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List of heads of state of Greece

This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Greece

This is a list of the heads of state of the modern Greek state, from its establishment during the Greek Revolution to the present day.

Contents

  • First Hellenic Republic (1822–1832) 1
    • Provisional Administration of Greece (1822–1827) 1.1
    • Hellenic State (1827–1832) 1.2
  • Kingdom of Greece (1832–1924) 2
    • House of Wittelsbach (1832–1862) 2.1
    • House of Glücksburg (1863–1924) 2.2
  • Second Hellenic Republic (1924–1935) 3
  • Kingdom of Greece (1935–1973) 4
    • House of Glücksburg (1935–1973) 4.1
  • Republic under the Military Junta (1973–1974) 5
  • Third Hellenic Republic (1974–present) 6
  • Living former heads of state 7
  • Head of State titles 8
  • See also 9
  • Notes 10
  • External links 11

First Hellenic Republic (1822–1832)

Provisional Administration of Greece (1822–1827)

Head of State Term of office Title
Portrait Name Took office Left office Duration
1 Alexandros Mavrokordatos
Αλέξανδρος Μαυροκορδάτος
(1791–1865)
13 January 1822 10 May 1823 1 year, 117 days President of the Executive
2 Petrobey Mavromichalis
Πέτρομπεης Μαυρομιχάλης
(1765–1848)
10 May 1823 31 December 1823 235 days President of the Executive
3 Georgios Kountouriotis
Γεώργιος Κουντουριώτης
(1782–1858)
31 December 1823 26 April 1826 2 years, 116 days President of the Executive
4 Andreas Zaimis
Ανδρέας Ζαΐμης
(1791–1840)
26 April 1826 14 April 1827 353 days President of the Government Commission

Hellenic State (1827–1832)

Governor Term of office Political party
Portrait Name Took office Left office Duration
1 Ioannis Kapodistrias
Ιωάννης Καποδίστριας
(1776–1831)
14 April 1827 9 October 1831
(Assassinated)
4 years, 178 days Russian Party
2 Augustinos Kapodistrias
Αυγουστίνος Καποδίστριας
(1778–1857)
9 October 1831 23 March 1832
(Resigned)
166 days Russian Party

Following the resignation of Augustinos Kapodistrias, a series of collective governing councils were established, but their authority was often only nominal.

Governing Council Term of office Members
Took office Left office Duration
1 First Governing Council 9 April 1832 14 April 1832 5 days Theodoros Kolokotronis
Andreas Zaimis
Ioannis Kolettis
Andreas Metaxas
Vasilios Boudouris
2 Second Governing Council 14 April 1832 3 October 1832 172 days Georgios Kountouriotis
Ioannis Kolettis
Andreas Metaxas
Andreas Zaimis
Dimitrios Plapoutas
Dimitrios Ypsilantis
Konstantinos Botsaris
(from 25 April 1832)
3 Third Governing Council 3 October 1832 6 February 1833 126 days Andreas Zaimis
Andreas Metaxas
Ioannis Kolettis

Kingdom of Greece (1832–1924)

House of Wittelsbach (1832–1862)

The London Conference of 1832 was an international conference convened to establish a stable government in Greece. Negotiations between the three Great Powers (United Kingdom, France and Russia) resulted in the establishment of the Kingdom of Greece under a Bavarian Prince. The decisions were ratified in the Treaty of Constantinople later that year.

The convention offered the throne to the Bavarian Prince, Otto. They also established the line of succession which would pass the crown to Otto's descendants, or his younger brothers should he have no issue. It was also decided that in no case there would be a personal union of the crowns of Greece and Bavaria.

King Reign Claim
Portrait Name Reign start Reign end Duration
1 Otto
Όθων
(1815–1867)
27 May 1832
[1]
23 October 1862
(Deposed)
30 years, 149 days 1832 London Conference

House of Glücksburg (1863–1924)

In October 1862, King Otto was deposed in a popular revolt, but while the Greek people rejected Otto, they did not seem averse to the concept of monarchy per se. Many Greeks, seeking closer ties to the pre-eminent world power, Great Britain, rallied around the idea that Prince Alfred, the second son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, could become the next King. British Foreign Secretary Lord Palmerston believed that the Greeks were "panting for increase in territory", hoping that the election of Alfred as King would also result in the incorporation of the Ionian Islands, which were then a British protectorate, into an enlarged Greek state.

The London Conference of 1832, however, had prohibited any of the Great Powers' ruling families from accepting the crown of Greece, and in any event, Queen Victoria was adamantly opposed to the idea. Nevertheless, the Greeks insisted on holding a referendum on the issue of the head of state in November 1862. It was the first referendum ever held in Greece.

Prince Alfred turned down the Kingship and Prince William of Denmark, son of Prince Christian of Denmark, was elected by the National Assembly to become King George I of the Hellenes.

  Denotes Regent
King Reign Claim
Portrait Name Reign start Reign end Duration
2 George I
Γεώργιος A΄
(1845–1913)
30 March 1863 18 March 1913
(Assassinated)
49 years, 353 days 1862 Referendum
3 Constantine I
Κωνσταντίνος A΄
(1868–1923)
18 March 1913 11 June 1917
(Abdicated)
4 years, 90 days Son of George I
4 Alexander
Αλέξανδρος
(1893–1920)
11 June 1917 25 October 1920 3 years, 136 days Second son of Constantine I
Admiral Pavlos Kountouriotis
Παύλος Κουντουριώτης
(1855–1935)
28 October 1920 17 November 1920
(Resigned)
20 days Regent
Queen Olga
Βασίλισσα Όλγα
(1855–1935)
17 November 1920 19 December 1920 32 days Regent
Widow of George I
Mother of Constantine I
(3) Constantine I
Κωνσταντίνος A΄
(1868–1923)
19 December 1920 27 September 1922
(Abdicated)
1 year, 282 days Restored throne
5 George II
Γεώργιος Β΄
(1890–1947)
27 September 1922 25 March 1924
(Deposed)
1 year, 180 days Eldest son of Constantine I

Second Hellenic Republic (1924–1935)

The Second Hellenic Republic was a parliamentary republic which was proclaimed on 25 March 1924 and a referendum was held to abolish the Monarchy. The Second Republic was abolished after the 1935 monarchy referendum.

Status
  Denotes Acting President
President Term of office Political party
Portrait Name Took office Left office Duration
1 Admiral Pavlos Kountouriotis
Παύλος Κουντουριώτης
(1855–1935)
25 March 1924 6 April 1926
(Resigned)
2 years, 12 days Military
2 Lt. General Theodoros Pangalos
Θεόδωρος Πάγκαλος
(1878–1952)
6 April 1926 18 April 1926 138 days Military
18 April 1926 22 August 1926
(Deposed)
(1) Admiral Pavlos Kountouriotis
Παύλος Κουντουριώτης
(1855–1935)
22 August 1926 24 August 1926 3 years, 108 days Military
18 April 1926 10 December 1929
(Resigned)
3 Alexandros Zaimis
Αλέξανδρος Ζαΐμης
(1855–1936)
10 December 1929 14 December 1929 5 years, 304 days Independent
14 December 1929 10 October 1935
(Deposed)

Kingdom of Greece (1935–1973)

House of Glücksburg (1935–1973)

  Denotes Regent
King Reign Claim
Portrait Name Reign start Reign end Duration
(5) George II
Γεώργιος Β΄
(1890–1947)
25 November 1935 1 April 1947 11 years, 149 days Restored throne
6 Paul
Παύλος
(1901–1964)
1 April 1947 6 March 1964 16 years, 340 days Third son of Constantine I
Brother of George II
7 Constantine II
Κωνσταντίνος Β΄
(1940–)
6 March 1964 1 June 1973
(Deposed)
9 years, 87 days Son of Paul
Georgios Zoitakis
Γεώργιος Ζωιτάκης
(1910–1996)
13 December 1967 21 March 1972 4 years, 99 days Regent
For Constantine II
Georgios Papadopoulos
Γεώργιος Παπαδόπουλος
(1919–1999)
21 March 1972 31 May 1973 1 year, 71 days Regent
For Constantine II

Republic under the Military Junta (1973–1974)

On 1 June 1973 the junta abolished the monarchy and replaced it with a presidential republic. The abolition of the monarchy was approved by a referendum held on 29 July 1973.

President Term of office Political party
Portrait Name Took office Left office Duration
1 Georgios Papadopoulos
Γεώργιος Παπαδόπουλος
(1919–1999)
1 June 1973 25 November 1973
(Deposed)
177 days Military
2 Lt. General Phaedon Gizikis
Φαίδων Γκιζίκης
(1917–1999)
25 November 1973 17 December 1974 1 year, 22 days Military

Third Hellenic Republic (1974–present)

In 1974, the military junta was overthrown and democracy restored. A second referendum, held on 8 December 1974, confirmed the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of the current parliamentary republic, with the President of the Republic as the head of state.

Status
  Denotes Acting President
President Term of office Political party
Portrait Name Took office Left office Duration
1 Michail Stasinopoulos
Μιχαήλ Στασινόπουλος
(1903–2002)
18 December 1974 19 July 1975 213 days New Democracy
2 Konstantinos Tsatsos
Κωνσταντίνος Τσάτσος
(1899–1987)
19 July 1975 10 May 1980 4 years, 296 days New Democracy
3 Konstantinos Karamanlis
Κωνσταντίνος Καραμανλής
(1907–1998)
10 May 1980 10 March 1985
(Resigned)
4 years, 304 days New Democracy
Ioannis Alevras
Ιωάννης Αλευράς
(1912–1995)
10 March 1985 30 March 1985 20 days PASOK
4 Christos Sartzetakis
Χρήστος Σαρτζετάκης
(1929–)
30 March 1985 4 May 1990 5 years, 35 days Independent
(3) Konstantinos Karamanlis
Κωνσταντίνος Καραμανλής
(1907–1998)
5 May 1990 10 March 1995 4 years, 310 days New Democracy
5 Konstantinos Stephanopoulos
Κωνσταντίνος Στεφανόπουλος
(1926–)
10 March 1995 12 March 2005 10 years, 2 days Independent
6 Karolos Papoulias
Κάρολος Παπούλιας
(1929–)
12 March 2005 13 March 2015 10 years, 1 day PASOK
7 Prokopis Pavlopoulos
Προκόπης Παυλόπουλος
(1950–)
13 March 2015 Incumbent 1 year, 105 days New Democracy

Living former heads of state

Name Term / Reign Office Date of birth and age
Constantine II 1964–1973 King of the Hellenes (1940-06-02) 2 June 1940
Christos Sartzetakis 1985–1990 President of the Republic (1929-04-06) 6 April 1929
Konstantinos Stephanopoulos 1995–2005 President of the Republic (1926-08-15) 15 August 1926
Karolos Papoulias 2005–2015 President of the Republic (1929-06-04) 4 June 1929

Head of State titles

State Years Title
 Greece 1827–1832 Governor
 Greece
(Under Wittelsbach dynasty)
1832–1862 King of Greece
 Greece
(Under Glücksburg dynasty)
1863–1924 King of the Hellenes
 Greece 1924–1935 President of the Republic
 Greece
(Restored Glücksburg dynasty)
1935–1973 King of the Hellenes
 Greece
(Military Junta)
1973–74 President of the Republic
 Greece 1974–present President of the Republic

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Protocol signed in 1832 but landed in Greece on 6 February 1833.

External links

  • List of Greek heads of state and government
  • The President of the Hellenic Republic
  • Greek Royal Family
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