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List of human evolution fossils

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Title: List of human evolution fossils  
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List of human evolution fossils

The following tables give a brief overview of several notable hominin fossil finds relating to human evolution beginning with the formation of the Hominini tribe in the late Miocene (roughly 6 million years ago).

As there are thousands of fossils, mostly fragmentary, often consisting of single bones or isolated teeth with complete skulls and skeletons rare,[1] this overview is not complete, but does show some of the most important finds. The fossils are arranged by approximate age as determined by radiometric dating and/or incremental dating and the species name represents current consensus; if there is no clear scientific consensus the other possible classifications are indicated. Deprecated classifications may be found on the fossil's page.

Most of the fossils shown are not considered direct ancestors to Homo sapiens but are closely related to direct ancestors and are therefore important to the study of the lineage.

Contents

  • Undated 1
  • Late Miocene 2
    • 7 million - 5.3 million years old 2.1
  • Pliocene 3
    • 5.3 million - 2.58 million years old 3.1
  • Pleistocene 4
    • Lower Paleolithic: 2.58 million - 300,000 4.1
    • Middle Paleolithic: 300,000 - 50,000 years old 4.2
    • Upper Paleolithic: 50,000 - 10,000 years old 4.3
  • Holocene 5
    • Mesolithic / Neolithic: 10,000 - 5000 years old 5.1
  • Abbreviations used in fossil catalog name 6
  • See also 7
  • Further reading 8
  • References 9
    • Bibliography 9.1
  • External links 10

Undated

Name Age Species Year
discovered
Country Discovered by Now located at
Dinaledi Chamber hominids Undated Homo naledi 2013 South Africa Rick Hunter and Steven Tucker University of the Witwatersrand

Late Miocene

7 million - 5.3 million years old

Name Age Species Year
discovered
Country Discovered by Now located at
TM 266 (Toumai) 7 Ma[2] Sahelanthropus tchadensis 2001 Chad Michel Brunet, Alain Beauvilain, Fanone Gongdibe, Mahamat Adoum and Ahounta Djimdoumalbaye
BAR 1000'00 6 Ma[3] Orrorin tugenensis 2000 Kenya Martin Pickford, Kiptalam Cheboi, Dominique Gommery, Pierre Mein, Brigitte Senut,
ALA-VP 1/20[4] 5.5-5.8 Ma Ardipithecus kadabba 1997 Ethiopia Yohannes Haile-Selassie

Pliocene

5.3 million - 2.58 million years old

Image Name Age Species Year
discovered
Country Discovered by Now located at
Ardi 4.4 Ma[5] Ardipithecus ramidus 1994 Ethiopia Yohannes Haile-Selassie
KNM-LT 329. Réplica at Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales of Madrid KNM-LT 329 4.2 - 5 Ma[6] Australopithecus anamensis 1967 Kenya Arnold Lewis, Bryan Patterson[7][8][9]
KNM-TH 13150 4.15-5.25 Ma[10] Australopithecus anamensis 1984 Kenya -
KNM-KP 271 4 Ma[11] Australopithecus anamensis 1965 Kenya Bryan Patterson[7]
Laetoli Footprints 3.7 Ma Bipedal hominin 1976 Tanzania Mary Leakey
LH 4 2.9 - 3.9 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 1974 Laetoli, Tanzania Mary Leakey[12]
KSD-VP-1/1 (Kadanuumuu) 3.58 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 2005 Ethiopia Yohannes Haile-Selassie
Mandible of an Australopithecus bahrelghazali K 12 (Abel) 3.5 Australopithecus bahrelghazali 1995 Chad Michel Brunet
Flat Faced Man[13] 3.5 Ma Kenyanthropus platyops 1999 Lake Turkana, Kenya Justus Erus and Meave Leakey[14]
BRT-VP-3/14 3.3 - 3.5 Ma Australopithecus deyiremeda 2015 Ethiopia Yohannes Haile-Selassie[15]
Stw 573 (Little foot) 3.3 Ma Australopithecus ? 1994 South Africa Ronald J. Clarke
DIK-1 (Selam) 3.3 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 2000 Ethiopia Zeresenay Alemseged
AL 288-1 (Lucy) 3.2 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 1974 Ethiopia Tom Gray, Donald Johanson, Yves Coppens and Maurice Taieb National Museum of Ethiopia
AL 200-1 and AL 400-1. Australopithecus afarensis AL 200-1 3 - 3.2 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 1975 Ethiopia Donald Johanson Yves Coppens and Maurice Taieb
Johanson's knee, AL 129-1 AL 129-1 3 - 3.2 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 1973 Ethiopia Donald Johanson
AL 444-2[16] 3 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 1992 Ethiopia Yoel Rak
[17] LD 350-1[18] 2.75 - 2.8 Ma Homo __? 2013 Ethiopia Chalachew Seyoum

Pleistocene

Lower Paleolithic: 2.58 million - 300,000

Name Age Species Date
discovered
Country Discovered by Now located at
Taung 1
(Taung Child)
2.5 Ma Australopithecus africanus 1924 South Africa Raymond Dart
KNM WT 17000
(The Black Skull)
2.5 Ma Paranthropus aethiopicus 1985 Kenya Alan Walker
Original Uraha 501
Uraha Jawbone
[19]
2.3 - 2.5 Ma Homo rudolfensis 1991 Malawi Tyson Msiska, Timothy Bromage, Friedemann Schrenk
Pelvis, one of the parts of the skeleton STS 14 STS 14[20] 2.04-2.58 Ma Australopithecus africanus 1947 South Africa Robert Broom
STS 71. STS 71[21] 2.04 - 2.58 Ma Australopithecus africanus 1947 South Africa Robert Broom and John T. Robinson
STS 52a and STS 52b STS 52[22] 2.04 -2 .58 Ma Australopithecus africanus 1947 South Africa Robert Broom
STS 5
(Mrs. Ples)
2.04Ma Australopithecus africanus 1947 South Africa Robert Broom
TM 1517[23] 2 Ma Paranthropus robustus 1938 South Africa Gert Terblanche
MH1 (Karabo)[24][25] 1.977-1.98 Ma[26] Australopithecus sediba 2008 South Africa Lee R. Berger
KNM ER 1813 1.9 Ma Homo habilis 1973 Kenya Kamoya Kimeu
KNM ER 1470 1.9 Ma Homo rudolfensis 1972 Kenya Bernard Ngeneo[27]
Replica made with a 3D printer OH 24
(Twiggy)
[28]
1.8 Ma Homo habilis 1968 Tanzania Peter Nzube
OH 8[29] 1.8 Ma Homo habilis 1960 Tanzania
OH 5
(Zinj or
nutcracker man)
1.8 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1959 Tanzania Mary Leakey
D2700 (Dmanisi Skull 3) 1.8 Ma Homo erectus 2001 Georgia David Lordkipanidze and Abesalom Vekua
D3444 (Dmanisi Skull 4) 1.8 Ma Homo erectus 2003 Georgia David Lordkipanidze
Dmanisi skull 5 de Dmanisi D4500 (Dmanisi Skull 5) 1.8 Ma Homo erectus 2005 ( published in 2013) Georgia David Lordkipanidze
KNM-ER 62000[30] 1.78 -1.9 Mya Homo rudolfensis 2012 Koobi Fora, Kenya Meave Leakey's team
KNM-ER 62003 (mandibular fragment)[30] 1.78 -1.9 Mya Homo rudolfensis 2012 Koobi Fora, Kenya Meave Leakey's team
KNM-ER 60000 (mandible)[30] 1.78 -1.9 Mya Homo rudolfensis 2012 Koobi Fora, Kenya Meave Leakey's team
OH 7 1.75 Ma Homo habilis 1960 Tanzania Jonathan Leakey
KNM ER 3733 1.75 Ma Homo ergaster[31] (aka Homo erectus) 1975 Kenya Bernard Ngeneo
KNM ER 1805 1.74 Ma Homo habilis 1973/4 Kenya Paul Abell
Yuanmou Man 1.7 Ma / 0.5-0.6 Ma (disputed)[32] Homo erectus 1965 China Fang Qian
KNM ER 406 1.7 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1969 Kenya Richard Leakey
KNM ER 732[33] 1.7 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1970 Kenya Richard Leakey
KNM ER 23000[34] 1.7 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1990 Koobi Fora, Kenya Benson Kyongo
KNM WT 17400 1.7 Ma Paranthropus boisei Kenya
KNM WT 15000
(Turkana Boy)
1.6 Ma Homo ergaster (aka Homo erectus) 1984 Kenya Kamoya Kimeu Kenya National Museum
[35] StW 53 1.5 - 2 Ma Homo gautengensis 1976 South Africa A. R. Hughes
SK 847[36] 1.5 - 2 Ma Homo habilis 1949 South Africa
DNH 7
(Eurydice)
[37]
1.5 - 2 Ma Paranthropus robustus 1994 South Africa André Keyser
SK 46[38] 1.5 - 1.8 Ma Paranthropus robustus 1949 South Africa Robert Broom
Replica of the mandible of Peninj, P. boisei Peninj Mandible 1.5 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1964 Tanzania Richard Leakey
OH 9, partial skull OH 9
(Chellean Man)
[39]
1.5 Ma Homo erectus 1960 Tanzania Louis Leakey
KNM-ER 992. Replica. Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales in Madrid KNM ER 992 1.5 Ma Homo ergaster (aka Homo erectus) 1971 Kenya Richard Leakey
Mojokerto 1
(Mojokerto child)
1.43 - 1.49 Ma Homo erectus 1936 Indonesia Andojo, G.H.R. von Koenigswald
KNM ER 3883 1.4 - 1.6 Ma Homo erectus 1976 Kenya Richard Leakey
KGA 10-525 1.4 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1993 Ethiopia A. Amzaye
Atapuerca Jawbone[40] 1.2 Ma Homo sp. 2008 Spain Eudald Carbonell Museo de la Evolución Humana, Burgos (Spain)
The Kocabas hominin calvaria. Kocabas 1.1 Ma [41] Homo erectus [42] 2002 Turkey M. Cihat Alçiçek
Daka 1.0 Ma Homo erectus 1997 Ethiopia Henry Gilbert
Sangiran 4 1 Ma Homo erectus 1939 Indonesia G.H.R. von Koenigswald
780k - 858k Homo erectus 1994 Spain Bermúdez & Arsuaga Museo de la Evolución Humana, Burgos (Spain)
Sangiran 2 0.7 - 1.6 Ma Homo erectus 1937 Indonesia G.H.R. von Koenigswald
Trinil 2
Pithecanthropus-1
or
Java Man
[43]
0.7 -1 Ma Homo erectus 1891 Indonesia Eugène Dubois
Mandible Ternifine III Ternifine 2-3 now Tighennif[44] 700k Homo erectus 1954 Algeria C. Arambourg & B. Hoffstetter
Sangiran 17[45] 700k Homo erectus 1969 Indonesia S. Sartono
Peking Man 680k - 780k Homo erectus 1921 China Davidson Black Lost/stolen
Madam Buya Madam Buya[46] 600k - 1.4 Ma Homo heidelbergensis or Homo erectus 1997 Eritrea Ernesto Abbate
Bodo[47] 600k Homo heidelbergensis or Homo erectus 1976 Ethiopia A. Asfaw
Mauer 1
(Heidelberg Man)
500k Homo heidelbergensis 1907 Germany Daniel Hartmann
Saldanha man[48] 500k Homo rhodesiensis 1953 South Africa
Boxgrove Man 478k - 524k Homo heidelbergensis 1994 UK
Arago XXI Arago 21
(Tautavel Man)
450k Homo erectus 1971 France Henry de Lumley
[49] Hexian[50] 400k - 500k Homo erectus 1980 China
Skull 5 (Miguelón) 400k Homo heidelbergensis 1992 Spain Bermúdez, Arsuaga & Carbonell Museo de la Evolución Humana, Burgos (Spain)
Replica Swanscombe Man 400k Homo heidelbergensis 1935 UK Alvan T Marston
Sale 400k Homo rhodesiensis 1971 Morocco
Replica made by a 3D printer Ndutu[51] 350k Homo rhodesiensis 1973 Tanzania A.A. Mturi
Steinheim Skull 350k Homo heidelbergensis 1933 Germany

Middle Paleolithic: 300,000 - 50,000 years old

Name Age Species Year
discovered
Country Discovered by Now located at
Petralona 1 Petralona 1[52] 250k - 500k Homo heidelbergensis 1960 Greece
Galilee Man 300k-200k Homo heidelbergensis 1925 Palestine Francis Turville-Petre
Ngandong 7 250k Homo erectus 1931 Indonesia C. ter Haar and G. H. R. von Koenigswald
Bontnewydd (Pontynewydd) 230k Homo neanderthalensis 1981 UK
[53] Dali 209k ±23k (disputed)[54] Homo erectus
or
Homo sapiens
1978 China Shuntang Liu
Broken Hill 1
(Kabwe Cranium
or
Rhodesian Man)
200k - 300k Homo rhodesiensis 1921 Zambia Tom Zwiglaar
[55] Omo 1 190k Homo sapiens 1967 Ethiopia Richard Leakey
[56] Omo 2 190k Homo sapiens Ethiopia Richard Leakey
Penghu 1 190k—10k[57][58] Homo tsaichangensis[59] Taiwan National Museum of Natural Science
Herto's skull Herto remains[60] 160k Homo sapiens 1997 Ethiopia Tim White
Jebel Irhoud 1 Jebel Irhoud 1[61] 160k Homo sapiens 1991 Morocco
Jebel Irhoud 2 160k Homo sapiens 1991 Morocco
[62] Jebel Irhoud 3 160k Homo sapiens 1991 Morocco
Jebel Irhoud 4 160k Homo sapiens 1991 Morocco
[63][64] Altamura Man 130-172k[65] Homo neanderthalensis 1993 Italy in situ
Tabun C1. Low resolution Tabun C1[66] 120k Homo neanderthalensis 1967 Israel Arthur Jelinek
Saccopastore 1 100-130k[67] Homo neanderthalensis 1929 Italy Mario Grazioli
Krapina[68] 100k - 127k [69] Homo neanderthalensis 1899 Croatia Dragutin Gorjanović-Kramberger
Qafzeh 6[70] 90k - 100k[69] Homo sapiens 1930 Israel R. Neuville M Stekelis
Qafzeh IX 90k - 100k[69] Homo sapiens[71] 1933 Israel T. McCown and H. Moivus, Jr.
[72] Qafzeh VI 90k - 100k[69] Homo sapiens 1933 Israel T. McCown and H. Moivus, Jr.
Scladina 80k - 127k[69] Homo neanderthalensis Belgium
Skhul V 80k - 120k Homo sapiens 1933 Israel T. McCown and H. Moivus, Jr.
Skhul IX 80k - 120k Homo sapiens Israel
[73] Klasies River Caves 75k - 125k Homo sapiens 1960 South Africa Ray Inskeep, Robin Singer, John Wymer, Hilary Deacon
Obi-Rakhmat 1[74] 75k [69] Homo neanderthalensis 2003 Uzbekistan
Teshik-Tash Skull[75] 70k Homo neanderthalensis 1938 Uzbekistan A. Okladnikov
La Ferrassie 1 70k Homo neanderthalensis 1909 France R. Capitan and D. Peyrony
Shanidar 1 60k - 80k Homo neanderthalensis 1961 Iraq Ralph Solecki
La Chapelle-aux-Saints 1 60k Homo neanderthalensis 1908 France A. and J. Bouyssonie and L. Bardon
Kebara 2 (Moshe)[76] 60k Homo neanderthalensis 1983 Israel Lynne Schepartz
[77] Amud 7 50k - 60k Homo neanderthalensis Israel

Upper Paleolithic: 50,000 - 10,000 years old

Name Age Species Date
discovered
Country Discovered by Now Located at
Sidrón Cave 49k Homo neanderthalensis 1994 Spain
La Quina 5 45k - 60k[69] Homo neanderthalensis France
La Quina 18 45k - 60k[69] Homo neanderthalensis France
TPL2 mandible Tam Pa Ling cave[78] 46k - 63k [78][79] Homo sapiens 2009 Laos
Kents Cavern 41k - 45k Homo sapiens 1927 UK
Amud 1[80] 41k [81] Homo neanderthalensis 1961 Israel Hisashi Suzuki
Mungo Man 40k - 60k Homo sapiens 1974 Australia
WLH-50 Homo sapiens 1982 Australia
Mt. Circeo 1 Mt. Circeo 1[82] 40k - 60k Homo neanderthalensis 1939 Italy Prof. Blanc
Neanderthal 1 Neanderthal 1[83] 40k Homo neanderthalensis 1856 Germany Johann Carl Fuhlrott
Denisova phalanx distalis Denisova hominin (X-Woman) 40k Homo ? 2008 Russia Johannes Krause, et al.
hominin finger bone 40k Homo ? (possible Neanderthal-Denisovan hybrid) 2011 Russia
Balangoda man 37k Homo sapiens 2012 Sri Lanka
Hofmeyr Skull 36k Homo sapiens 1952 South Africa
Oase 2 Peștera cu Oase[84] 36k Homo sapiens 2002 Romania
Red Lady of Paviland 33k Homo sapiens 1823 UK William Buckland
Yamashita-Cho Man 32k Homo sapiens 1962 Japan
Engis 2 Engis 2 30k-50k [69][85] Homo neanderthalensis 1829 Belgium Philippe-Charles Schmerling
Gibraltar 1 Gibraltar 1 30k-50k [69] Homo neanderthalensis 1848 Gibraltar Captain Edmund Flint
Le Moustier 1 Le Moustier 30k-50k Homo neanderthalensis 1909 France
Denisova molar Denisovan tooth 30k - 50k Homo ? 2000 Russia
Cro-Magnon 1 Cro-Magnon 1 30k Homo sapiens 1868 France Louis Lartet
NG 6 27k - 53k Homo erectus 1931 Indonesia C. ter Haar and GHR von Koenigswald
Replica of Predmosti 3 Predmost 3[86] 26k Homo sapiens 1894 Czech Republic K.J. Maska
[87] Lapedo Child 24.5k Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens 1998 Portugal João Zilhão
[87] Eel Point 24k Homo sapiens 1997 UK
LB 1 skeleton LB 1 (Hobbit) 18k Homo floresiensis 2003 Indonesia Peter Brown
Minatogawa 1. Replica at the Museum of Tokyo[88] Minatogawa 1 16k - 18k Homo sapiens 1970 Japan Anthropology Museum, Tokyo University
Tandou[89][90] 17k Homo sapiens 1967 Australia Duncan Merrilees
Gough's Cave[91][92] 14.7k Homo sapiens 2010 UK
Iwo Eleru Skull 13k[93] Homo sapiens 1965 Nigeria
Arlington Springs Man 13k[94] Homo sapiens 1959 United States Phil Orr
Chancelade find 17-12k[95] Homo sapiens 1888 France
Luzia 11.5k[96] Homo sapiens 1975 Brazil Annette Laming-Emperaire
[97] Cerro Sota 2[98] 11k Homo sapiens 1936 Chile Junius Bird
Wadjak 1, aka Java Man. Wadjak 1[99] 10k - 12k Homo sapiens 1888 Indonesia B.D. van Rietschoten
Red Deer cave skull
Red Deer Cave 14,500 - 11,500 Uncertain, possibly Homo sapiens 1979 China Darren Curnoe?

Holocene

Mesolithic / Neolithic: 10,000 - 5000 years old

Name Age Species Year
discovered
Country Discovered by Now located at
La Brea Woman ~ 10k Homo sapiens 1914 United States
Combe Capelle 9.6 k[100] Homo sapiens 1909 France O. Hauser
Cheddar Man 9k Homo sapiens 1903 UK
Kow Swamp 1 9k - 13k Homo sapiens 1968 Australia A.G. Thorne
Afalou 13 8k - 12k Homo sapiens 1920 Algeria C. Arambourg
Wadi Halfa 25 8k - 12k Homo sapiens 1963 Sudan G. Armelagos, E. Ewing, D. Greene
Wadi Kubbaniya 8k - 20k Homo sapiens 1982 Egypt Fred Wendorf
Minnesota Woman 7.8 - 8k Homo sapiens 1931 Minnesota, United States Albert Jenks, via construction crew
Lo 4b[101][102] 6k - 9k Homo sapiens 1965-1975 H. Robbins B.M. Lynch
Tepexpan man 5k - 11k Homo sapiens 1947 Mexico H. de Terra
SDM 16704 4.9k - 11.8 Homo sapiens 1929 United States M.J. Rogers

Abbreviations used in fossil catalog name

  • AL – Afar Locality, Ethiopia
  • ARA-VP – Aramis Vertebrate Paleontology, Ethiopia
  • BAR – (Lukeino, Tugen Hills) Baringo District, Kenya
  • BOU-VP – Bouri Vertebrate Paleontology, Ethiopia
  • D – Dmanisi, Georgia
  • ER – East (Lake) Rudolf, Kenya
  • KGA – Konso-Gardula, Ethiopia
  • KNM – Kenya National Museum
  • KP – Kanapoi, Kenya
  • LB – Liang Bua, Indonesia
  • LH – Laetoli Hominid, Tanzania
  • NG – Ngandong, Indonesia
  • OH – Olduvai Hominid, Tanzania
  • SK – Swartkrans, South Africa
  • Sts, Stw – Sterkfontein, South Africa
  • TM – Transvaal Museum, South Africa
  • TM – Toros-Menalla, Chad
  • WT – West (Lake) Turkana, Kenya

See also

Further reading

  • Gibbons, Ann. The First Human: The Race to Discover our Earliest Ancestor. Anchor Books (2007). ISBN 978-1-4000-7696-3
  • .  
  • Johanson, Donald & Wong, Kate. Lucy's Legacy: The Quest for Human Origins. Three Rivers Press (2009). ISBN 978-0-307-39640-2
  • (Note: this book contains very useful, information dense chapters on primate evolution in general, and human evolution in particular, including fossil history).  
  • Leakey, Richard & Lewin, Roger. Origins Reconsidered: In Search of What Makes us Human. Little, Brown and Company (1992). ISBN 0-316-90298-5
  • Lewin, Roger. Bones of Contention: Controversies in the Search for Human Origins. Penguin Books (1987). ISBN 0-14-022638-9
  • Morwood, Mike & van Oosterzee, Penny. A New Human: The Startling Discovery and Strange Story of the 'Hobbits' of Flores, Indonesia. Smithsonian Books (2007). ISBN 978-0-06-089908-0
  • Oppenheimer, Stephen. Out of Eden: The Peopling of the World. Constable (2003). ISBN 1-84119-697-5
  • Roberts, Alice. The Incredible Human Journey: The Story of how we Colonised the Planet. Bloomsbury (2009). ISBN 978-0-7475-9839-8
  • Shreeve, James. The Neanderthal Enigma: Solving the Mystery of Modern Human Origins. Viking (1996). ISBN 0-670-86638-5
  • Stringer, Chris. The Origin of Our Species. Allen Lane (2011). ISBN 978-1-84614-140-9
  • Stringer, Chris & Andrews, Peter. The Complete World of Human Evolution. Thames & Hudson (2005). ISBN 0-500-05132-1
  • Stringer, Chris & McKie, Robin. African Exodus: The Origins of Modern Humanity. Jonathan Cape (1996). ISBN 0-224-03771-4
  • van Oosterzee, Penny. The Story of Peking Man. Allen & Unwin (1999). ISBN 1-86508-632-0
  • Walker, Allan & Shipman, Pat. The Wisdom of the Bones: In Search of Human Origins. Weidenfeld and Nicholson (1996). ISBN 0-297-81670-5
  • Wade, Nicholas. Before the Dawn: Recovering the Lost History of our Ancestors. Penguin Press (2006). ISBN 978-0-7156-3658-9
  • Weiss, M.L., & Mann, A.E. (1985). "'Human Biology and Behaviour: An anthropological perspective" (4th ed.). Boston: Little Brown.   (Note: this book contains very accessible descriptions of human and non-human primates, their evolution, and fossil history).
  • Wells, Spencer (2004). The Journey of Man : A Genetic Odyssey. New York, NY: Random House Trade Paperbacks.  

References

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  3. ^ "'"Bar 10200. Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 2012-07-27. 
  4. ^ "Ardipithecus kadabba". efossils. Retrieved 26 March 2015. 
  5. ^ Amos, Jonathan (2009-10-01). "Fossil finds extend human story". BBC News. 
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  8. ^ Patterson B, Behrensmeyer AK, Sill WD (June 1970). "Geology and fauna of a new Pliocene locality in north-western Kenya". Nature 226 (5249): 918–21.  
  9. ^ lothagam mandible fragment
  10. ^ Ward, Steven; Hill, Andrew. "Pliocene hominid partial mandible from Tabarin, Baringo, Kenya". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 72 (1): 21–37.  
  11. ^ Heslip, Steven (2001). "Australopithecus anamensis". Archived from the original on June 8, 2011. 
  12. ^ "Oldupai". Ntz.info. Retrieved 2012-10-15. 
  13. ^ KNM-WT 40000
  14. ^ Smithsonian
  15. ^ "http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/05/150527134040.htm". www.sciencedaily.com. Retrieved 2015-05-28. 
  16. ^ http://www.modernhumanorigins.net/al444-2.html Image at Modern Human Origins
  17. ^ http://www.eurekalert.org/multimedia/pub/87535.php Image at Eurekalert
  18. ^ http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-03/asu-doj022715.php Press Release
  19. ^ http://travelmag.co.uk/?p=1254
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  22. ^ http://www.modernhumanorigins.net/sts52.html Image at Modern Human Origins
  23. ^ Department of Anthropology: The University of Texas at Austin. "Paranthropus robustus: TM 1517". Retrieved 2014-06-09. 
  24. ^ http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=south-african-hominin-fossil MH1 image at Scientific American
  25. ^ Juliet King (June 4, 2010). fossil named by 17-year-old Johannesburg student"Australopithecus sediba". Origins Centre. Retrieved 2011-07-09. 
  26. ^ Jonathan, Amos (2011-09-08). "African fossils put new spin on human origins story". http://www.sciencemag.org/extra/sediba/index.xhtml (BBC News). Retrieved 9 September 2011. 
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  28. ^ http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/3d-collection/oh-24 Image at Smithsonian
  29. ^ http://www.modernhumanorigins.net/oh8.html OH 8 image of foot at Modern Human Origins
  30. ^ a b c Leakey MG, Spoor F, Dean MC, et al. (August 2012). "New fossils from Koobi Fora in northern Kenya confirm taxonomic diversity in early Homo". Nature 488 (7410): 201–4.  F
  31. ^ "Homo ergaster". Australian Museum. Retrieved July 7, 2014. 
  32. ^ Inverted strata
  33. ^ Donald C. Johanson, Blake Edgar (1996). From Lucy to Language. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. p. 158. 
  34. ^ http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/3d-collection/knm-er-23000 Image at Smithsonian
  35. ^ http://www.modernhumanorigins.net/stw53.html STW 53 image at Modern Human Origins
  36. ^ http://www.modernhumanorigins.net/sk847.html SK 847 image at Modern Human Origins
  37. ^ http://www.modernhumanorigins.net/dnh7.html DNH 7 image at Modern Human Origins
  38. ^ http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/fossils/sk-46 Image at Smithsonian
  39. ^ http://www.modernhumanorigins.net/oh9.html Chellean OH 9 Image at Modern Human Origins
  40. ^ Michael Hopkin (March 26, 2008). "Fossil find is oldest European yet". Nature News.  
  41. ^ [3]
  42. ^ [4]
  43. ^ http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/fossils/trinil-2 Image at Smithsonian
  44. ^ "Ternifine or Tighenif". Retrieved 28 March 2015. 
  45. ^ http://www.modernhumanorigins.net/sangiran17.html Sangiran 17 image at Modern Human Origins
  46. ^ http://archive.archaeology.org/9809/newsbriefs/eritrea.html
  47. ^ http://www.modernhumanorigins.net/bodo.html Bodo image at Modern Human Origins
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Bibliography

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External links

  • Interactive map of primate fossil finds around the world
  • AustralopithecinesInformative lecture on
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