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Kashmiri poetry

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Kashmiri poetry

Kashmiri literature (Kashmiri: कॉशुर साहित्य, کٲشُر ساہتیہ) has a history of at least 2,500 years, going back to its glory days of Sanskrit. Early names include Patanjali, the author of the Mahabhashya commentary on Pāṇini's grammar, suggested by some to have been the same to write the Hindu treatise known as the Yogasutra, and Dridhbala, who revised the Charaka Samhita of Ayurveda.

In medieval times the great Kashmir Valley School of Art, Culture and Philosophy Kashmir Shaivism arose. Its great masters include Vasugupta (c. 800), Utpala (c. 925), Abhinavagupta, and Kshemaraja. In the theory of aesthetics one can list the Anandavardhana and Abhinavagupta. Many generations later, in our modern times, a new lease of life given, to same "school of thought" was given by Swami Lakshman Joo of Ishbher/Gupta Ganga, Srinagar, India.

The use of the Kashmiri language began with the work Mahanayakaprakash (Light of the supreme lord) by Shitikantha (c.1250),[1] and was followed by the poet Lalleshvari or Lal Ded (14th century), who wrote mystical verses in the vakh or four-line couplet style.[2] Another mystic of her time equally revered in Kashmir and popularly known as Nunda Reshi wrote powerful poetry like his senior Lal Ded. Later came Habba Khatun (16th century) with her lol style. Other major names are Rupa Bhavani (1621–1721), Arnimal (d. 1800), Mahmud Gami (1765–1855), Rasul Mir (d. 1870), Paramananda (1791–1864), Maqbool Shah Kralawari (1820–1976). Also, the Sufi poets like Shamas Fakir, Wahab Khar, Soch Kral, Samad Mir, and Ahad Zargar. Among modern poets are Ghulam Ahmad Mahjur (1885–1952), Abdul Ahad Azad (1903–1948), and Zinda Kaul (1884–1965).

During 1950s, a number of well educated youth turned to Kashmiri writing, both poetry and prose, and enriched modern Kashmiri writing by leaps and bounds. Among these writers are Dinanath Nadim (1916–1988), Rahman Rahi, Ghulam Nabi Firaq, Ali Muhammed Shahbaz, Mushtaq Kashmiri, Amin Kamil (1923-),[3] Ali Mohd Lone, Akhtar Mohiuddin, Som Nath Zutshi, Muzaffar Aazim,[4] and Sarvanand Kaul 'Premi'. Some later day writers are Hari Krishan Kaul, Majrooh Rashid, Rattanlal Shant, Hirdhey Kaul Bharti, Omkar N Koul, Roop Krishen Bhat, Rafiq Raaz, Tariq Shehraz, Shafi Shauq, Nazir Jahangir, M H Zaffar, Shenaz Rashid,Shabir Ahmad Shabir, Nisar Azam, Shabir Magami,[5] Moti Lal Kemmu (playwright).

Contemporary Kashmiri literature appears in Sheeraza published by the Jammu & Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture and Languages, Anhar published by the Kashmirri Department of the Kashmir University, and an independent magazine Neab International Kashmiri Magazine[6] published from Boston, Vaakh an independent publication and Koshur Samachar.

Ancient writers in Sanskrit

  • Mamatta
  • Kaihata
  • Jaihata
  • Kalhana
  • Ralhana
  • Jalhana
  • Shilhana
  • Malhana
  • Ruiyaka
  • Kuntaka
  • Ruchaka

Writers in Persian

After Sanskrit and before Urdu, because of the Islamic influences, Persian became the literary language of the region. Kashmir was very richly represented in that tradition, as already before the end of the 18th century "Muhammad Aslah's tazkira of the Persian poets of Kashmir, written during the reign of the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah (1131-61/1719-48), alone lists 303 poet"[7] The most famous of them was Muhammad Tahir Ghani (d. 1669), better known as Ghani Kashmiri, who had a reputation even in Iran, and who's poetry was recently translated into English, for the first time, by Mufti Mudasir Farooqi and Nusrat Bazaz as The Captured Gazelle' in the world-renowned Penguin Classics list. Ghani influenced many generations of Persian and Urdu poets including Mir Taqi Mir, Ghalib and most importantly, Iqbal. Ghani's forte lies in creating delightful poetic images, usually by stating an abstract idea in the first hemistich and following it up with a concrete exemplification in the other.He also stands out for his multi-layered poems, which exploit the double meaning of words. Another name is the Sheikh Yaqub Sarfi (1529-1594), a 16th century Sufi poet-philosopher of who was internationally acknowledged (his Persian poetry was compared to that of Nizami and Jami[8]) who had for students, amongst others, the Imam Ahmad Sirhindi and Persian-language poet Mohsin Fani Kashmiri (himself the teacher of Ghani Kashmiri). Other Some of the other more well-known Persian poets of Kashmir are Habibullah Ghanai (1556-1617), Mirza Dirab Big Juya (d. 1707), Mirza Beg Akmal Kamil (1645-1719), Muhammad Aslam Salim (d. 1718), Mulla Muhammad Taufiq (1765), Mulla Muhammad Hamid (1848) and Birbal Kachru Varasta (d. 1865)

Writers in Urdu

Despite being a numerically reduced community (less than one million), the Kashmiri Pandits are over-represented in their contribution to Urdu literature. One important early example is Daya Shankar Kaul Nasim (1811–1845), a renowned Urdu poet of the 19th century, and hundreds of others followed his path.[9]

Kashmiri drama

Suya is a Kashmiri historical drama written by Ali Mohmmad Lone. The main character of the drama is Suya. The story of the drama revoloves around the character of Suya the engineer. A lady sweeper (Chandail) was sweeping. She found a child in a dustbin. The child attracted her motherly love and she took the child to her home. The child grew up and was named Suya. Suya was admitted to a traditional school where he was taught as per the set system.

Writers in Hindi

Writers in English

See also

References

External links

  • Shehjar e-journal - Online magazine on Kashmir history, literature & politics.
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