelers (free of cost), Lord Shiva statue, vegetable cultivation patches for the sustenance of the priests and caretakers. Sadly it is built upon the Indus Valley Civilization archaeological site by the villagers who are unaware of their 400 years old rich cultural heritage.

The main temple structure houses the ancient black stone statue of the Bua Kanwari that was reused from the older smaller temple of pre-2001-03. Statue itself is made of the black stone, of a virgin deity below the waist.

Immediately, South of the temple is a flight of landings leading to the main johad/pond used for ablutions and rituals.

The complex also has a Gaushala (cow shelter).

Folklore of the Bua Kanwari

Bada Johad pond in the fading light, viewed from the Bua Kanwari temple.JPG

Name of Kanwari village is after the 'Bua Kanwari' i.e. Paternal Aunt who is virgin. Bua means paternal aunt and Kumari means virgin girl which is pronounced as kunwari or kanwari on the local Haryanvi dialect of the Hindi language. Bua Kanwari was a virgin daughter/ancestor of this village after whom village is named.

As per stories passed down by generations, she went out with her domestic animals to take them out in the fields for a feed, when she was returning, she heard that two marriage parties have arrived to marry her (due to some unknown confusion). She was so ashamed of this that she prayed to god to be turned into stone, she started to turn into stone starting from her feet. One of the groom rushed to her on horse and her upper torso was still flesh while her lower body had already turned into stone. Groom quickly used his sword to cut her body in half and took her upper (still in flesh) with him.

This temple now has an ancient statue of lower portion (below torso) of Bua Kumari. Recently villagers have renovated this temple, during renovation they dug up to several feet and found many broken statues. These are now kept in the basement built underneath the main deity Bua Kunwari's statue.

Wedding Rituals At Bua Kanwari

View of Jharna johad from the Bua Kanwari temple on the banks of Bada Johad, green mudbank on the left where wedding ritual of excavating mud from the pond is performed by the newly wed couples

The Bua Kunwari is a shrine of the Kanwari village. The prayer by the newly weds at Bua Kunwari is sought to invoke blessing of ancestors. It is a ritual that invokes divine blessings for the future prosperity, fertility to seek children, to reinfoce the gratitude to the ancestors and elder, reinforces the connection to the roots. All newly married men of the village bring their brides there.

Bua Kanwari is very prominent and she is so revered that every groom from this village will go and pray during Nikasi which is a Hindu wedding ceremony where groom from the Kanwari village takes out a celebratory wedding procession through the streets of the village on the horseback, with friend and family dancing to the music and band, to seek the blessings of the elders of the various families in the village. Procession finally reaches the village deity Bua Kunwari's temple on the bank of the "johand" (pond/lake) on the outskirts of the village. After praying at Bua Kunwari temple, the groom and male friends and relatives leave with the marriage party, to proceed to bride's village, female of the family stay back the village to make preparation for welcoming the bride when the groom brings her back from her village after the wedding.

Similarly when the groom returns to village with his bride, the newly wed couple will go to Bua Kanwari's temple to seek blessings. During this ceremony, bride will bring clay (mitti) seven times from nearby Johad (lake/pond) and put it on a mound next to the temple. As part of the ritual, bride and groom offer he offering to the temple as gratitude and take out handful of mud from the lake next door and deposit it on the lake bank i.e. that lake is used for drinking water for human and animals in the olden times where there was no piped water supply. Maintaining and desilting the lake by digging it to make it deeper during summer to prepare it to store more water during the rain was part of annual duty of the men of the village. Rain brings silt to the Johad (pond/lake) and makes it shallower and reduces its water carrying capacity.

Location of the Bua Rani Kanwari Dham temple complex is wikimap.

The Baba Sirigir Dham: Shiva Temple Complex

Kanwari Baba Sirgar Temple
Kanwari Baba Sirgar Temple Yagya Shala

Kanwari has an old Shiva temple complex called 'Baba Sirigir Dham'. Lord Shiva is the main Hindu overall deity of the village along with the lord Hanuman, and local village deity is Bua Kanwari.

The temple complex has various structures including

  • the main Shiva temple housing the Shiva lingam and stone statues of various Hindu deities including the lord Hanuman,
  • an Akhara (abode for the hermits) for Sadhus (Hindu mystics) where Sadhus have their "dhuni" (hearth) where they reside and partake in discussions among themselves and villagers, as well as smoke "ganja" for the religious reasons. This is also a place for the village youth to practice traditional power sports, such as wrestling.
  • a 'chabutra' - a raised platform of made of brick and concrete and covered with plaster, for feeding the grain and water to the bird as a gesture of kindness, it was expanded in the early 2000s.
  • a Yagyashala - it is a canopy/paragola for performing "havana" (sacred fireworship rituals), it was built in early in the 2000s.
  • two old now-dried wells to the south-east and to the north.
  • Next to the Baba Sirigir Dham is the Ghat (stepped terraces) on the north side leading to the main Johad (water pond) where worshipers can ritually perform ablution and bathing before the "darshan" (viewing of the deities for the worship).

Location of the Baba Sirigir Dham is at wikimapia.

Geography

Bada Johad (pond) next to the Bua Kanwari temple

Southwest of Kanwari is desert, but the rest of the surrounding area is fertile plains. Kanwari has three large ponds: Bada Johad, Jharna, and Mundhala Johad. The fields are irrigated by the Sunder sub-branch extension of the Hansi-Butana branch of the Western Jamuna Canal.

The aeolian deposits at the Southwest of Kanwari comprising accumulation of sand blown from Thar desert of Rajasthan are mostly confined to south-western part of the Bidhwan. These sand accumulations occupy vast stretches of land and occur in the shape of sandy flats, mounds and ridges at places attaining dunal shapes over the sandy flats.[18]

Seismicity According to tectonic map, Kanwari lies on Delhi-Lahore Ridge which is bounded by thrusts. No earthquake of any significance has originated in the zone in the past. It has, however, experienced earthquakes originating in the great Himalayan boundary fault and the, Hindukush region. The maximum intensity experienced was VI M-M and the Kanwari has been assigned to zone II in seismic zoning map of India where the maximum seismic intensity may reach VI MM.[18]

Seven Villages

Despite its geography, Kanwari is not a part of the next-door seven-village grouping called Saat Bas Khap ("brotherhood clan of seven villages"). Umra and Sultanpur were originally considered one village, hence the name "Seven Villages". Members of the Khap brotherhood or clanship are considered to be siblings and can not marry within the clan.

Seven Village of Sat Baas are 1. Gunjar 2. Sultanpur 3. Muzadpur 4. Ramayan 5. Dhanderi 6. Depal 7. Maman pura

The village is subdivided into various 'Panna' (पान्ना) or subsectors, such as 'Parla Panna' (the upper sub-sector) or Sheoran Panna (the sub-sector of the Sheoran gotra) (clan) of the Hindu Jat, 'Nichla Panna' (the lower subsector) where majority of the residenst are Hindu Jat people of Duhan gotra (clan) and 'Bahrla Panna' (the outer subsector), each having their own community center called paras (परस) or chaupal (चौपाल).

Irrigation

The Sunder Branch of Western Yamuna Canal (originating from Yamuna river) meandering past Hansi passes through the agricultural fields of Kanwari on the eastern side between Kanwari & Muzadpur villages, and goes towards Balawas village. A water channel links this canal to Kanwari Water Works that purifies the water and supplies the potable piped water to Kanwari and nearby villages.

Flora

A mustard farm in the village.JPG

The forest land around Kanwari falls under the category of tropical desert thorn and comprise predominantly of xerophytes. Flora is scanty and sparse. Tree species found in forests, cultivated fields, waste lands and habitations are Aak, Bakain, Bar (Banyan), Ber, Eucalyptus, Jal, Kair, Neem, Jand, Kikar, Pipal, Shisham, Siris.[18][22] Shisham, kikar, siris, neem, bakain, gulmohar. parkinsonia eucalyptus, etc. have been planted along rail, road and canal strips and in other private areas. Eucalyptus is also planted in agricultural and under farm forestry scheme.

Common shrubs found are Hins, Bansa, Panwar, Babool, Mallah, Karir, Phoa, Khip, Ak (Aak) and Dhatura.

The important grasses are Anjan, Dhaman (Cenchrus_setigerus), Dub, Kana and Dabh. Anjan, dhaman and dub which are palatable fodder grasses are dwindling on account of uncontrolled grazing. The grasses in waste lands are poor in quality, and quantity.

Fauna

Animals and bird of various species are found including Sparrow, large Indian Parakeet, Parrot, Crow, Rat, Rabbit, Nilgai (State Animal of Haryana), Pied Crested Cuckoo, Koel, Pheasant, kingfisher, Bulbul and Indian Magpie Robin.

The national bird of India, the Common Peafowl (Mor) are quite common and is seen in the fields and common village land.[18]

Reptiles
Snakes: The poisonous snakes like Common krait, Russel’s viper, Phoorsa and other snakes like Blind Snake, John’s Sand Boa, Wolf Snake, Rat Snake and Sand Snake are found around the village.[18]

Lizards
The common lizards can be seen in the houses. Kirla or Girgit is found in the hedges and attracts the attention by changing its colours. Sanda is found in sandy areas.[18]

Amphibians
Two species of tortoises found are Black Pond Turtle and Three-Striped Pond Turtle in around village and the common frogs found in the village are Indian Bull Frog, Indian Cricket Frog, Indian Burrowing Frog and Common toad.[18]


Notable People from Kanwari

  • Kanwari is also known as a journalists village. The journalists Dharmender Kanwari, Sanjay Dhanda, Devender Sharma, Narender, Sukhbir Duhan, Pardeep Jakar And Sunil Poonia[24] belong to Kanwari village.

Jat gotras in the village

The following Jat gotras are found in the village.

Other gotras in the village

Kanwari in the news

On 29th December 2003, History-sheeter gangster Mahabir, hailing from Kanwari, wanted for several cases of murder, extortion and theft in 3 states, Haryana, Punjab and Delhi was shot dead with his friend Virender Singh near Hisar Civil Hospital by the rival gangster Jai Pal when they were on the way to Barwala, thus closing a dark chapter and washing Kanwari of bad name brought to Kanwari for several years through the acts of this ill-reputed gangster.[25] [26]

In May 2007, the villagers of Kanwari rescued the cattle from a transport truck and set the truck on fire.[27] The villagers had received information that the cows were being carried to the slaughterhouse, and stopped the truck. [28] Cow is sacred and worshiped by the Hindus as mother (giver of life-nurturing milk) and slaughter of cows is not permitted in the Hindu religion.

See also

Villages, Towns, Cities nearby

Indus Valley, Hsitory and Tourism related

External links

  1. Haryana Govt e-services
  2. Hissar District e-services
  3. e-Disha e-services
  4. Govt of India e-services
  • HarSamadhan Haryana Govt's e-Complaints

References

  1. ^ "Pin codes of Hisar district, Hisar pincodes, Haryana zip code". Whereincity.com. Retrieved 2010-09-22. 
  2. ^ "Hissar-Tosham Road: Going towards Hissar Kanwari (Patan Shar) On Sarswati River". Wikimapia.org. Retrieved 2010-09-22. 
  3. ^ a b An encyclopaedia of Indian archaeology - Google Books. Books.google.com.sg. Retrieved 2010-09-22. 
  4. ^ a b Silak Ram, 1972, unpublished thesis from Kurukshetra University
  5. ^ Haryana Road Network
  6. ^ "ReportYSRHabitationDistrict". Ddws.gov.in. Retrieved 2010-09-22. 
  7. ^ "Sheet 1". voiceofbharat.org. 
  8. ^ http://164.100.112.66/netnrega/writereaddata/state_out/bank_jobcard1215016_1011.html
  9. ^ http://jansahayak.gov.in/
  10. ^ http://hisar.gov.in/pdf/Block%20Panchayat.pdf
  11. ^ "Kanwari Summary". offerings.nic.in. 
  12. ^ "Kanwari GP map". offerings.nic.in. 
  13. ^ http://ceoharyana.nic.in/?module=pages&pageid=75
  14. ^ "Source: O/o Agriculture, Hisar". Hisar.nic.in. Retrieved 2010-09-22. 
  15. ^ "R.D.S. College of Education, Vill. Kanwari, Hisar(Haryana)". Rdscoekanwari.com. Retrieved 2010-09-22. 
  16. ^ http://cgwb.gov.in/District_Profile/Haryana/Hissar.pdf
  17. ^ "Climatological table of Hisar, India".  
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h "Gazetteer India Hisar" (PDF). revenueharyana.gov.in. 
  19. ^ "Bua Rani Kanwari Dham". wikimapia.org. 
  20. ^ page 244 of "Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology: Gazetteer of the explored and excavated sites, volume II", edited by: A. Gosh, ISBN 90-04-09263-3 (v2), 1989 Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt Ltd, New Delhi, India
  21. ^ "2010 Season". arch.cam.ac.uk. 
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