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Latgalian phonology

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Latgalian phonology


This article is about the phonology of the Latgalian language.

Vowels

Monophthongs

Monophthong phonemes of Latgalian[1]
Front Central Back
unrounded unrounded rounded
short long short long short long
Close i (ɨ) u
Mid ɛ (ɛː) ɔ (ɔː)
Open æ æː a
  • Phonologically, /ɨ/ is a back counterpart of /i/. As they occur in complementary distribution, they can be regarded as allophones of a single /i/ phoneme.[2]
  • Long /ɛː, ɔː/ are rare and occur only in interjections. The phonological long counterparts of the short /ɛ, ɔ/ are the diphthongs /iɛ, uɔ/.[1]
  • There are very few minimal pairs for the /ɛ–æ/ opposition. In some dialects, [æ] is simply an allophone of /ɛ/.[3]
  • /a, aː/ are phonetically central [ä, äː].[1]

Diphthongs

Diphthong phonemes of Latgalian[4]
Ending point
Front Back
Close (ui) iu ɨu uɔ
Mid ɛi (ɔi) (ɔu)
Open æi ai au
  • In contrast to other diphthongs, /iɛ, uɔ/ are monophonemic.[2]
  • /ui, ɔi/ occur only in some words.[3]
  • /iu, ɨu, ɛi, æi, ai, au/ are very common.[5]
    • Some dialects merge /iu/ and /ɨu/ into [ɛu].[6]
    • Some dialects merge /au/ and /ɔu/ into [ɔu].[6]
  • /ɔu/ occurs only in onomatopoeias and loanwords.[6]

Consonants

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Consonant phonemes of Latgalian[7]
Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar
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