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Krasnodar

Krasnodar (English)
Краснодар (Russian)
-  City[1]  -

View of Krasnodar

Location of Krasnodar Krai in Russia
Krasnodar is located in Krasnodar Krai
Krasnodar
Krasnodar
Location of Krasnodar in Krasnodar Krai
Coordinates:
Coat of arms
Flag
City Day Last non-working day of September[2]
Administrative status (as of May 2013)
Country Russia
Federal subject Krasnodar Krai[3]
Administratively subordinated to City of Krasnodar[1]
Administrative center of Krasnodar Krai,[3] City of Krasnodar[1]
Municipal status (as of February 2012)
Urban okrug Krasnodar Urban Okrug[4]
Administrative center of Krasnodar Urban Okrug[4]
Head[5] Vladimir Yevlanov[6]
Representative body City Duma[5]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 744,995 inhabitants[7]
Rank in 2010 17th
Time zone MSK (UTC+03:00)[8]
Founded January 12, 1794[2]
City status since 1867[9]
Previous names Yekaterinodar (until December 7, 1920)[10]
Postal code(s)[11] 350000–350005, 350007, 350010–350012, 350014–350016, 350018–350020, 350033, 350035, 350038–350040, 350042, 350044, 350047, 350049, 350051, 350058, 350059, 350061–350067, 350072, 350075, 350078, 350080, 350086–350090, 350500, 350880, 350890, 350899–350901, 350910–350912, 350931, 350960, 350961, 350963–350965, 350991–350999
Dialing code(s) +7 861
Official website
Krasnodar population
2010 Census 744,995[7]
2002 Census 646,175[12]
1989 Census 620,516[13]
1979 Census 560,438[14]

Krasnodar (Russian: Краснода́р; IPA: ) is a city and the administrative center of Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Kuban River, approximately 148 kilometers (92 mi) northeast of the Black Sea port of Novorossiysk. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 744,995.[7]

Contents

  • Name 1
  • History 2
  • Administrative and municipal status 3
  • Main sights 4
  • Economy 5
  • Transportation 6
  • Education 7
  • Culture 8
  • Sports 9
  • Coat of arms 10
  • Climate 11
  • Twin towns and sister cities 12
  • Notable people 13
  • References 14
    • Notes 14.1
    • Sources 14.2
  • External links 15

Name

A 19th century photograph of the Kuban Cossacks Obelisk in Yekaterinodar

Krasnodar was founded on January 12, 1794 (Gregorian calendar)[2] as Yekaterinodar (Екатеринода́р). The original name meant "Catherine's Gift", recognizing both Catherine the Great's grant of land in the Kuban region to the Black Sea Cossacks[15] (created from former Zaporozhian Cossacks) and Saint Catherine of Alexandria, who is considered to be the patron of the city. City status was granted in 1867.[9]

On December 7, 1920, as a result of the October Revolution, Yekaterinodar was renamed Krasnodar (Gift of the Reds).[10] The new name consists of Krasno- (Красно- – 'red', i.e. Communist, but also archaic/poetic form of 'beautiful'); and dar (дар – 'gift'). [16]

History

Yekaterinodar in the early 20th century

The city originated in 1793 as a military camp, then as a fortress built by the Cossacks to defend imperial borders and to assert Russian dominion over Circassia, a claim which Ottoman Turkey contested. In the first half of the 19th century, Yekaterinodar grew into a busy center of the Kuban Cossacks, gaining official town status in 1867. By 1888 about 45,000 people lived in the city, which had become a vital trade center for southern Russia. In 1897 an obelisk commemorating the two-hundred-year history of the Kuban Cossacks (seen as founded in 1696) was erected in Yekaterinodar.

During the Russian Civil War (1917-1922) the city changed hands several times, coming successively under the control of the Red Army and of the Volunteer Army. Many Kuban Cossacks, as committed anti-Bolsheviks, supported the White Movement. Lavr Kornilov, a White general, captured the city on April 10, 1918, only to be killed a week later when a Bolshevik artillery shell blew up the farmhouse where he had set up his headquarters.

During World War II units of the German Army occupied Krasnodar between August 12, 1942 and February 12, 1943. The city sustained heavy damage in the fighting, but was rebuilt and renovated after the war. German forces, including Gestapo and "mobile SS execution squads", killed thousands of Jews, Communists, and "supposed Communist 'partisans.'" Shooting, hanging, burning, and even gas vans were used.[17]

In the summer of 1943 the Soviets began trials, including of their own citizens, for collusion with the Nazis and for participation in war crimes. The first such trial took place at Krasnodar from July 14 to 17, 1943. The Krasnodar tribunal pronounced eight death sentences, which were summarily carried out in the city square in front of a crowd of about thirty thousand people.

Administrative and municipal status

Krasnodar is the administrative center of the krai.[3] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with twenty-nine rural localities, incorporated as the City of Krasnodar—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the City of Krasnodar is incorporated as Krasnodar Urban Okrug.[4]

Main sights

The Splash Fountain in Krasnodar
Obelisk to Red Army soldiers

Krasnodar is home to the steel lattice hyperboloid tower built by the Russian engineer and scientist Vladimir Grigorievich Shukhov in 1928; it is located near Krasnodar Circus.

Other attractions include St. Catherine's Cathedral, the State Arts Museum, a park and theater named after Maxim Gorky, the beautiful concert hall of the Krasnodar Philharmonic Society, which is considered to have some of the best acoustics in southern Russia, State Cossack Choir and the Krasnodar circus

The most interesting place of Krasnodar is Krasnaya Street (which translates as "Red, Beautiful Street"). There are situated many sights of Krasnodar. In the beginning of this street one can see the Central Concert Hall; at the other end one can see the Avrora cinemacenter. A "Triumphal Arch" is situated in the middle of Krasnaya Street.

Theater Square is home to the largest splash fountain in Europe.[18] This fountain was officially inaugurated on September 25, 2011 along with the official ceremony to celebrate the City Day in Krasnodar.

Economy

Krasnodar is the economic center of southern Russia. For several years, Forbes magazine named Krasnodar the best city for business in Russia.[19] The industrial sector of the city has more than 130 large and medium-sized enterprises.

The main industries of Krasnodar:

  • Agriculture and food industry: 42.8%
  • Energy sector: 13.4%
  • Fuel industry: 10.5%
  • Machine construction: 9.4%
  • Forestry and chemical industries: about 4%

Krasnodar is a highly developed commercial area, and has the largest annual turnover in the Southern Federal District of Russia. Retail trade turnover in 2010 reached 290 billion rubles. Per capita, Krasnodar has the highest number of malls in Russia. Note that in the crisis year 2009 turnover of Krasnodar continued to grow, while most of the cities showed a negative trend in the sale of goods.

Krasnodar has the lowest unemployment rate among the cities of the Southern Federal District at 0,3% of the total working-age population. In addition, Krasnodar holds the first place in terms of highest average salary - 21,742 rubles per capita.[20]

Tourism comprises a large part of Krasnodar's economy. There are more than 80 hotels in Krasnodar. The Hilton Garden Inn, opened in 2013, is the first world-class hotel in the city.[21]

Transportation

A new tram

As in many other major cities in Russia, the primary mode of local transportation in Krasnodar is the automobile, though efforts have been made to increase the availability of alternative modes of transportation, including the construction of light rail lines (projected), biking paths, and wide sidewalks. Public transportation within Krasnodar consists of city buses, trolleybuses, trams, and marshrutkas (routed taxis). Trolleybuses and trams, both powered by overhead electric wires, are the main form of public transportation in Krasnodar. Krasnodar does not have a metro system.

The main airline was Kuban Airlines (at Krasnodar International Airport), but they were closed in 2012 and now the main are Aeroflot and Donavia. The largest hotels in the city include the Intourist, Hotel Moskva, and Hotel Platan. Krasnodar uses a 220 V/50 Hz power supply with two round-pin outlets, like most European countries.

There is also 2 railway stations in Krasnodar: Krasnodar-1 and Krasnodar-2.

Education

In Krasnodar there are 15 gymnasiums, 5 lyceums, 110 schools of general education and 20 specialized schools, as well as 7 non-state lyceums and schools.[22]

The city has numerous institutions of higher education, including some state universities (Kuban State University, Kuban State Technological University, Kuban State Agrarian University, Kuban State Medical University, etc.). Other universities include: Marketing and Social Technology University of Krasnodar.

Culture

Pushkin Library

The oldest part of the city is Old Downtown Krasnodar, which consists of many historic buildings, several from the 19th century. Buildings have been preserved, restored or reconstructed, and the district is now a substantial tourist attraction.

There are several major theater venues for Krasnodar:

  • The Gorky Krasnodar State Academic Drama Theater
  • The Krasnodar Ballet Theater
  • The Krasnodar State Academic Drama Theater
  • The Krasnodar Regional Puppet Theater
  • The Krasnodar Musical Theater
  • The Children's Ballet Theater "Fugitives"
  • The Krasnodar State Circus
  • The Krasnodar Youth Theater
  • The Ponomarenko Krasnodar Philharmonic
  • The Kuban Cossack Choir
  • The Creative Association "Premiere"
  • The New Puppet Theater

Krasnodar has several major museums. The Kovalenko Krasnodar Regional Art Museum, the oldest public art museum in the North Caucasus, is one of the finest.

The largest public library of the city is the Pushkin Krasnodar Regional Universal Scientific Library, founded in 1900.

Sports

Several sports clubs are active in the city:
Club Sport Founded Current League League
Rank
Stadium
Kuban Krasnodar Football 1928 Russian Premier League 1st Kuban Stadium
FC Krasnodar Football 2008 Russian Premier League 1st Kuban Stadium
Kubanochka Krasnodar Football 1988 Women's Top Division 1st Trud Stadium
Lokomotiv Kuban Basketball 2009 Professional Basketball League 1st Basket Hall
Kuban Krasnodar Rugby union 1996 Professional Rugby League 1st Yunost stadium
Kuban Krasnodar Ice hockey 2012 Higher Hockey League 2nd Kuban Ice Palace
Dynamo Krasnodar Volleyball 1994 Volleyball Super League 1st Olimp Sports Palace
Dynamo Krasnodar Volleyball 1946 Women's Volleyball Super League 1st Olimp Sports Palace
SKIF Krasnodar Handball 1963 Handball Super League 1st Olimp Sports Palace
Kuban Krasnodar Handball 1965 Women's Handball Superleague 1st Olimp Sports Palace

Coat of arms

The coat of arms of Yekaterinodar was introduced in 1841 by the Cossack yesaul Ivan Chernik. The royal letter "E" in the middle is for Ekaterina II (Russian for Catherine II). It also depicts the date city was founded, the Imperial double headed eagle (symbolizing Tsar's patronage of Black Sea Cossacks), a bulawa of a Cossack ataman, Yekaterinodar fortress, and flags with letters "E", "P", "A", and "N" standing for Catherine II, Paul I, Alexander I and Nicholas I. Yellow stars around the shield symbolized 59 Black Sea stanitsas around the city.

Climate

Under the Köppen climate classification, Krasnodar has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa).

Winters are cold and damp, with unstable snow cover. The average temperature in January, the area's coldest month, is 1 °C (34 °F). Weather conditions in winter vary greatly in the city; temperatures can exceed 20 °C (68 °F) for a few days, but temperatures below −20 °C (−4 °F) are not uncommon for Krasnodar as the city is not protected by mountains from cold waves. Summers are typically hot, with a July average of 24.1 °C (75.4 °F).

The city receives 735 millimeters (28.9 in) of precipitation annually, fairly spread throughout the year. Extreme storms are rare in the Krasnodar area. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −32.9 to 40.7 °C (−27.2 to 105.3 °F), recorded on January 11, 1940 and July 30, 2000, respectively.

February 2, 2015 was beaten by the absolute temperature record for more than 70 years of observations. The air in the capital of the Kuban has warmed up to + 20 degrees Celsius (68 Fahrenheit).

Climate data for Krasnodar
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.8
(69.4)
22.2
(72)
28.5
(83.3)
34.7
(94.5)
34.9
(94.8)
38.1
(100.6)
40.7
(105.3)
40.0
(104)
38.5
(101.3)
33.9
(93)
27.4
(81.3)
22.9
(73.2)
40.7
(105.3)
Average high °C (°F) 4.4
(39.9)
5.7
(42.3)
10.7
(51.3)
18.0
(64.4)
23.2
(73.8)
27.1
(80.8)
30.2
(86.4)
30.2
(86.4)
24.9
(76.8)
18.1
(64.6)
10.7
(51.3)
5.8
(42.4)
17.4
(63.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.6
(33.1)
1.1
(34)
5.5
(41.9)
12.2
(54)
17.2
(63)
21.3
(70.3)
24.1
(75.4)
23.7
(74.7)
18.5
(65.3)
12.3
(54.1)
6.1
(43)
2.1
(35.8)
12.1
(53.8)
Average low °C (°F) −2.2
(28)
−2.3
(27.9)
1.8
(35.2)
7.6
(45.7)
12.2
(54)
16.4
(61.5)
18.7
(65.7)
18.0
(64.4)
13.3
(55.9)
7.9
(46.2)
2.8
(37)
−0.7
(30.7)
7.8
(46)
Record low °C (°F) −32.9
(−27.2)
−29.8
(−21.6)
−25.6
(−14.1)
−5.6
(21.9)
−1.2
(29.8)
4.2
(39.6)
9.5
(49.1)
3.9
(39)
−2.2
(28)
−9.9
(14.2)
−20.4
(−4.7)
−27.6
(−17.7)
−32.9
(−27.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 66
(2.6)
54
(2.13)
58
(2.28)
51
(2.01)
68
(2.68)
86
(3.39)
56
(2.2)
44
(1.73)
46
(1.81)
56
(2.2)
73
(2.87)
77
(3.03)
735
(28.94)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 3
(1.2)
4
(1.6)
1
(0.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
1
(0.4)
2
(0.8)
11
(4.4)
Average rainy days 13 11 14 15 14 14 10 8 10 12 14 15 150
Average snowy days 6 6 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 5 22
Average relative humidity (%) 84 79 75 70 70 70 66 64 70 77 83 85 74
Mean monthly sunshine hours 71.3 87.0 136.4 180.0 248.0 276.0 303.8 285.2 237.0 173.6 87.0 55.8 2,141.1
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[23]
Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory (sun only)[24]

Twin towns and sister cities

Krasnodar is twinned with:

Country City
 Italy Ferrara
 United Kingdom Nottingham
 Germany Karlsruhe
 China Harbin
 Turkey Samsun
 United States Tallahassee, Florida
 Bulgaria Burgas

Notable people

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Reference Information #34.01-707/13-03
  2. ^ a b c Charter of Krasnodar, Article 1
  3. ^ a b c Charter of Krasnodar Krai, Article 13
  4. ^ a b c Law #670-OZ
  5. ^ a b Charter of Krasnodar, Article 23
  6. ^ Official website of Krasnodar. Vladimir Lazarevich Yevlanov, Head of the Municipal Formation of the City of Krasnodar (Russian)
  7. ^ a b c
  8. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  9. ^ a b Cities and Towns of Russia Encyclopedia, pp. 217–218
  10. ^ a b Azarenkova et al., p. 253.
  11. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^ Azarenkova et al., pp. 9ff.
  16. ^
  17. ^ Lichtblau (2014), p. 47-48
  18. ^
  19. ^
  20. ^ В рейтинге Минрегионразвития Краснодар лидирует по 16-ти из 26-ти позиций
  21. ^ Центральная Югополис, 30.04.2013
  22. ^ Рейтинг школ: кто первый? «Югополис», 05.01.2011
  23. ^
  24. ^

Sources

  • Городская Дума Краснодара. Решение №11 п. 6 от 21 апреля 2011 г. «О принятии Устава муниципального образования город Краснодар», в ред. Решения №78 п. 3 от 28 апреля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Устав муниципального образования город Краснодар». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования после государственной регистрации, за исключением пунктов 1–3, 5, 7, вступающих в силу со дня подписания. Опубликован: "Краснодарские известия", №89, 9 июня 2011 г. (City Duma of Krasnodar. Decision #11 p. 6 of April 21, 2011 On the Adoption of the Charter of the Municipal Formation of the City of Krasnodar, as amended by the Decision #78 p. 3 of April 28, 2015 On Amending the Charter of the Municipal Formation of the City of Krasnodar. Effective as of the day of the official publication after the state registration, with the exception of items 1–3, 5, 7, which take effect upon signing off.).
  • «Устав Краснодарского края», в ред. Закона №2870-КЗ от 30 декабря 2013 г «О внесении изменений в Устав Краснодарского края». Опубликован: "Кубанские новости", 10 ноября 1993 г. ( Charter of Krasnodar Krai, as amended by the Law #2870-KZ of December 30, 2013 On Amending the Charter of Krasnodar Krai. ).
  • Управление по взаимодействию с органами местного самоуправления Администрации Краснодарского края. Справочная информация №34.01-707/13-03 от 23 мая 2013 г. «Реестр административно-территориальных единиц Краснодарского края». (Department of Cooperation with the Organs of the Local Self-Government of the Administration of Krasnodar Krai. Reference Information #34.01-707/13-03 of May 23, 2013 Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units of Krasnodar Krai. ).
  • Законодательное Собрание Краснодарского края. Закон №670-КЗ от 10 марта 2004 г. «Об установлении границ муниципального образования город Краснодар и наделении его статусом городского округа», в ред. Закона №2435-КЗ от 3 февраля 2012 г «О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Краснодарского края об установлении границ муниципальных образований». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Кубанские новости", №37–38, 13 марта 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Krasnodar Krai. Law #670-OZ of March 10, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formation of the City of Krasnodar and on Granting It Urban Okrug Status, as amended by the Law #2435-KZ of February 3, 2012 On Amending Various Legislative Acts of Krasnodar Krai on Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Lichtblau, Eric. "The Nazis Next Door: How America Became A Safe Haven For Hitler's Men" (2014) pp: 47-48.

External links

Krasnaya Street boulevard, Krasnodar
  • Official website of Krasnodar City Administration and City Duma
  • Krasnodar photographs
  • Krasnodar news
  • News and events in Krasnodar
  • Old pictures of Yekaterinodar
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