Clickjacking (User Interface redress attack, UI redress attack, UI redressing) is a malicious technique of tricking a Web user into clicking on something different from what the user perceives they are clicking on, thus potentially revealing confidential information or taking control of their computer while clicking on seemingly innocuous web pages.[1][2][3][4] It is a browser security issue that is a vulnerability across a variety of browsers and platforms. A clickjack takes the form of embedded code or a script that can execute without the user's knowledge, such as clicking on a button that appears to perform another function.[5] The term "clickjacking" was coined by Jeremiah Grossman and Robert Hansen in 2008.[6] Clickjacking can be understood as an instance of the confused deputy problem.[7]


Clickjacking is possible because seemingly harmless features of HTML web pages can be employed to perform unexpected actions.

A clickjacked page tricks a user into performing undesired actions by clicking on a concealed link. On a clickjacked page, the attackers load another page over it in a transparent layer. The users think that they are clicking visible buttons, while they are actually performing actions on the hidden page. The hidden page may be an authentic page; therefore, the attackers can trick users into performing actions which the users never intended. There is no way of tracing such actions to the attackers later, as the users would have been genuinely authenticated on the hidden page.


A user might receive an email with a link to a video about a news item, but another valid page, say a product page on, can be "hidden" on top or underneath the "PLAY" button of the news video. The user tries to "play" the video but actually "buys" the product from Amazon.

Other known exploits include:

  • Tricking users into enabling their webcam and microphone through Flash
  • Tricking users into making their social networking profile information public
  • Making users follow someone on Twitter[8]
  • Sharing links on Facebook[9][10]


Likejacking is a malicious technique of tricking users of a website into posting a Facebook status update for a site they did not intentionally mean to "like".[11] The term "likejacking" came from a comment posted by Corey Ballou in the article How to "Like" Anything on the Web (Safely),[12] which is one of the first documented postings explaining the possibility of malicious activity regarding Facebook's "like" button.[13]

According to an article in IEEE Spectrum, a solution to likejacking was developed at one of Facebook's hackathons.[14] A "Like" bookmarklet is available that avoids the possibility of likejacking present in the Facebook Like Button.[15]


Cursorjacking is a UI redressing technique to change the cursor from the location the user perceives, discovered in 2010 by Eddy Bordi, a researcher at, Marcus Niemietz demonstrated this with a custom cursor icon, and in 2012 Mario Heiderich by hiding the cursor.[16][17]




Protection against clickjacking (including likejacking) can be added to


GuardedID (a commercial product) includes client-side clickjack protection for users of Internet Explorer and Firefox[21] without interfering with the operation of legitimate iFrames. GuardedID clickjack protection forces all frames to become visible.


Gazelle is a Microsoft Research project secure web browser based on IE, that uses an OS-like security model, and has its own limited defenses against clickjacking.[22] In Gazelle, a window of different origin may only draw dynamic content over another window's screen space if the content it draws is opaque.



Web site owners can protect their users against UI redressing (frame based clickjacking) on the server side by including a framekiller JavaScript snippet in those pages they do not want to be included inside frames from different sources.[20]

Such JavaScript-based protection, unfortunately, is not always reliable. This is especially true on Internet Explorer,[20] where this kind of countermeasure can be circumvented "by design" by including the targeted page inside an