World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0010615111
Reproduction Date:

Title: Karvetinagar  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Chittoor district, Raju Zamindaris, Narayanavanam, Srirangarajapuram
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Location in Andhra Pradesh, India

Coordinates: 13°25′00″N 79°27′00″E / 13.4167°N 79.4500°E / 13.4167; 79.4500Coordinates: 13°25′00″N 79°27′00″E / 13.4167°N 79.4500°E / 13.4167; 79.4500

Country  India
State Andhra Pradesh
District Chittoor
Elevation 266 m (873 ft)
 • Official Telugu
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)

Karvetinagar or Karvetnagar is a village and a Mandal in Chittoor district in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India.[1]


Karvetnagar is located at 13°25′00″N 79°27′00″E / 13.4167°N 79.4500°E / 13.4167; 79.4500.[2] It has an average elevation of 266 meters (875 feet).


Karvetinagar was a former Zamindar that was most prominent during the Vijayanagar rule. The Bommaraju family traces their origins back to an ancestor who migrated from the Pithapuram area of the Godavari Delta about the 8th or 9th century. One ancestor obtained the favor of the Eastern Chalukya King, Vimala Aditya and Saluva Narasa was appoint the chief of the country around Tirupati, where he founded his capital called Narayanavanam. The rulers later built their new capital, Nagaram at this place by clearing the forest. In Tamil Kadu means forest, and vetti means clearing. Hence this place was known as Kaduvettinagaram and later known as Karvetinagaram. The founder of the family Narasa was granted permission by his patron, the Chalukyas, to use the royal seal and boar-signet of the Chalukyas, a proud distinction still kept up.

At one point Saluva Venkatapati was deposed by the Cholas. Saluva Bhima recovered their territory. Saluva Narsimha assisted a Kerala King named Kirti Varman and assumed independence, ruling for 36 years. Saluva Bhujanga was defeated and became a feudal of Western Chalukya king Someswara and taken prisoner to Kalyan where he died. Subsequent descendents recovered the estate and in 1230 AD, a part of the estate was taken over by Raja Raja Chola the second, of the Chola dynasty, but during the next four generations, as the power of the Cholas decayed, the fortunes of the Karvetinagar family rose, and in 1314 A.D The chief stabilized his power by marrying off his daughter to Prolaya Reddi, the first of the Kondavidu Reddy dynasty.[3] The family became feudatories of Vijayanagar, and had marriage alliances with the Saluva and loyalties to the Aravidu Dynasty over the next two hundred years. Around the 16th century the family changed their name to the current Bommaraju, retaining Saluva as a title.[4]

Sarangapani (17th century)

Poet Sarangapani was famous for his padams. He has written over two hundred padams. He wrote compositions in both Sanskrit and Telugu. In his personal life, he was a Vidhadhikari (Minister of Education) in the court of Maharaja Venkata Perumal who had the authority to issue Raja Sasanams (royal orders). Sarangapani was also a learned scholar of the Natya Sastra (Art of Dance). Most of his padams were in praise of Lord Krishna. He was held in high esteem not only by the ruler and the ruled, but also by contemporary musicians like Govindaswami.

Contribution: Nearly 200 padams of this composer are available in ancient fibrous paper. A study of these reveals that these padams can be divided into four categories:

  1. Sringara padams
  2. Desya padams
  3. Janapada padams
  4. Vairahya padams

All his compositions bear the mudra Venugopala, in praise of his Ishtadevata (favourite deity) of Karvetinagaram. Popular compositions: Padams like Mogadochi (Sahana), Pattakura (Anandabhairavi), and Upamugane (Yadukulakambhoji). [5]

Kathi Samu

Kathi Samu' (sword fight) is an ancient skill, mastered by the royal armies of yester years. Today this prestigious martial art remains only a pastime of those family members, who were once in the service of their Rajahs as soldiers. This is especially patronized in the native principalities and Zamindaris of Vizianagaram in the northern most coastal Andhra and Karvetinagaram in the southern most Chittoor district. The Gajapatis of Vizianagaram and the Kshatriyas of Karvetinagaram have shown special interest in the promotion and retention of this skill. The ancestors of the present-day performers were great warriors, who worked in various capacities in the military of these principalities. Today, some of the present heirs of the great tradition train a few youngsters in the art.

The swords used for Kathi samu are of various types. Besides the long, curved sword, they also use a Limcha, used in the wars earlier, and Pata, a sword with a wooden cover. A shield (daal) or the horn of a lamb is also used as a shield. While the leaders (Senapathis) use a shield, the ordinary soldiers use a horn. The performance itself starts with the skilful display of stick fight as a prelude to the sword fight and the skills shown in the use of the sword. The stick fight is called vairi. The starting is called pataka or ettubadi. A sword fight follows this. Each time two members of the team come into the garidi (fighting place) and show their skill in sword fight, using each time one particular type of sword. At the end comes the pair using two swords, one in each hand.

Other important aspects of the sword-skills are noteworthy. The first among them is the Dal Farri Khadga - a display of two people with swords and shields. Another skill is Gareja: a man holding four swords, two in each hand and move them to protect himself and to strike at the foe.[1]

The people who used to protect temples, Kings palaces and Zamindaris with their skilful use of the stick and the sword took to other jobs, but retained them as family treasures. Such is the case with Veera Mushthi people, Harijans and Nayakas whose profession of protecting the people and their properties was no more needed in the present context of the existence of the military and the police.

Karra Samu

Karra Samu (stick-fight) is an ancient skill. Young people were trained in fighting with sticks to protect themselves and protect the village. This was particularly helpful in olden days when thefts were common in villages. It was also useful to protect themselves and their properties when people travelled to far-off palaces and highway robbers used to loot them. What had started as a self-protective measure, became a pastime when the need for such self-protection had ceased.

During the village festivals and also in the marriage processions of some communities, Karra samu is a necessary attraction. When the marriage procession or the temple procession stops at a centre where four roads meet, the karra samu experts come forward and show their skills usually to the beating of the dappu. In some village in Guntur, Krishna, East and West Godavari districts, this practice still continues and it is a necessary attraction during marriage processions.

The performance starts with the showing of individual talents. A fighter comes into the arena (Garidi) and points out his stick in different angles to the beats of dappu. In some areas Tasha, an instrument, which gives fierce inspiring noise, is also used. Sometimes a whistle called Bigil is used. Then the fighter holds the stick in the middle and shows his mettle by moving it in all directions as though he is protecting himself against several opposing fighters. All the other team members also show similar skills.


Nearest railway station is Puttur (15 km) in Andhra Pradesh. Some express trains stop here. Frequent buses ply from Puttur to Chittoor via Karvetinagar. Alternatively, it can be accessed from Pallipattu (10 km) in Tamil Nadu.


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.