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List of Presidents of Peru

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Title: List of Presidents of Peru  
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Subject: Ollanta Humala, Politics of Peru, Alberto Fujimori, Alejandro Toledo, Pedro Diez Canseco
Collection: Government of Peru, Lists of Presidents, Peru-Related Lists, Presidents of Peru
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List of Presidents of Peru

President of
the Republic of Peru
Presidential standard
Incumbent
Ollanta Humala

since July 28, 2011
Residence Government Palace
Appointer Direct popular election
Term length Five years, not eligible for reelection immediately
Inaugural holder José de San Martín
Formation July 28, 1821
Website www.presidencia.gob.pe
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Peru
Constitution

Established in the Constitution of 1993, the President of Peru, officially the President of the Republic (Presidente de la República), is the head of state and head of government of Peru and represents the republic in official international matters. The presidential term is five years, with no immediate reelection. A former president can run again after being out of office for a full term.[1] Ollanta Humala was elected as president in 2011.

The change of government takes place on July 28, which is the date of independence from Spain and thus a national holiday.

Contents

  • History 1
  • Presidents of the Republic 2
  • Latest election 3
  • Titles and styles 4
  • Line of succession 5
  • Notes 6
  • See also 7

History

During its more than 180 years of independence, Peru has been ruled by the military leaders who fought for independence, the leaders of the War of the Pacific, representatives of the aristocracy, and democratically-elected leaders. Also, the history of the presidency has involved civil wars, coups and violence. More than once, several individuals claimed the right to be president at the same time.

Different titles have been used, such as "Protector of Peru" (used by José de San Martin), and "Supreme Protector" (by Andrés de Santa Cruz) .

Presidents of the Republic

The following table contains a list of the individuals who have served as president of Peru.

# Picture President Dates in office Form of entry Title
1 José de San Martín July 28, 1821 – September 20, 1822 Indirect elections Protector of Peru
2 Francisco de Luna Pizarro September 20, 1822 – September 22, 1822 Indirect elections Interim caretaker
3 José La Mar September 22, 1822 – February 27, 1823 Elected by Congress President of the Government Junta
4 José Bernardo de Tagle, Marquis of Torre-Tagle February 27, 1823 – February 28, 1823 Indirect elections Interim caretaker
5 José de la Riva Agüero February 28, 1823 – June 23, 1823 Elected by Congress
6 Antonio José de Sucre June 23, 1823 – July 17, 1823 Elected by Congress
7 José Bernardo de Tagle, Marquis of Torre-Tagle July 17, 1823 – February 17, 1824 Elected by Congress Supreme Delegate
8 Simón Bolívar February 17, 1824 – January 28, 1827 Elected by Congress
9 Andrés de Santa Cruz January 28, 1827 – June 9, 1827 Elected by Congress President of the Government Council
10 Manuel Salazar y Baquíjano June 9, 1827 – August 22, 1827 Elected by Congress Interim caretaker
11 José La Mar August 22, 1827 – June 7, 1829 Direct Elections
12 Antonio Gutiérrez de la Fuente June 7, 1829 – September 1, 1829 Coup d'état
13 Agustín Gamarra September 1, 1829 – December 20, 1833 Elected by Congress
14 Francisco Xavier de Luna Pizarro December 20, 1833 – December 21, 1833 Elected by Congress Interim caretaker
15 Luis José de Orbegoso y Moncada December 21, 1833 – August 11, 1836 Elected by Congress
16 Pedro Pablo Bermúdez[2] January 4, 1833 – April 24, 1834 Coup d'état Provisional Supreme Ruler
17 Felipe Santiago Salaverry[3] February 23, 1835 – February 7, 1836 Coup d'état Supreme Legislator
18 Andrés de Santa Cruz[4] August 11, 1836 – August 25, 1838 Supreme Protector of the Confederation
19 Agustín Gamarra August 25, 1838 – November 18, 1841 Elected by Congress
20 Manuel Menéndez November 18, 1841 – August 16, 1842 Interim caretaker President of the Government Council
21 Juan Crisóstomo Torrico August 16, 1842 – October 17, 1842 Coup d'état
22 Juan Francisco de Vidal[5] October 17, 1842 – March 15, 1843 Coup d'état
23 Justo Figuerola March 15, 1843 – March 20, 1843 Coup d'état
24 Manuel Ignacio de Vivanco March 20, 1843 – June 17, 1844 Self-proclaimed President
25 Domingo Nieto March 20, 1843 – February 17, 1844 Elected by the Government Junta President of the Government Junta - Grand Marshal of Perú
26 Ramón Castilla February 17, 1844 – August 10, 1844 Elected in place of Domingo Nieto
27 Domingo Elías June 17, 1844 – August 10, 1844 Self-proclaimed President
28 Manuel Menéndez August 10, 1844 – August 11, 1844 Interim caretaker President of the Government Council
29 Justo Figuerola August 11, 1844 – October 7, 1844 Coup d'état
30 Manuel Menéndez October 7, 1844 – April 20, 1845 Interim caretaker President of the Government Council
31 Ramón Castilla April 20, 1845 – April 20, 1851 Direct Elections
32 José Rufino Echenique April 20, 1851 – January 5, 1855 Direct Elections
33 Ramón Castilla January 5, 1855 – October 24, 1862 Coup d'état
Direct Elections
34 Miguel de San Román October 24, 1862 – April 3, 1863 Direct Elections
35 Ramón Castilla April 3, 1863 – April 9, 1863 Revolution
Selfproclaimed President
36 Pedro Diez Canseco April 3, 1863 – August 5, 1863 Interim caretaker Second Vicepresident
37 Juan Antonio Pezet August 5, 1863 – April 25, 1865 First Vicepresident
38 Mariano Ignacio Prado April 25, 1865 – June 24, 1865 Coup d'état
39 Juan Antonio Pezet June 24, 1865 – November 8, 1865
40 Pedro Diez Canseco November 8, 1865 – November 28, 1865 Interim caretaker
41 Mariano Ignacio Prado November 28, 1865 – January 8, 1868 Direct Elections
42 Pedro Diez Canseco January 8, 1868 – August 2, 1868 Interim caretaker
43 José Balta August 2, 1868 – July 22, 1872 Direct Elections
44 Tomás Gutiérrez July 22, 1872 – July 26, 1872 Coup d'état Supreme Leader of the Nation
45 Francisco Diez Canseco July 26, 1872 – July 27, 1872 Interim caretaker
46 Mariano Herencia Zevallos July 27, 1872 – August 2, 1872 Interim caretaker
47 Manuel Pardo August 2, 1872 – August 2, 1876 Direct Elections
48 Mariano Ignacio Prado August 2, 1876 – December 23, 1879 Direct Elections
49 Nicolás de Piérola December 23, 1879 – November 28, 1881 Coup d'état Commander in Chief of the State
50 Francisco García Calderón March 12, 1881 – September 28, 1881 Elected by Congress
Chilean Occupation
(Lima)
Provisional President of the Republic
51 Lizardo Montero Flores September 28, 1881 – November 6, 1881 Elected by Congress
Chilean Occupation
(Arequipa)
Provisional President of the Republic
52 Andrés Avelino Cáceres November 6, 1881 – December 25, 1882 Self-proclaimed
Chilean Occupation
(Central Peru)
President of the Republic
53 Miguel Iglesias November 6, 1881 – December 25, 1882 Elected by Congress
Chilean Occupation
(Cajamarca)
Regenerator President of the Republic
54 Antonio Arenas December 3, 1885 – June 5, 1886 Interim caretaker President of the Government Junta
55 Andrés Avelino Cáceres June 5, 1886 – August 10, 1890 Direct Elections Constitutional President
56 Remigio Morales Bermúdez August 10, 1890 – April 1, 1894 Direct Elections Constitutional President
57 Justiniano Borgoño April 1, 1894 – August 10, 1894 Interim caretaker President of the Government Junta
58 Andrés Avelino Cáceres August 10, 1894 – March 20, 1895 Direct Elections Constitutional President
59 Manuel Candamo March 20, 1895 – September 8, 1895 Interim caretaker President of the Government Junta
60 Nicolás de Piérola September 8, 1895 – September 8, 1899 Direct Elections Constitutional President
61 Eduardo López de Romaña September 8, 1899 – September 8, 1903 Direct Elections Constitutional President
62 Manuel Candamo September 8, 1903 – May 7, 1904 Direct Elections Constitutional President
63 Serapio Calderón May 7, 1904 – September 24, 1904 Interim caretaker President of the Government Junta
64 José Pardo y Barreda September 24, 1904 – September 24, 1908 Direct Elections Constitutional President
65 Augusto B. Leguía y Salcedo September 24, 1908 – September 24, 1912 Direct Elections Constitutional President
66 Guillermo Billinghurst September 24, 1912 – February 4, 1914 Direct Elections Constitutional President
67 Óscar Benavides February 4, 1914 – August 18, 1915 Coup d'état
68 José Pardo y Barreda August 18, 1915 – July 4, 1919 Direct Elections Constitutional President
69 Augusto B. Leguía y Salcedo July 4, 1919 – August 25, 1930 Direct Elections
Coup d'état
Constitutional President
70 Manuel María Ponce Brousset August 25, 1930 – August 27, 1930 Interim caretaker
71 Luis Miguel Sánchez Cerro August 27, 1930 – March 1, 1931 Coup d'état President of the Provisional Government Junta
72 Ricardo Leoncio Elías Arias March 1, 1931 – March 5, 1931 Coup d'état President of the Provisional Government Junta
73 Gustavo Jiménez March 5, 1931 – March 11, 1931 Coup d'état President of the Provisional Government Junta
74 David Samanez Ocampo March 11, 1931 – December 8, 1931 Interim caretaker President of the Southern Junta
75 Luis Miguel Sánchez Cerro December 8, 1931 – April 30, 1933 Direct Elections Constitutional President
76 Óscar Benavides April 30, 1933 – December 8, 1939 Elected by Congress Constitutional President
77 Manuel Prado y Ugarteche December 8, 1939 – July 28, 1945 Direct Elections Constitutional President
78 José Bustamante y Rivero July 28, 1945 – October 29, 1948 Direct Elections Constitutional President
79 Manuel A. Odría October 29, 1948 – June 1, 1950 Coup d'état
80 Zenón Noriega Agüero June 1, 1950 – July 28, 1950 Interim caretaker
81 Manuel A. Odría July 28, 1950 – July 28, 1956 Direct Elections Constitutional President
82 Manuel Prado y Ugarteche July 28, 1956 – July 18, 1962 Direct Elections Constitutional President
83 Ricardo Pérez Godoy July 18, 1962 – March 3, 1963 Coup d'état 1st President of the Military Junta
84 Nicolás Lindley López March 3, 1963 – July 28, 1963 Coup d'état 2nd President of the Military Junta
85 Fernando Belaúnde Terry July 28, 1963 – October 3, 1968 Direct Elections Constitutional President
86 Juan Velasco Alvarado October 3, 1968 – August 30, 1975 Coup d'état 1st President of the Revolutionary Government of the Armed Forces
87 Francisco Morales Bermúdez August 30, 1975 – July 28, 1980 Coup d'état 2nd President of the Revolutionary Government of the Armed Forces
88 Fernando Belaúnde Terry July 28, 1980 – July 28, 1985 Direct Elections Constitutional President
89 Alan García Pérez July 28, 1985 – July 28, 1990 Direct Elections Constitutional President
90 Alberto Fujimori July 28, 1990 – April 5, 1992 Direct Elections Constitutional President
90 Alberto Fujimori April 5, 1992 – July 28, 1995 Self-Coup d'État De facto President
90 Alberto Fujimori July 28, 1995 – July 28, 2000 Direct Elections Constitutional President
90 Alberto Fujimori July 28, 2000 – November 22, 2000[6] Direct Elections Constitutional President
91 Valentín Paniagua November 22, 2000 – July 28, 2001 Interim caretaker[7] President of Transition Government
92 Alejandro Toledo July 28, 2001 – July 28, 2006 Direct Elections Constitutional President
93 Alan García Pérez July 28, 2006 – July 28, 2011 Direct Elections Constitutional President
94 Ollanta Humala July 28, 2011 – present Direct Elections Constitutional President

Latest election

 Summary of the 10 April and 5 June 2011 Peruvian presidential election result
Candidates – Parties 1st round 2nd round
Votes % Votes %
Ollanta HumalaPeru Wins (Gana Perú) 4,643,064 31.699 7,937,704 51.449
Keiko FujimoriForce 2011 (Fuerza 2011) 3,449,595 23.551 7,490,647 48.551
Pedro Pablo KuczynskiAlliance for the Great Change (Alianza por el Gran Cambio) 2,711,450 18.512  
Alejandro ToledoPossible Peru (Perú Posible) 2,289,561 15.631
Luis CastañedaNational Solidarity (Solidaridad Nacional) 1,440,143 9.832
José Ñique de la PuenteFonavist Party (Partido Fonavista del Perú) 37,011 0.253
Ricardo NoriegaNational Awakening Party (Partido Despertar Nacional) 21,574 0.147
Rafael Belaúnde AubryForward Party (Partido Político Adelante) 17,301 0.118
Juliana ReymerNational Force Party (Partido Fuerza Nacional) 16,831 0.115
Humberto PinazoJustice, Technology, Ecology (Justicia, Tecnología, Ecología) 11,275 0.077
Total valid (turnout %) 14,074,682 100.000 15,428,351 100.000
Blank votes 1,406,998 8.855 116,335 0.706
Invalid votes 416,026 2.620 921,711 5.598
Source: National Office of Electoral Processes (ONPE), National Office of Electoral Processes (ONPE)

Titles and styles

The President of the Republic of Peru is the Head of the Peruvian State and the Supreme Commander of the Peruvian Armed Forces

The official style is:

His/Her Excellency - name of the president -

Line of succession

Names of incumbents as of 2015 listed President of the Republic: His Excellency Ollanta Humala Tasso

1- First Vice-President of the Republic: Marisol Espinoza

2- Second Vice-President of the Republic: Vacant

3- President of the Congress of the Republic: Luis Iberico

4- First Vice-President of the Congress of the Republic: Natalie Condori

5- Second Vice-President of the Congress of the Republic: Mariano Portugal

6- Third Vice-President of the Congress of the Republic: Luis Galarreta

Notes

  1. ^ "Political Constitution of Peru, Article 112" (PDF). 
  2. ^ Selfproclaimed President, Parallel government with Orbegoso in Arequipa.
  3. ^ Selfproclaimed President, Parallel government with Orbegoso in Lima.
  4. ^ The Republic of Peru and the Republic of Bolivia were united into a federal state called the Peru-Bolivian Confederation. Peru was divided in the states of North Peru and South Peru, each one of them with its own President.
  5. ^ No effective central government existed after the Coup d'état against Francisco Vidal, with several generals claiming the Presidency in different cities around the country.
  6. ^ Alberto Fujimori submitted his resignation on November 19, 2000. His resignation was rejected by the Peruvian Congress, who declared him "Morally Unfit" for the Presidency and impeached him on November 22, 2000.
  7. ^ As President of Congress, Paniagua was 3rd in the line of succession. Raised to power after the President was impeached and both VP resigned.

See also

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