World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

List of tallest buildings in London

Article Id: WHEBN0013181075
Reproduction Date:

Title: List of tallest buildings in London  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: BT Tower, One Canada Square, Tower 42, Millbank Tower, CityPoint, The Shard, Heron Tower
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

List of tallest buildings in London



This list of the tallest buildings and structures in London ranks skyscrapers and towers in London, United Kingdom by height. Since November 2010 the tallest structure in London has been the Shard London Bridge. It was topped out at approximately 306 metres (1,004 ft) in March 2012, making it the tallest habitable building in Europe. The second tallest building is the 50-storey One Canada Square, which rises 235 metres (771 ft) in Canary Wharf and was completed in 1991.[1] It is the 19th-tallest building in Europe. The third-tallest completed building in London is Heron Tower in the City of London which was topped out in 2010, and stands at a height of 230 metres, including a 28-metre spire.

The history of tall structures in London began with the completion of the 27-metre (90 ft) White Tower, a part of the Tower of London, in 1098.[2][3] The first structure to surpass a height of 100 metres (328 ft) was Old St Paul's Cathedral. Completed in 1310, the cathedral stood at a height of 150 metres (493 ft).[4] It was the world's tallest structure until 1311, when its height was surpassed by Lincoln Cathedral in Lincoln, England.[4] It regained the title when the spire of the Lincoln Cathedral fell in 1549.[5] Although the spire of the Old St Paul's Cathedral was destroyed by lightning on 4 June 1561, it still stood as the tallest structure in London,[5] while the world's tallest structure became Strasbourg Cathedral in Strasbourg, France.[5] Old St Paul's was severely damaged by the Great Fire of London in September 1666 and the remains subsequently demolished.[4] The title of tallest structure in London passed to Southwark Cathedral, which stands at a height of 50 metres (163 ft)[6] and no structure in London again rose above 100 metres (328 ft) until 1710, when the current St Paul's Cathedral was completed.[7] At 111 metres (365 ft), the cathedral remained the tallest building in London until overtaken in 1962 by the BT Tower, which was topped out in July 1964 and officially opened in October 1965.

Few skyscrapers were built in London before the end of the last century, owing to restrictions on building heights originally imposed by the London Building Act of 1894, which followed the construction of the fourteen-storey Queen Anne's Mansions. Though restrictions have long since been eased, strict regulations remain to preserve protected views, especially those of St Paul's Cathedral, the Tower of London and The Palace of Westminster, as well as to comply with the requirements of the Civil Aviation Authority.

The lifting of height restrictions caused a boom in the construction of tall buildings during the 1960s. One of London's first notable tall buildings was the 117-metre (384 ft) Centre Point, completed in 1966. The NatWest Tower followed in 1980, which at 183 metres (600 ft) became London's first genuine "skyscraper" by international standards. It was followed in 1991 by the 235-metre (771 ft) One Canada Square, which formed the centrepiece of the Canary Wharf development. Following a 10-year gap, several new skyscrapers appeared on London's skyline: 8 Canada Square, 25 Canada Square, the Heron Quays buildings, the Barclays headquarters, the Broadgate Tower and the award-winning 30 St Mary Axe. Some of the awards given to 30 St Mary Axe include the Emporis Skyscraper Award in 2003[8] and the RIBA Stirling Prize for Architecture in 2004.[9]

With the precedent set by the towers of Canary Wharf and with the encouragement of former Mayor of London Ken Livingstone, a renewed trend for building tall has been established in recent years. There are 9 structures actively under construction in London that will rise at least 100 metres (328 ft) in height, besides the South Bank Tower which is being increased in height by 11 storeys. The 288-metre "Pinnacle", planned to form the centrepiece of the City skyscraper cluster, has been on hold since January 2012.

Tallest buildings and structures

This list ranks externally complete London skyscrapers and free-standing towers that stand at least 100 metres (328 ft) tall, based on standard height measurement. This includes spires and architectural details but does not include antenna masts. An equal sign (=) following a rank indicates the same height between two or more buildings. The "Year" column indicates the year in which a building was completed.

Rank Name Image Height
metres / ft
Floors Year Notes
1 The Shard 306 / 1,004 01.087 2012 Tallest building in the UK and also the tallest in the EU.[10]
2 One Canada Square 235 / 771 02.050 1991 21st-tallest building in Europe, tallest in Canary Wharf.
3 Heron Tower 230 / 756 04.046 2011 Tallest Building in the City of London. 202m + 28m spire.
4 The Leadenhall Building 225 / 738 03.048 2014 "The Cheesegrater". Tallest Building in the City of London by roof height. Topped out.
5 Crystal Palace Transmitter 219 / 720 35.0N/A 1950 Tallest structure completed in London in the 1950s.[11]
6= 8 Canada Square 200 / 655 05.042 2002 Joint 34th-tallest building in Europe, joint fifth-tallest building in the United Kingdom.[12][13]
6= 25 Canada Square 200 / 655 04.042 2002 Joint 34th-tallest building in Europe, joint fifth-tallest building in the United Kingdom.[14][15]
8 Tower 42 183 / 600 07.047 1980 Also known as NatWest Tower. 52nd-tallest building in Europe, seventh-tallest building in the United Kingdom. Tallest structure completed in London in the 1980s.[16][17]
9 St George Wharf Tower 181 / 594 01.049 2013 The crown of the building includes a small wind turbine which helps to generate power for the building.[18][19]
10 30 St Mary Axe 180 / 590 09.040 2003 Also known as the Swiss Re building, or Gherkin.[20][21]
11 BT Tower 177 / 581 16.034 1964 Tallest building completed in London in the 1960s, 177m + 12m antenna.[22][23]
12 Broadgate Tower 164 / 539 14.035 2008 [24][25]
13 One Churchill Place 156 / 513 22.032 2004 Twelfth-tallest building in the United Kingdom.[26][27]
14= Croydon Transmitter 153 / 502 36.0N/A 1964 [28][29]
14= 25 Bank Street 153 / 502 19.033 2003 [30][31]
14= 40 Bank Street 153 / 502 20.033 2003 [32][33]
17 10 Upper Bank Street 151 / 495 23.032 2003 [34][35]
18= Pan Peninsula East Tower 147 / 484 02.048 2008 [36][37]
18= Strata 147 / 484 43 2010 [38][39]
20 Guy's Tower 143 / 469 17.034 1974 Tallest all-hospital building in the world. Tallest structure completed in London in the 1970s.[40][41]
21 22 Marsh Wall East Tower 140 / 458 40 2010
22 London Eye 135 / 443 37.0N/A 1999 The world's tallest Ferris wheel until the completion of the Star of Nanchang in 2006, it is now the world's third tallest, after the Singapore Flyer opened in 2008.[42][43]
23= 150 High Street Stratford 133 / 436 41 2013 The tallest building in Stratford.[44]
23= Wembley Stadium 133 / 436 34.06 2007 2nd Tallest stadium in the world.[45][46]
25 CityPoint 127 / 417 11.036 1967 [47][48]
26 Willis Building 125 / 410 29.026 2007 [49][50]
27= Euston Tower 124 / 408 12.036 1970 [51][52]
27= 25 Churchill Place 124 / 408 10.023 2014 Topped out.[53][54]
29= Cromwell Tower 123 / 404 08.042 1973 [55][56]
29= Lauderdale Tower 123 / 404 06.043 1974 [57][58]
29= Shakespeare Tower 123 / 404 05.043 1976 [59][60]
32 Pan Peninsula West Tower 122 / 400 10.039 2008 [61][62]
33 Millbank Tower 119 / 390 21.033 1963 [63][64]
34 Aviva Tower 118 / 387 28.028 1969 Now known as St. Helen's[65][66]
35= Centre Point 117 / 385 15.035 1967 [67][68]
35= Empress State Building 117 / 385 24.031 1961 Originally stood at a height of 100 metres (328 ft) before a height extension in 2003.[69][70]
37 ArcelorMittal Orbit 115 / 377 37.02 2012 [71]
38 Battersea Power Station 113 / 370 33.010 1953 [72][73]
39 The Heron 112 / 367 35 2013 Also known as Milton Court, topped out.[74][75]
40 St Paul's Cathedral 111 / 364 38.0N/A 1710 Tallest place of worship in London. Tallest structure completed in London in the 1700s.[7][76]
41 1 West India Quay 108 / 354 13.036 2004 [77][78]
42 Shell Centre 107 / 351 30.026 1961 [79][80]
43= 33 Canada Square 105 / 344 32.018 1999 [81][82]
43= Nido Spitalfields 105 / 344 34 2009 100 Middlesex Street.[83]
43= Pioneer Point North, Ilford 105 / 344 31 2011 [84][85]
46= 99 Bishopsgate 104 / 340 31.026 1976 [86][87]
46= Ontario Tower 104 / 340 25.029 2007 [88][89]
48 Victoria Tower 102 / 336 39.0N/A 1858 Tallest non-religious building in the world upon completion. Tallest structure completed in London in the 1800s. Architectural height 102m, roof height 98.5m.[90][91]
49= Portland House 101 / 331 26.029 1963 [92][93]
49= London Hilton on Park Lane 101 / 331 26.028 1963
49= Royal London Hospital Tower 2 101 / 331 32.018 2010 [94]
52 Stock Exchange Tower 100 / 328 26.027 1970 [95][96] Reclad 2007.

* Indicates still under construction, but has been topped out

Tallest under construction, approved, and proposed

Under construction


This lists buildings that are under construction in London and are planned to rise at least 100 metres (328 ft). Under construction buildings that have already been topped out are listed above.

Name Height
metres / ft
Floors Year (est.) Notes
The Pinnacle 288 / 945 63 [97][98][99] On hold
Riverside South Tower 1 237 / 776 45 2016 [100][101][102] U/c to ground level
Riverside South Tower 2 186 / 610 37 2016 [103][104][105] U/c to ground level
100 Bishopsgate 172 / 564 40 2015 [106][107] On hold
1 Blackfriars 163 / 535 49 2015 [108][109] 1 Blackfriars Road, piling
20 Fenchurch Street 160 / 525 39 2014 [110][111] "The Walkie-Talkie"
Baltimore Wharf Tower 150 / 492 46 2016 [112][113][114]
South Bank Tower 150 / 492 45 2015 [115][116] Height increase from 108m to 150m.
Providence Tower 136 / 446 44 2015 [117][118] Formerly The Quebec Building
Saffron Square 134 / 440 44 2015 [119] Croydon
One The Elephant 124 / 406 37 2015 [120][121] Formerly St. Mary's
Lots Road South Tower 122 / 400 37 [122][123][124][125]
Lexicon Tower 116 / 380 36 2015 [126][127][128] 261 City Road
2–12 High Street, Stratford 105 / 345 35 2016 [129] Capital Towers - Sky View Tower

Approved

This lists buildings that are approved for construction in London and are planned to rise at least 100 metres (328 ft).

Name Height
metres / ft
Floors Year* (est.) Notes
Columbus Tower 237 / 794 61 Approved by Mayor Boris Johnson, 2009
The Pride 233 / 765 75 [130][131][132]
North Quay Tower 1 221 / 708 40 2017 [133][134]
Wood Wharf W07B 206 / 676 51 2019
North Quay Tower 3 203 / 666 38 2017 [135][136]
One Nine Elms East Tower 200 / 660 58 [137][138][139] City Tower
Lansdowne Road Tower 199 / 652 51 [140][141] (Odalisk)
52-54 Lime Street 190 / 623 35 2017 [142][143] Application 2012/06/22, approved 2013/01/15[144]
Wood Wharf W06 187 / 614 45 2019
Wood Wharf W02 182 / 597 40+ 2019
Morello Tower 171 / 561 53 2014 [145][146] Cherry Orchard Road
Vauxhall Square Tower 1 168 / 550 50 [147][148]
Vauxhall Square Tower 2 168 / 550 50 [149][148]
Principal Place 164 / 538 51 [150][151][152] Residential tower
Ludgate House Tower B 162.6 / 532 49 [153][154]
One Nine Elms West Tower 160 / 530 47 [155][138][139] River Tower
Ruskin Square Building 159 / 522 26 [156] Aka Croydon Gateway
New Covent Garden Market T2 154 / 505 45 [157][158] Application 2011/4664, maximum height
Wood Wharf W07C 154 / 505 30+
Manhattan Loft Gardens 143 / 470 42 2015 [159][160] Plot N24, athletes' village
360-London 142 / 466 44 [161][162][163] London Park Hotel Tower
Imperial College Tower 141 / 462 35 [164][165][166] White City campus
Doon Street Tower 140 / 459 43 [167][168]
Vauxhall Cross Tower 1 140 / 464 41 [169][170]
1 Merchant Square 140 / 464 41 [171] Outline approval granted.
145 City Road 136 / 451 39 2016 [172]
Heron Plaza 135 / 448 44 2014 [173][174]
Croydon Vocational Tower 134 / 440 29 [175]
20 Blackfriars Road Residential Tower 133 / 436 43 [176][177][178] Approved after public inquiry
New Covent Garden Market T3 128 / 420 37 [157][158] Application 2011/4664, maximum height
Wood Wharf W07A 128 / 420 30+
The Stage, Shoreditch 126 / 413 40 2016 [179]
Vauxhall Sainsbury's Tower G 125.5 / 411 37 2016 [180][181]
40 Marsh Wall 124 / 406 39 [182][183]
Elizabeth House 123 / 403 29 [184] Waterloo
Broadway Chambers, Stratford 123 / 403 38 [185]
Helix-London Building B 122 / 400 35 [186][187] Trafalgar Way
North Quay Tower 2 120 / 394 18 2017 [188][189]
Vauxhall Sky Gardens 120 / 394 36 [190][191]
Wood Wharf W08 119 / 391 30+
Meridian Tower, Greenwich 118 / 387 32 [192]
Convoys Wharf Tower 1 116 / 380 40 [193]
Vauxhall Cross Tower 2 115 / 368 32 [169][170]
Ram Brewery Tower, Wandsworth 113 / 371 36 [194]
Wood Wharf W05 113 / 371 25+ 2019
New Covent Garden Market T1 109 / 358 31 [157][158] Application 2011/4664, maximum height
The Quill 109 / 359 31 [195][196]
Dollar Bay Tower 109 / 358 31 [197][198]
Brickfields Tower 108 / 355 30 [199][200] White City
Sampson House Tower B 105 / 345 31 [153][154]
Helix-London Building A 105 / 345 29 [187] Trafalgar Way
One Angel Court 100 / 328 [201] Refurbishment of 97m building.

* Table entries without text indicate that information regarding a building's expected year of completion has not yet been released.

Proposed

This lists buildings that are proposed for construction in London and are planned to rise at least 100 metres (328 ft). Once a planning application has been submitted, a decision by the relevant authority may take two or three years.

Name Height
metres / ft
Floors Year (Proposal) Notes
The Three Spires 253 / 830 64 2009 [202][203] Three towers at 253, 210 and 106 metres
South Quay Plaza Tower 1 250 / 820 80 2013 [204]
Diamond Tower 212 / 695 58 2013 [205][206][207] Application 2013/06/28, Newfoundland site
30 Marsh Wall 205 / 672 57 2013 [208] Scoping application 2013/08/21
Heron Quays West 185.5 / 612 40 2013 [209][210] Application 2013/05/17
Arrowhead Quay Tower 1 177.5 / 584 55 2012 [211][212] Application 2013/01/17
Vauxhall Bondway Tower 175.5 / 578 2013 [213] EIA scoping application 2013/09/19
One Park Place 162 / 532 32 2013 [214][215][216]
Arrowhead Quay Tower 2 161.5 / 530 50 2012 [212] Application 2013/01/17
Cuba Street Tower 1 157 / 515 52 2010 [217][218] Application 2011/06/09
250 City Road, Tower 1 155 / 508 42 2013 [219] Application 2013/04/26, City Forum site
40 Leadenhall Street 154 / 505 34 2013 [220]
Angel Tower 154 / 505 46 2012 [221] 225 Marsh Wall, application 2012/10/01
Millharbour West Building A 150 / 492 46 2009 [222][223]
Skylines Village Block B1 148 / 486 45 2012 [224] Application 2012/03/07
Canada Water Building C4 140* / 464 2013 [225]
Millharbour East Building E 140 / 464 46 2009 [223][226]
250 City Road, Tower 2 137 / 454 36 2013 [219] Application 2013/04/26, City Forum site
South Quay Plaza Tower 2 130 / 430 35 2013 [204]
Eileen House 128 / 420 42 2009 [227][228] Application 2009/02/23, taken over by Mayor[229]
Millharbour East Building A 126 / 414 37 2009 [223][230]
Shell Centre Tower 1 122 / 401 37* 2012 [231]
Cuba Street Tower 2 122 / 401 40 2010 [217][218] Application 2011/06/09
Millharbour West Buildings B, C 121 / 398 37 2009 [223][232]
Keybridge House Tower 120* / 395 35* 2013 [233] Vauxhall
London Dock Tower 115 / 368 34 2012 [234] Application 2013/05/29, Wapping
1 Crown Place, Hackney 114 / 365 24 2009 [235] Application 2009/11/17
Millharbour West Building D 108 / 355 24 2009 [223][236]
Stratford City Tower 103 / 337 33 2013 [237] Application 2013/07/02, Gt. Eastern Road
Shell Centre Tower 2 102 / 334 32* 2012 [231]
Stratford Gateway Towers 1 & 2 102 / 334 32 2011 [238] Plot N06

* Approximate figure.

Cancelled constructions

This lists proposals for the construction of buildings in London that were planned to rise at least 100 metres (328 ft), for which planning permission was rejected or which were otherwise withdrawn.

Name Height
metres / ft
Floors* Year Notes
London Millennium Tower 386 92 1996
London Bridge Tower (Old Design) 366 87 2000 [239]
The Spark Plug (Battersea Eco-tower) 300 40 2008 [240][241]
Minerva Building 246 53 2002
Elephant & Castle, Tower 1 228 55 2001 [242]
6–8 & 22–24 Bishopsgate Redevelopment (Original Design) 216 50 2002 [243]
New London Bridge House Redevelopment 211 50 2004 [244]
Stratford City Tower 210 50 [245]
Citypoint (Santiago Calatrava) 203 27 1997 [246]
Ropemaker Place Tower 200 38 2001 [247]
Elephant & Castle, Tower 2 182 35 2001 [248]
King's Cross Towers 1 & 2 180 44 1987 [249][250]
The Blade, Paddington 150 44 [251][252]
Ram Brewery Tower 1, Wandsworth 145 / 476 42 2008 [253][254][255] Rejected
The Leaf Block F, Ealing 138 49 [256][257]
Victoria Interchange Buildings 2 & 7 134 42 [258][259]
70–100 City Road Block A 131 / 430 39 2008 [260]
Clapham Junction Towers 1 & 2 127 / 417 40 2008 [261][262]
Bishops Place Building 1 126 / 414 32 2006 [151][263]
St. John's Tower, Stratford 116 / 381 30 [264]
Walbrook Square Building 1 107 / 351 22 2006 [265][266] Redesigned
Trinity Building 3 100 / 328 25 2008 [267] Existing building to be refurbished
4–5 South Quay Square 100 / 328 30 2006 [268] Application withdrawn

Demolished buildings

This lists all demolished buildings in London that stood at least 100 metres (330 ft) tall.

Name Image Height
metres / ft
Floors Year built Year demolished Notes
Drapers' Gardens 100 / 328 30 1967 2007 Designed by Richard Seifert, replaced by building 74 metres (243 ft) tall.
Southwark Towers 100 / 328 25 1976 2009 Replaced by Shard London Bridge.

Visions of skyscrapers

Name Height
metres
Floors Year Notes
Mile High Eco Tower 1500 500 2007 [269][270]
Citygate Ecotower 485 108 2002 [271]
Mallory Clifford Project 470 100 1998 [272] Aka Southwark Tower
Green Bird 442 83 1990 [273]
Wembley Park Tower 353 1890 [274]
Aldegate Tower 325 85 1989 [275]
Glass Tower 304 80 1852 [276]
Vortex Tower 300 70 2004 [277]
Credit Suisse First Boston Building 250 50 1989 [278]
Glengall View Place 230 54 2006 [279][280] Greenwich View Place
Cricklewood Tower 216 47 [281][282]
80 & 88–104 Bishopsgate Redevelopment 214 50 [283]
Folgate Street (Project Cosmos) 50 [284]
Skyhouse 168 50 [285][286] Originally 305m
Royal Courts of Justice 165* 1865 [287]
Corporation of London Tower 150* 1944 [288]

* Estimated height.

Timeline of tallest buildings and structures


This lists free-standing structures that have at some point held the title of tallest structure in London.

Name Location Years as tallest Height
metres / ft
Floors Reference
White Tower Tower Hill 1098–1310 01.027 / 90 03.0N/A [3]
Old St Paul's Cathedral[A] City of London 1310–1666 07.0150 / 493[B] 08.0N/A [4]
Southwark Cathedral Southwark 1666–1677 02.050 / 163 04.0N/A [289]
Monument to the Great Fire of London City of London 1677–1683 03.062 / 202 05.0N/A [290]
St Mary-le-Bow City of London 1683–1710 04.072 / 236 06.0N/A [291]
St Paul's Cathedral City of London 1710–1939 05.0111 / 365 07.0N/A [76]
Battersea Power Station[D] Kirtling Street 1939–1950 06.0113 / 370 01.010 [72]
Crystal Palace transmitting station[C] Crystal Palace Park 1950–1991 08.0219 / 720 09.0N/A [11]
One Canada Square Canary Wharf 1991–2010 09.0235 / 771 02.050 [292]
Shard London Bridge Southwark 2010— 306 / 1004 87 [293]

See also

Notes

Footnotes

A.^ This structure was destroyed by the Great Fire of London in 1666, allowing a shorter structure to become the tallest in the city.[294]
B.^ The exact height of the Old St. Paul's Cathedral remains unknown. Heights ranging between 140 metres (460 ft) and 150 metres (490 ft) have all been reported.[294] The spire was destroyed by fire in 1561.
C.^ If the Crystal Palace Transmitter is excluded as a "building", then the record was held by the "Post Office Tower" (later The British Telecom Tower) from 1962 to 1980, at a height excluding antenna of 177 metres (581 ft) and containing 34 floors, and from 1980 to 1991 by Tower 42 at 183 metres (600 ft).
D.^ If counting the tallest habitable floors in buildings, then the record would be held between 1961 and 1962 by the Shell Centre, at 107 metres (351 ft) and having 26 floors; and before it by the Victoria Tower at 98.5 metres (323 ft), completed in 1858 and having 14 floors.[295][296]

Citations

References

External links

  • Diagram of London skyscrapers on SkyscraperPage
  • London – Full Summary of Projects A comprehensive guide to all the skyscrapers being planned and built in Greater London

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.