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Khabarovsk (English)
Хабаровск (Russian)
-  City[1]  -

Monument to Yerofey Khabarov in Khabarovsk

Location of Khabarovsk Krai in Russia
Khabarovsk is located in Khabarovsk Krai
Location of Khabarovsk in Khabarovsk Krai
Coat of arms
City Day May 31
Administrative status (as of September 2011)
Country Russia
Federal subject Khabarovsk Krai[1]
Administratively subordinated to city of krai significance of Khabarovsk[1]
Administrative center of Khabarovsk Krai,[2] city of krai significance of Khabarovsk,[3] Khabarovsky District[4]
Municipal status (as of April 2004)
Urban okrug Khabarovsk Urban Okrug[5]
Administrative center of Khabarovsk Urban Okrug,[5] Khabarovsky Municipal District[6]
Mayor Alexander Sokolov
Representative body City Duma
Area 386 km2 (149 sq mi)
Population (2010 Census) 577,441 inhabitants[7]
Rank in 2010 26th
Population (January 2014 est.) 601,043 inhabitants[8]
Density 1,496/km2 (3,870/sq mi)[9]
Time zone VLAT (UTC+10:00)[10]
Founded May 31, 1858
City status since 1880
Postal code(s)[11] 680000-680150
Dialing code(s) +7 4212
Official website
on WikiCommons
Native villages near the site of the future Khabarovsk according to an English map of 1773. The map is based on an earlier French map by d'Anville, which in its turn makes use of the data collected by Jesuit cartographers in 1709. The village closest to today's Khabarovsk is labeled Hitcha. Maack's "Cape Kyrma" site (thought by B.P. Polyakov to be the site of Stepanov's Kosogorsky Ostrog) is Heremo
Old City Duma in Khabarovsk
Khabarovsk Dormition Cathedral on Komsomolskaya Square

Khabarovsk (Russian: Хабаровск; IPA: ) is the largest city and the administrative center of Khabarovsk Krai, Russia,[2] located 30 kilometers (19 mi) from the Chinese border, at the confluence of the Amur and Ussuri Rivers, about 800 kilometers (500 mi) north of Vladivostok. The city also became the administrative center of the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia in 2002. It is the second largest city in the Russian Far East, after Vladivostok. Population: 577,441 (2010 Census);[7] 583,072 (2002 Census);[12] 600,623 (1989 Census).[13]


  • History 1
    • Earliest history of the region 1.1
    • 17th-century Russian explorers 1.2
      • Khabarov's Achansk 1.2.1
    • Qing Empire 1.3
    • From Khabarovka to Khabarovsk 1.4
    • The Soviet years 1.5
    • Russian Federation 1.6
  • Administrative and municipal status 2
  • Climate 3
  • Economy 4
  • Transportation 5
  • Education 6
  • Tourism 7
  • Military 8
  • Sports 9
    • International events 9.1
  • Notable people 10
  • Twin towns and sister cities 11
  • Trivia 12
  • See also 13
  • References 14
    • Notes 14.1
    • Sources 14.2
  • External links 15


Earliest history of the region

The lands near the confluence of the Ussuri and the Amur Rivers, where today's Khabarovsk stands, have been populated for many centuries by Tungusic people, probably related to the Jurchens of the past and/or the Nanais of the present day. Chinese expeditions reached this area as early as the first half of the 15th century, when the fleets of the Ming eunuch Yishiha sailed several times from Jilin City all the way to Tyr on the lower Amur.

17th-century Russian explorers

In the mid-17th century, the Amur Valley became the scene of hostilities between the Russian Cossacks, trying to expand into the region and to collect tribute from the natives, and the rising Manchu Qing Dynasty, intent on securing the region for itself.

Khabarov's Achansk

The Russian explorers and raiders of the 1650s set up a number of more or less fortified camps (ostrogs) on the Amur; most of them were in use for only a few months, and later destroyed. It is usually thought that the first such camp in the general area of today's Khabarovsk was the fortified winter camp named Achansk (Ачанск) or Achansky gorodok (Ачанский городок), built by the Cossacks of Yerofey Khabarov in September 1651 after they had sailed to the area from the upper Amur. The fort was named after the local tribe whom Khabarov's people called "Achans".[14][15] Already on October 8 the fort was unsuccessfully attacked by joint forces of Achans and Duchers (who had good reasons to hate the Cossacks, due to their rather heavy-handed tribute-extraction tactics[16]), while many Russians were away fishing.[15] In late November, Khabarov's people undertook a three-day campaign against the local chief Zhakshur (Жакшур) (whose name is also known in a more Russian version, Zaksor (Заксор)), collecting a large amount of tribute and announcing that the locals were now subjects of the Russian Czar. Similar campaign was waged later in winter against the Ducher chief Nechiga (Нечига), farther away from Achansk.[15]

On March 24 (or 26), 1652, Fort Achansk was attacked by Manchu cavalry, led by Ninguta's commander Haise, reinforced by Ducher auxiliaries, but the Cossacks stood their ground in a day-long battle and even managed to seize the attackers' supply train.[15] Once the ice on the Amur broke in the spring of 1652, Khabarov's people destroyed their fort and sailed away.[15]

The exact location of Khabarov's Achansk has long been a subject for the debate among Russian historians and geographers.[16][17] A number of locations, both upstream and downstream of today's Khabarovsk, have been proposed since Richard Maack, one of the first Russian scholars to visit the region, identified Achansk in 1859 with the ruins on Cape Kyrma, which is located on the southern (Chinese) shore of the Amur, upstream of Khabarovsk.[16] The most widely accepted point of view is probably that of B.P. Polevoy, who believed that Khabarov's Achansk was located in the Nanai village later known as Odzhal-Bolon (Russian: Оджал-Болонь), located on the left bank of the Amur, closer to Amursk than to Khabarovsk. One of his arguments was that both Khabarov's Achan (sometimes also spelled by the explorer as Otshchan, Отщан), and Wuzhala (乌扎拉) of the Chinese records of the 1652 engagement are based on the name of the Nanai clan "Odzhal" (Оджал), corresponding to the 20th-century name of the village as well. (The name of the clan was also written as "Uzala", as in the name of its best known member, Dersu Uzala).[16]

B.P. Polevoy's view appeared to gain wide support among the Russian geographer community; petitioned by the Amur Branch of the Russian Geographical Society, the Russian Government renamed the village of Odzhal to Achan in 1977, to celebrate its connection with Khabarov's raid.[16]

As to the Cape Kyrma ruins, thought by Maack to be the remains of Achansk, B.P. Polevoy identified them as the remains of another ostrog - namely, Kosogorsky Ostrog, where Onufriy Stepanov stayed a few years later.[17]

Qing Empire

After the Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689), the area became an uncontested part of the Qing Empire for the next century and a half. Modern historical maps of the Qing period published in China mark the site of future Khabarovsk as "Boli". All of the middle and lower Amur region was nominally part of the Jilin Province, run first out of Ninguta and later out of Jilin City.

French Jesuits who sailed along the Ussury and the Amur in 1709, preparing the first more or less precise map of the region. According to them, the indigenous Nanai people living on the Ussury and on the Amur down to the mouth of the Dondon River (i.e., in the region including the site of the future Khabarovsk) were known to the Chinese as Yupi Dazi ("Fishskin Tartars")[18]

From Khabarovka to Khabarovsk

Khabarovsk - residence of the governor-general of Eastern Siberia 1895

In 1858, the area was ceded to Russia under the Treaty of Aigun. The Russians founded the military outpost of Khabarovka (Хаба́ровка), named after a Russian explorer Yerofey Khabarov. The post later became an important industrial center for the region. Town status was granted in 1880.

In 1894, a department of Russian Geographical Society was formed in Khabarovsk and began initiating the foundation of libraries, theaters, and museums in the city. Since then, Khabarovsk's cultural life has flourished. Much of the local indigenous history has been well preserved in the Regional Lore Museum and Natural History Museum and in places like near the Nanai settlement of Sikhachi-Alyan, where cliff drawings from more than 13,000 years ago can be found. The Khabarovsk Art Museum exhibits a rare collection of old Russian icons.

In 1916, Khabarovsk Bridge across the Amur was completed, allowing Trans-Siberian trains to cross the river without using ferries (or temporary rail tracks over the frozen river in winter).

The Soviet years

After the defeat of Japan in World War II, Khabarovsk was the site of the Khabarovsk War Crime Trials, in which twelve former members of the Japanese Kwantung Army and Unit 731 were put on trial for the manufacture and use of biological weapons during World War II.

Chinese Emperor Puyi, captured by Soviet troops in Manchuria was relocated to Khabarovsk and lived there from 1945 up to 1950, when he was returned to China.[19]

November 5, 1956 - commissioned the first phase of the city tram. In 1960 working of Khabarovsk television studio began. 1 September 1967 - opened the Khabarovsk Institute of Physical Education (now the Far Eastern State Academy of Physical Culture. On January 14, 1971 Khabarovsk was awarded the Order of October Revolution. 1975 saw the opening of the first stage of the urban trolley. In 1976 the city hosted an international ice hockey tournament with the ball for the prize of the newspaper "Sovietskaya Rossia" In 1981 the World Hockey Championship was held in the city.

Russian Federation

In 1996, Khabarovsk held its first mayoral elections. Paul D. Filippov, whose candidacy was supported by Governor Viktor Ishayev, was defeated. In 1998, reconstruction of the central square of Khabarovsk was completed. In May 2000, President of Russia, Vladimir Putin, decreed that new federal districts be formed, and Khabarovsk became the center of the Far Eastern Federal District.

In 2006, according to the national health project in Khabarovsk construction of high-tech medical center Center for Cardiovascular Surgery. In 2008, the train station was completely renovated. There was also reconstructed station square, which built fountains and an underground passage. In 2009, from 21 to 22 May in Khabarovsk has passed EU-Russia summit. In 2010, the Great Cossack Circle Khabarovsk was approved capital Ussuri Cossack troops. On November 3, 2012 Khabarovsk was awarded the honorary title of "City of Military Glory".

Administrative and municipal status

Khabarovsk is the administrative center of the krai[2] and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it also serves as the administrative center of Khabarovsky District,[4] even though it is not a part of it.[1] As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the city of krai significance of Khabarovsk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the city of krai significance of Khabarovsk is incorporated as Khabarovsk Urban Okrug.[5]


Climate chart ()
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Погода и Климат (Weather and Climate)[20]

Khabarovsk experiences a monsoonal dry-winter humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dwb). It is also subject to more extreme temperatures than Vladivostok due to stronger influences of the Siberian High and being further inland. Because of the East Asian Monsoon, it causes summers to be very wet and humid, reaching 80% between July and September.

The average annual precipitation is 682 mm (26.9 in), mainly concentrated in the summer. In a few years, November to March hardly receive any precipitation. The driest year was 2001 with only 381 millimeters (15.0 in) of precipitation and the wettest was 1981 when 1,105 millimeters (43.5 in) of precipitation fell. The wettest month was August 1981 with a total precipitation of 434 mm (17.1 in). Snowfall is common, though light, with an average maximum snow height of 16 centimeters (6.3 in).

In winter, temperatures can be below −30 °C (−22 °F) and unlike Vladivostok, temperatures have exceeded +35 °C (95 °F). The average temperature in January is −19.8 °C (−3.6 °F) while +21.3 °C (70.3 °F) constitutes an average July. Extremes range from −40 °C (−40 °F) in January 2011 to +36.4 °C (97.5 °F) in June 2010. [20]

Climate data for Khabarovsk
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 0.6
Average high °C (°F) −15.7
Daily mean °C (°F) −19.8
Average low °C (°F) −23.5
Record low °C (°F) −40.0
Precipitation mm (inches) 14
Snowfall cm (inches) 14
Avg. rainy days 0 0 1 10 16 15 15 17 15 11 2 0 102
Avg. snowy days 14 10 10 4 0 0 0 0 0 3 10 14 73
% humidity 75 72 68 63 65 74 79 83 78 67 69 73 72
Mean monthly sunshine hours 145.7 182.0 232.5 213.0 234.0 261.0 248.0 217.0 213.0 189.1 159.0 145.7 2,440
Source #1:[20]
Source #2: HKO (sun only)


Primary industries include iron processing, steel milling, petroleum refining, flour milling, pharmaceutical industry, meat packing and manufacturing of various types of heavy and light machinery.


On the Amur in Khabarovsk

The city is located along the Trans-Siberian Railway. Rail distance from Moscow is 8,523 kilometers (5,296 mi); it is a principal railway center.

Khabarovsk is served by the Khabarovsk Novy Airport with international flights to East Asia, Southeast Asia, European Russia, and Central Asia. It is also served by the Trans-Siberian Railway, the Trans-Siberian Highway (M58 and M60 Highways) and the Amur River and Ussuri River waterways.

Public transport includes: tram - 8 routes; trolleybus - 4 routes; bus and fixed-route taxi (marshrutka - about 100 routes; taxi.


There are the following institutions of higher education in Khabarovsk:[21][22]


A view along Turgeneva Street toward the Transfiguration Cathedral

Visitors to the picturesque city of Khabarovsk are likely to enjoy walking the broad Amursky Boulevard with its many vibrant shops and perhaps visit the local market. The city's five districts stretch for 45 kilometers (28 mi) along the Amur River.

Recently, there have been many renovations in the city's central part, rebuilding with historical perspective. A popular attraction for visitors is a walking tour from the Lenin Square to Utyos on Amur via Muravyov-Amursky Street, where visitors can find traditional Russian cuisine restaurants and shops with souvenirs. There are many night clubs and pubs in this area. In Wintertime ice sculptures are on display on the cities squares and parks. Artists come from as far as Harbin in China.

Unlike Vladivostok, the city has never been closed to foreigners, despite it being the headquarters of the Far East Military District, and retains its historically international flavour. Once the capital of the Soviet Far East (from 1926 to 1938), since the demise of the Soviet Union, it has experienced an increased Asian presence. It is estimated that over one million Chinese travel to and through Khabarovsk yearly, and foreign investment by Japanese and Korean corporations has grown in recent years. The city has a multi-story shopping mall and about a dozen hotels.


The headquarters of the Russian Eastern Military District is located at 15 Serysheva Street. There is also an air base located 2.0 miles (3.2 km) east of the town.


Runner-ups in 1982

International events

Stamp depicting Bandy World Championship 1981 in Khabarovsk

The city hosted the Bandy World Championship 1981 and will host the 2015 tournament. 21 teams are expected, which would be 4 more than the record-making 17 from the 2014 tournament, and the governor of Khabarovsk Krai thinks the tournament will contribute to making bandy an Olympic discipline. [3]

Notable people

Twin towns and sister cities

Khabarovsk is twinned with:[24]


  • Khabarovsk placed first in different categories of "Most Developed and Comfortable City of Russia" in 2006,[25] 2008[26] and 2009.
  • In 2010, Khabarovsk won the second place in the Forbes list of most suitable cities for private business in Russia.[27] First place went to Krasnodar.

See also



  1. ^ a b c d e Resolution #143-pr
  2. ^ a b c Law #109
  3. ^ Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 08 401», в ред. изменения №243/2014 от 18 апреля 2014 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 08 401, as amended by the Amendment #243/2014 of April 18, 2014. ).
  4. ^ a b Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 08 255», в ред. изменения №243/2014 от 18 апреля 2014 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 08 255, as amended by the Amendment #243/2014 of April 18, 2014. ).
  5. ^ a b c Law #177
  6. ^ Law #264
  7. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian).  
  8. ^ Khabarovsk Krai Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. Оценка численности постоянного населения на 1 января 2014 года и в среднем за 2013 год (Russian)
  9. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  10. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  11. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  12. ^  
  13. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  14. ^ Археологи обнаружили на Амуре таинственный городок. Возможно, это первое русское поселение в данном регионе (Mysterious fort found by archaeologists on the Amur. Possibly, this is the first Russian settlement in this region) (Russian)
  15. ^ a b c d e Оксана Гайнутдинова (Oksana Gaynutdinova) Загадка Ачанского городка (The mystery of Fort Achansk)
  16. ^ a b c d e B.P. Polevoy (Б.П. Полевой), Изветная челобитная С. В. Полякова 1653 г. и ее значение для археологов Приамурья (S.V. Polyakov's denouncing letter (1653), and its significance for the archaeologists of the Amur Valley), in: Русские первопроходцы на Дальнем Востоке в XVII-XIX вв. (Историко-археологические исследования) (First Russian explorers in the Far East in the 17th-19th centuries: Historical and archaeological research - B.P.Polevoy's preface to the document), vol. 2, Vladisvostok, Russian Academy of Sciences, 1995. (This article also contains references to Polevoy's earlier publications) (Russian)
  17. ^ a b Б.П. Полевой (B.P. Polevoy) О подлинном местоположении Косогорского острога 50-х гг. XVII века (About the true location of the Kosogorsky Ostrog of the 1650s) (Russian)
  18. ^   Numerous later editions are available as well, including one on Google Books
  19. ^
  20. ^ a b c "" (in Russian). Retrieved August 21, 2014. 
  21. ^ The Institutions of Higher Education in Khabarovsk Krai
  22. ^ The Universities in Khabarovsk
  23. ^ Official home page
  24. ^ Khabarovsk city administration
  25. ^ "В Москве наградили призеров Всероссийского конкурса "Самый благоустроенный город России" — Российская газета — Сегодня в Москве на ВВЦ прошла церемония награждения призеров Всероссийского конкурса на звание "Самый благоустроенный город России" за 2006 год". Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  26. ^ "Хабаровск вновь признан самым благоустроенным городом России — Нина Доронина — Российская газета — Хабаровск вновь признан самым благоустроенным городом России". 2012-06-21. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  27. ^ "Хабаровск занял II место в рейтинге Forbes - Новости". Retrieved 2013-03-26. 


  • Правительство Хабаровского края. Постановление №143-пр от 18 июля 2007 г. «Об утверждении реестра административно-территориальных и территориальных единиц Хабаровского края», в ред. Постановления №64-пр от 17 марта 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в реестр административно-территориальных и территориальных единиц Хабаровского края, утверждённый Постановлением Правительства Хабаровского края от 18 июля 2007 г. №143-пр». Вступил в силу 13 августа 2007 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства Хабаровского края", №7(60), 12 августа 2007 г. (Government of Khabarovsk Krai. Resolution #143-pr of July 18, 2007 On the Adoption of the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial and Territorial Units of Khabarovsk Krai, as amended by the Resolution #64-pr of March 17, 2014 On Amending the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial and Territorial Units of Khabarovsk Krai, Adopted by the Resolution #143-pr of the Government of Khabarovsk Krai of July 18, 2007. Effective as of August 13, 2007.).
  • Законодательная Дума Хабаровского края. Закон №109 от 28 марта 2007 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Хабаровского края», в ред. Закона №366 от 28 мая 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Хабаровского края и признании утратившими силу отдельных положений Законов Хабаровского края». Вступил в силу через 10 дней после официального опубликования (28 апреля 2007 г.). Опубликован: "Приамурские ведомости", №52, 17 апреля 2007 г. (Legislative Duma of Khabarovsk Krai. Law #109 of March 28, 2007 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Khabarovsk Krai, as amended by the Law #366 of May 28, 2014 On Amending Various Legislative Acts of Khabarovsk Krai and Abrogating Various Clauses of the Laws of Khabarovsk Krai. Effective as of after 10 days from the official publication day (April 28, 2007).).
  • Законодательная Дума Хабаровского края. Закон №177 от 28 апреля 2004 г. «О наделении муниципального образования города Хабаровска статусом городского округа и об установлении его границы». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования (28 мая 2004 г.). Опубликован: "Приамурские ведомости", №95, 28 мая 2004 г. (Legislative Duma of Khabarovsk Krai. Law #177 of April 28, 2004 On Granting Urban Okrug Status to the Municipal Formation of the City of Khabarovsk and on Establishing Its Border. Effective as of the day of the official publication (May 28, 2004).).
  • Законодательная Дума Хабаровского края. Закон №264 от 14 марта 2005 г «Об административных центрах сельских поселений и муниципальных районов Хабаровского края», в ред. Закона №239 от 28 ноября 2012 г. «О преобразовании городского населённого пункта рабочий посёлок Тырма, находящегося на территории Верхнебуреинского района Хабаровского края, путём изменения его статуса в сельский населённый пункт — посёлок Тырма и о внесении изменений в отдельные Законы Хабаровского края». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Приамурские ведомости", №57, 1 апреля 2005 г. (Legislative Duma of Khabarovsk Krai. Law #264 of March 14, 2005 On the Administrative Centers of the Rural Settlements and the Municipal Districts of Khabarovsk Krai, as amended by the Law #239 of November 28, 2012 On the Transformation of the Urban Locality the Work Settlement of Tyrma, Located on the Territory of Verkhnebureinsky District of Khabarovsk Krai, by Changing Its Status to That of a Rural Locality—the Settlement of Tyrma, and on Amending Various Laws of Khabarovsk Krai. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • A.M. Bodisko. From life of Khabarovsk. Khabarovsk, 1913.
  • Nikolay P. Kradin. It is protected by the state: The Monuments of Architecture in Khabarovsk. Khabarovsk: Chastnaya kollektsiya, 1999. 192 p. ISBN 5-7875-0011-3

External links

  • Official website of Khabarovsk
  • Khabarovsk travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • (Korean) Manchu-Korean expedition against Russian expansion (나선정벌 (羅禪征伐)
  • (Korean) map of the Manchu-Korean expedition against Russian expansion (나선정벌 (羅禪征伐)
  • (Russian) Major problems of Russian-Korean relationship
  • (Russian) China and Russia relationship and history
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