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Kurnool

Kurnool
కర్నూలు
کرنول

Kandanavolu
City
View of Rajvihar Center, one of the busiest centers in Kurnool City
View of Rajvihar Center, one of the busiest centers in Kurnool City
Nickname(s): The Gateway to Rayalaseema
Kurnool is located in Andhra Pradesh
Kurnool
Location in Andhra Pradesh
Coordinates:
Country India
State Andhra Pradesh
Region Rayalaseema
District Kurnool
Government
 • Type Municipal corporation
 • Body Kurnool Municipal corporation
Area[1][2]
 • City 65.91 km2 (25.45 sq mi)
Area rank 105
Elevation 274 m (899 ft)
Population (2011)[3]
 • City 460,184[4]
 • Rank 106th (India)
5th (Andhra Pradesh)
 • Metro[5] 484,327
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 518001
Vehicle registration AP 21
Website Kurnool Municipal Corporation

Kurnool is city and the headquarters of Kurnool district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.[6] It is also known as the Gateway to Rayalaseema.[7] Kurnool served as the state capital of Andhra (not Andhra Pradesh) from 1 October 1953 to 31 October 1956. As of 2011 census, it is the fifth most populous city, with a population of 460,184.[8][9]

Contents

  • Etymology 1
  • History 2
    • Palaeolithic era 2.1
    • History 2.2
  • Political administration 3
  • Geography and climate 4
  • Demographics 5
  • Education 6
  • Transportation 7
    • Roadways 7.1
    • Railway 7.2
    • Airport 7.3
  • Economy 8
  • Tourism 9
  • See also 10
  • References 11
  • External links 12

Etymology

The name Kurnool is derived from "Kandanavolu", "the city known as Kandenapalli" or "the city of Kandena". Kandena is a Telugu word; it means grease.[10][11] The city was also called the city of Skanda or Kumaraswamy (the chief God of Wars)[11]

History

Palaeolithic era

Rock paintings, Ketavaram
Painting at Ketavaram caves

The Ketavaram[12] rock paintings from the Paleolithic era and are (18 kilometres from Kurnool). Also the Jurreru Valley, Katavani Kunta[13] and Yaganti in Kurnool District have some important rock art's and painting's in the vicinity, may be dated from 35,000 to 40,000 years ago.

History

Little was known about Kurnool Town before the 11th century. The earliest knowledge of this settlement dates from the 11th century. It has developed as transit place on the southern banks of the river Tungabhadra and was commonly known as 'Kandenavolu'. It was a greasing place for the carts which used to transport stone for the construction of temples at Alampur from which the name 'Kandenavolu' was derived. It was ruled by Cholas and later by Kakatiya kings in the 12th and 13th centuries. Later on it became an independent part of the country under Jagirdars. Late it came under the influence of Vijayanagar kings and it was during the 16th century that Achyuta Raya built the Kurnool Fort. During the 17th century it was ruled by Gopal Raja. Abdul Wahab conquered king Gopal Raja and ruled over the country for 16 years. The town came under the influence of Moghal emperor Aurangazeb in 1686. Later the town was ruled by Nawabs from Dawood Khan to Gulam Rasool Khan (1823). In 1839 the British Government took over control. In 1858 it was made over to a Collector under the General regulations. The British rule continued till 1947 during which period, Kurnool town was a part of the Madras presidency. After separation of the 11 districts of Andhra from the composite of Madras state in 1953, Kurnool became the state Headquarters on 1 October 1953.

The Telugu speaking areas of erstwhile Hyderabad State were merged with Andhra Pradesh. The state of Andhra Pradesh came into existence in November 1956, and its state capital was shifted from Kurnool to Hyderabad.

Political administration

It is the headquarters of the mandal, the revenue division and the district of the same name. From 1 October 1953 to 31 October 1956, Kurnool was also the state capital of Andhra State (not Andhra Pradesh), which was carved out of Madras State in 1953. Tangutoori Prakasam Pantulu was the chief minister of Andhra State during this period. The present day District court buildings were used by the State Assembly.

Geography and climate

Kurnool is located at .[14] It has an average elevation of 273 metres (898 feet).

Kurnool lies on the banks of the Tungabhadra River. The Hundri and Neeva rivers also flow through the city. The K.C. Canal (Kurnool–Cuddapah) was built by the Dutch for transportation, but later used for irrigation.

The climate is tropical with temperatures ranging from 26 °C (78.8 °F) to 46 °C (114.8 °F) in the summer and 12 °C (53.6 °F) to 31 °C (87.8 °F) in the winter. The average annual rainfall is about 705 millimetres (28 in).

Climate data for Kurnool (1971–2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 37.3
(99.1)
39.9
(103.8)
43.3
(109.9)
44.8
(112.6)
45.6
(114.1)
45.6
(114.1)
38.5
(101.3)
37.8
(100)
38.7
(101.7)
38.4
(101.1)
38.8
(101.8)
34.4
(93.9)
45.6
(114.1)
Average high °C (°F) 31.4
(88.5)
34.6
(94.3)
38.1
(100.6)
40.3
(104.5)
40.3
(104.5)
36.1
(97)
33.5
(92.3)
32.4
(90.3)
32.9
(91.2)
32.5
(90.5)
31.1
(88)
30.3
(86.5)
34.5
(94.1)
Average low °C (°F) 17.3
(63.1)
20.1
(68.2)
23.2
(73.8)
26.5
(79.7)
27.0
(80.6)
25.2
(77.4)
24.1
(75.4)
23.6
(74.5)
23.6
(74.5)
22.6
(72.7)
19.8
(67.6)
17.3
(63.1)
22.5
(72.5)
Record low °C (°F) 8.3
(46.9)
11.1
(52)
12.8
(55)
15.5
(59.9)
19.4
(66.9)
17.6
(63.7)
19.2
(66.6)
19.9
(67.8)
17.0
(62.6)
13.0
(55.4)
9.3
(48.7)
6.7
(44.1)
6.7
(44.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 2.6
(0.102)
3.8
(0.15)
5.7
(0.224)
23.2
(0.913)
45.6
(1.795)
87.2
(3.433)
111.7
(4.398)
142.8
(5.622)
144.4
(5.685)
107.1
(4.217)
25.6
(1.008)
5.4
(0.213)
705.1
(27.76)
Average precipitation days 0.2 0.3 0.6 1.6 2.9 5.3 7.8 8.9 7.9 5.5 2.3 0.5 43.8
Source: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)[15][16]

Demographics

As per final data of 2011 census, Kurnool urban agglomeration had a population of 484,327. The literacy rate was 77.37 per cent.[17] note: The Office of Registrar General & Census Commissioner of India. note: UA = Urban Agglomeration.

Education

Central Institutes Map of Andhra Pradesh

There are good number of government and private educational institutions in the city. Some of the universities and colleges are IIIT Kurnool, Kurnool Medical College, Rayalaseema University, G Pulla Reddy College of Engineering & Technology, Osmania College, Kurnool and Silver Jubilee Government Degree College etc.

Transportation

Kurnool is considered as the Gateway of Rayalaseema as one must pass through Kurnool to reach Kadapa or Chittor or Anantapur districts while travelling from Hyderabad.

Roadways

Kurnool is connected to most cities and towns in Andhra Pradesh as well as to other largest cities Bengaluru and Chennai by the state owned bus service Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC) and the Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC). National Highway 7 (India) connects Kurnool to Hyderabad. The State Highway 51 connects to Srisailam, Vinukonda, Guntur, Vijayawada. National Highway 18 runs from Kurnool to Chittoor.

Railway

Kurnool railway station lies on the Hyderabad – Guntakal railway line and has express trains to Hyderabad, Delhi, Chennai, Chittoor, Tirupati, Jaipur, Madurai, Shirdi and Bengaluru. There are also passenger trains to Hyderabad, Mahabubnagar, Guntakal and Guntur, which caters to the short distance passengers.

The four railway stations in Kurnool District are Kurnool city, Adoni, Nandyal and Dhone junction. Adoni is on the Chennai-Mumbai Railway Line and several trains run daily to these cities and New Delhi. Nandyal is on the Guntakal -Vijayawada line and has daily trains to Hyderabad, Vijayawada, Bengaluru, Vishakhapatnam and Howrah. Dhone junction is situated on the Guntakal – Secunderabad / Vijayawada line. All the trains which pass through Nandyal and Kurnool pass through this junction.

Airport

The nearest airport is Rajiv Gandhi International Airport, at Hyderabad, three and half hours drive from Kurnool City. Another nearest airport is Kempegowda International Airport, at devanahalli, Bengaluru which takes an four to five hours drive from Kurnool city on NH7.There is a proposed green field airport near orvakal 25 km from kurnool.

Economy

Kurnool is endowed with good mineral resources. The important minerals are Iron ore , Dolomite,lime stone, ochre, quartz stealite and silica.[18]

Tourism

Front View of Kondareddy Buruju.
Gole-Gumma, Near Osmania College.
Orvakal Rock Garden
  • Srisailam, one of the jyothirlingas is in Kurnool district. Srisailam Dam over here is one of the most important dam in Andhra Pradesh for irrigation & hydro-electric power generation.
  • Mantralayam, Mantralayam is noted for the holy presence of the Vrindavana (sacred burial) of Guru Raghavendra Swami, a Madhwa saint and follower of Sri Madhwacharya.
  • Belum Caves, Kurnool is the longest cave system and is one of the Kurnool attractions which are visited by most of the people. It is an underground cave and has three well like cavities. The main attraction of the cave is the exquisite stalactite and stalagmite formations. Huge marble Buddha statue on these caves is the sign of worship of Buddhist monks. Natural waterfall is also seen in this cave which is very beautiful and attractive.
  • Oravakallu Rock Garden, Kurnool, which has natural rock formations. This place is located between water bodies.The Kethavaram rock paintings, from the Paleolithic era, are located along a stretch of the Orvakal rock formations. It is also a perfect place for picnics.
  • Mahanandi, Mahanandi is a village located east of the Nallamala Hills near Nandyal, Kurnool District, Andhra Pradesh, India. It is a picturesque village surrounded by thick forests. Within 15 km of Mahanandi, there are nine Nandi shrines known as Nava Nandis. Mahanandi is one of the Nava Nandis. The Mahanandiswara Swamy Temple, an important shrine, is located here. This ancient temple dates back over 1,500 years.
  • Ahobilam, Ahobhilam also known as Ahobalam is located in the Allagadda mandal of Kurnool district in Andhra Pradesh, India. It is 40 km from Nandyal and about 150 km from Kurnool, the district headquarters. There are two temple houses, lower Ahobilam and upper Ahobilam.
  • Yaganti, is a temple to Lord Shiva in Kurnool District in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. approximately 100 km from the city of Kurnool.The temple is in the Banaganapalle mandal,14 km west of Banagapalle (Mandal headquarters) on the Banaganapalle-Peapully road.
  • Konda Reddy Fort, Kurnool is one of the worth visiting sites for the tourists as it was built between the period of 14th to 16th centuries. History enthusiasts visit this place and see several inscriptions in Arabic and Persian. This fort reflects the glorious history of the past.

See also

References

  1. ^ http://ourkmc.com/Circulars/files/50__Binder1.pdf
  2. ^ http://docslide.us/government-nonprofit/kurnool-municipal-corporation-status-report.html
  3. ^ "Andhra Pradesh (India): Districts, Cities, Towns and Outgrowth Wards - Population Statistics in Maps and Charts". citypopulation.de. 
  4. ^ http://docslide.us/government-nonprofit/kurnool-municipal-corporation-status-report.html
  5. ^ "Andhra Pradesh (India): State, Major Agglomerations & Cities - Population Statistics in Maps and Charts". citypopulation.de. 
  6. ^ "District Census Handbook : Kurnool" (PDF). Census of India. p. 50. Retrieved 21 August 2015. 
  7. ^ Sarkar, Siddhartha (2011). International Journal of Economic and Political Integration: Vol.1, No.1. Universal-Publishers. p. 15.  
  8. ^ http://docslide.us/government-nonprofit/kurnool-municipal-corporation-status-report.html
  9. ^ http://ourkmc.com/Circulars/files/50__Binder1.pdf
  10. ^ "Heritage in Kurnool". AP Tourism Department. Retrieved 10 August 2014. 
  11. ^ a b "About Kurnool". Retrieved 19 August 2013. 
  12. ^ http://www.aparchaeologymuseum.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/Kurnool.pdf
  13. ^ Petraglia, Michael. "New rock art discoveries in the Kurnool District, Andhra Pradesh, India". academia.edu. Retrieved 28 May 2014. 
  14. ^ "Maps, Weather, and Airports for Kurnool, India". fallingrain.com. 
  15. ^ "Kurnool Climatological Table Period: 1971–2000".  
  16. ^ "Ever recorded Maximum and minimum temperatures up to 2010" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 27 May 2015. 
  17. ^
  18. ^ http://dcmsme.gov.in/dips/Kurnool%20dip%20%20amended%20march.pdf

External links

  • Kurnool district Mandal Information
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