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List of threatened rays

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List of threatened rays

The giant manta ray, the largest ray in the world, has been targeted by fisheries to the point where it has become vulnerable.[1] In 2013, manta rays were listed as CITES Appendix II species, which gives them some international protection.[2]

The market for shark and ray products is first and foremost a luxury one... The gill plates, in the case of manta rays, are used in China for a tonic soup that has become fashionable because of its perceived medicinal properties, even though it is not in the traditional Chinese pharmacopoeia. This is a recent trend and has caused the demise of some population of manta ray to decrease by up to 86% in the last six to eight years.

WWF 2013 [3]

[4] It evaluates threatened species, and treats threatened species not as a single category, but as a group of three categories, depending on the degree to which they are threatened:[5]

Vulnerable species
Endangered species
Critically endangered species

The term threatened strictly refers to these three categories (critically endangered, endangered and vulnerable), while vulnerable is used to refer to the least at risk of these categories.[5] The terms can be used somewhat interchangeably, as all vulnerable species are threatened, all endangered species are vulnerable and threatened, and all critically endangered species are endangered, vulnerable and threatened. Threatened species are also referred to as a red-listed species, as they are listed in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.[6]

Together rays and sharks make up the Class (biology) of modern cartilaginous fishes. Modern fish are either cartilaginous or bony. Cartilaginous fishes have skeletons made of cartilage while bony fishes have skeletons made of bone. Because rays and sharks are closely related, they are often studied together. In 2010 a global IUCN study of vertebrates found that of 1,044 cartilaginous (ray and shark) species examined, 345 or 33% were threatened with extinction.[7][8]

There are four orders of rays: stingrays, skates, electric rays and sawfishes. Like sharks, rays are relatively long living and thrive in stable populations. They are K-strategists which grow slowly, mature late sexually and produce few offspring. They cannot recover as rapidly as many faster growing fish can if their populations are depleted.[9] As with sharks, rays are increasingly becoming vulnerable because of commercial and recreational fishing pressures, the impact of non-ray fisheries on the seabed and ray prey species, and other habitat alterations such as damage and loss from coastal development and marine pollution.[10] Most particularly, the continuing decline of threatened rays and sharks is the consequence of unregulated fishing.[11]

Sawfish are a family of rays which have a long rostrum resembling a saw. All species in the family are either endangered or critically endangered[12]

Manta rays are largest rays in the world, with wingspans reaching 7 metres.[13] They have one of the highest brain-to-body mass ratios of all fish.[14] Manta populations suffer when they are caught as bycatch by fishermen fishing for other species, but fisheries which target manta rays are even more harmful. Manta rays use their gills to filter plankton from the sea. Demand for their dried gill rakers, cartilaginous structures protecting the gills, has been growing in traditional Chinese medicine practices.[15] The market is "bogus" since dried manta gills have never been used historically in Chinese medicine, and there is no evidence that the gills have any medicinal value.[13][16][17] The flesh is edible and is consumed in some countries, but is tough and unattractive compared to other fish. To fill the growing demand in Asia for gill rakers, targeted fisheries have developed in other parts of the world, including Sri Lanka, Indonesia, West Africa and Central and South America.[18] Each year, thousands of manta rays, primarily the giant manta ray, are being caught and killed purely for their gill rakers. A fisheries study in Sri Lanka estimated that over a thousand of these were being sold in the country's fish markets each year.[19]

In 2011, manta rays became strictly protected in international waters thanks to their recent inclusion in the [20] In 2013, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) listed both species of manta rays as CITES Appendix II species. This means that the international trade of manta rays will now be monitored and regulated.[2][21]

Sawfish are a less well known family of rays which have a long rostrum resembling a saw. Some species can reach 7 metres or 23 feet in length.[22][23][24] All species of sawfish are either endangered or critically endangered as a result of habitat destruction and overfishing.[12] Their young stay close to shore, and are particularly affected by coastal developments.[25] Because their rostrum is easily entangled, sawfishes can easily become bycatch in fishing nets. They are also exploited for the novelty value of their rostrum, their fins are eaten as a delicacy in China, and their liver oil used as a food supplement. While arguing for a global ban on international commerce in 2007, a representative from the National Museums of Kenya stated, "Only the meat is consumed locally; and artisanal fishermen can retire after catching one sawfish due to the high value of a single rostrum, up to $1,450."[12] In 2013 CITES uplisted the largetooth sawfish to Appendix I. This is CITES highest protection level, and means that all international trade of the species is banned.[26][27]

Order Image Scientific name Common name Population trend IUCN status Fish
Base
FAO Comment
Stingray Aetobatus flagellum Longheaded eagle ray decreasing Endangered[28] [29]
Stingray Aetomylaeus maculatus Mottled eagle ray decreasing Endangered[28] [30]
Stingray Aetomylaeus nichofii Banded eagle ray decreasing Vulnerable[31] [32]
Stingray Aetomylaeus vespertilio Ornate eagle ray decreasing Endangered[33] [34]
Skate Amblyraja radiata Thorny skate decreasing Vulnerable[35] [36]
Sawfish Anoxypristis cuspidata Knifetooth sawfish decreasing Endangered[37] [38]
Stingray Aptychotrema timorensis Spotted shovelnose ray unknown Vulnerable[39] [40]
Skate Atlantoraja castelnaui Spotback skate decreasing Endangered[41] [42]
Skate Atlantoraja cyclophora Eyespot skate decreasing Vulnerable[43] [44]
Skate Atlantoraja platana La Plata skate decreasing Vulnerable[45] [46]
Skate Bathyraja griseocauda Graytail skate decreasing Endangered[47] [48]
Electric ray Benthobatis kreffti Brazilian blind electric ray unknown Vulnerable[49] [50]
Stingray Dasyatis colarensis Colares stingray unknown Vulnerable[51] [52]
Stingray Dasyatis fluviorum Estuary stingaree decreasing Vulnerable[53] [54]
Stingray Dasyatis garouaensis Smooth freshwater stingray decreasing Vulnerable[55] [56] freshwater
Stingray Dasyatis laosensis Mekong freshwater stingray decreasing Endangered[57] [58] freshwater
Stingray Dasyatis margarita Daisy stingray decreasing Endangered[59] [60]
Stingray Dasyatis ukpam Daisy stingray unknown Endangered[61] [62] freshwater
Electric ray Diplobatis colombiensis Colombian electric ray unknown Vulnerable[63] [64]
Electric ray Diplobatis guamachensis Brownband numbfish unknown Vulnerable[65] [66]
Electric ray Diplobatis ommata Ocellated electric ray unknown Vulnerable[67] [68]
Electric ray Diplobatis pictus Variegated electric ray unknown Vulnerable[69] [70]
Skate Dipturus australis Sydney skate unknown Vulnerable[71] [72]
Skate Dipturus batis Blue skate decreasing Critically endangered[73] [74]
Skate Dipturus crosnieri Madagascar skate unknown Vulnerable[75] [76]
Skate Dipturus laevis Barndoor skate stable Endangered[77] [78]
Skate Dipturus mennii South Brazilian skate unknown Vulnerable[79] [80]
Skate Dipturus trachydermus Roughskin skate decreasing Vulnerable[81] [82]
Electric ray Electrolux addisoni Ornate sleeper ray unknown Critically endangered[83] [84]
Skate Glaucostegus granulatus Sharpnose guitarfish decreasing Vulnerable[85] [86]
Skate Glaucostegus thouin Clubnose guitarfish unknown Vulnerable[87] [88]
Skate Glaucostegus typus Common shovelnose ray decreasing Vulnerable[89] [90]
Skate Gurgesiella dorsalifera Onefin skate decreasing Vulnerable[91] [92]
Stingray Gymnura altavela Spiny butterfly ray decreasing Vulnerable[93] [94]
Stingray Gymnura zonura Zonetail butterfly ray decreasing Vulnerable[95] [96]
Electric ray Heteronarce garmani Natal electric ray unknown Vulnerable[97] [98]
Stingray Himantura gerrardi Whitespotted whipray unknown Vulnerable[99] [100] freshwater
Stingray Himantura chaophraya Giant freshwater stingray decreasing Vulnerable[101] [102] freshwater
Stingray Himantura hortlei Hortle's whipray decreasing Vulnerable[103] [104] freshwater
Stingray Himantura kittipongi Roughback whipray unknown Endangered[105] [106] freshwater
Stingray Himantura leoparda Leopard whipray decreasing Vulnerable[107] [108] freshwater
Stingray Himantura lobistoma Tubemouth whipray decreasing Vulnerable[109] [110] freshwater
Stingray Himantura oxyrhyncha Longnose marbled whipray unknown Endangered[111] [112] freshwater
Stingray Himantura pastinacoides Round whipray decreasing Vulnerable[113] [114] freshwater
Stingray Himantura polylepis Giant freshwater stingray decreasing Endangered[115] [116] freshwater
Stingray Himantura signifer White-edge freshwater whipray unknown Endangered[117] [118] freshwater
Stingray Himantura uarnacoides Bleeker's whipray decreasing Vulnerable[119] [120] freshwater
Stingray Himantura uarnak Reticulate whipray decreasing Vulnerable[121] [122] freshwater
Stingray Himantura undulata Bleeker's variegated whipray decreasing Vulnerable[123] [124] freshwater
Skate Leucoraja circularis Sandy ray unknown Vulnerable[125] [126]
Skate Leucoraja melitensis Maltese skate decreasing Critically endangered[127] [128]
Skate Leucoraja ocellata Winter skate decreasing Endangered[129] [130]
Stingray Myliobatis hamlyni Purple eagle ray decreasing Endangered[131] [132]
Skate Malacoraja senta Smooth skate decreasing Endangered[133] [134]
Stingray Manta alfredi Reef manta ray decreasing Vulnerable[135] [136]
Stingray Manta birostris Giant manta ray decreasing Vulnerable[1] [137]
Stingray Mobula mobular Giant devil ray decreasing Endangered[138] [139]
Stingray Mobula rochebrunei Lesser Guinean devil ray unknown Vulnerable[140] [141]
Electric ray Narcine bancroftii Caribbean electric ray unknown Critically Endangered[142] [143]
Electric ray Narcine brevilabiata Shortlip electric ray unknown Vulnerable[144] [145]
Electric ray Narke japonica Japanese sleeper ray unknown Vulnerable[146] [147]
Skate Okamejei pita Pita skate unknown Critically endangered[148] [149]
Stingray Pastinachus solocirostris Roughnose stingray unknown Endangered[150] [151]
Stingray Platyrhina sinensis Fanray unknown Vulnerable[152] [153]
Sawfish Pristis clavata Queensland sawfish decreasing Endangered[154] [155]
Sawfish Pristis pectinata Smalltooth sawfish unknown Critically endangered[156] [157]
Sawfish Pristis pristis Common sawfish decreasing Critically endangered[158] [159]
Sawfish Pristis zijsron Narrowsnout sawfish decreasing Critically endangered[160] [161]
Skate Raja pulchra Mottled skate decreasing Vulnerable[162] [163]
Skate Raja undulata Undulate ray decreasing Endangered[164] [165]
Skate Rhina ancylostoma Bowmouth guitarfish decreasing Vulnerable[166] [167]
Skate Rhinobatos albomaculatus White-spotted guitarfish decreasing Vulnerable[168] [169]
Skate Rhinobatos cemiculus Blackchin guitarfish decreasing Endangered[170] [171]
Skate Rhinobatos formosensis Taiwan guitarfish unknown Vulnerable[172] [173]
Skate Rhinobatos horkelii Brazilian guitarfish decreasing Critically endangered[174] [175]
Skate Rhinobatos irvinei Spineback guitarfish decreasing Vulnerable[176] [177]
Skate Rhinobatos jimbaranensis Jimbaran shovelnose ray decreasing Vulnerable[178] [179]
Skate Rhinobatos obtusus Widenose guitarfish decreasing Vulnerable[180] [181]
Skate Rhinobatos penggali Indonesian shovelnose ray decreasing Vulnerable[182] [183]
Skate Rhinobatos rhinobatos Common guitarfish decreasing Endangered[184] [185]
Stingray Rhinoptera brasiliensis Brazilian cownose ray decreasing Endangered[186] [187]
Stingray Rhinoptera javanica Javanese cownose ray unknown Vulnerable[188] [189]
Skate Rhinoraja albomaculata Whitedotted skate unknown Vulnerable[190] [191]
Skate Rhynchobatus australiae White-spotted guitarfish decreasing Vulnerable[192] [193]
Skate Rhynchobatus djiddensis Giant guitarfish decreasing Vulnerable[194] [195]
Skate Rhynchobatus laevis Smoothnose wedgefish unknown Vulnerable[196] [197]
Skate Rhynchobatus luebberti Lubbert's guitarfish decreasing Endangered[198] [199]
Skate Rhynchobatus sp. nov. A Roughnose wedgefish decreasing Vulnerable[200] [201]
Skate Rhynchobatus springeri Broadnose wedgefish decreasing Vulnerable[202] [203]
Skate Rioraja agassizii Rio skate unknown Vulnerable[204] [205]
Skate Rostroraja alba Bottlenose skate decreasing Endangered[206] [207]
Skate Spiniraja whitleyi Melbourne skate unknown Vulnerable[208] [209]
Skate Sympterygia acuta Bignose fanskate decreasing Vulnerable[210] [211]
Stingray Taeniura meyeni Round ribbontail ray unknown Vulnerable[212] [213]
Electric ray Temera hardwickii Finless sleeper ray unknown Vulnerable[214] [215]
Skate Trygonorrhina melaleuca Magpie fiddler ray unknown Endangered[216] [217]
Stingray Urogymnus asperrimus Porcupine ray unknown Vulnerable[218] [219]
Stingray Urogymnus ukpam Pincushion ray unknown Endangered[220] [221]
Stingray Urolophus bucculentus Sandyback stingaree decreasing Vulnerable[222] [223]
Stingray Urolophus javanicus Java stingaree decreasing Critically endangered[224] [225]
Stingray Urolophus orarius Coastal stingaree unknown Endangered[226] [227]
Stingray Urolophus sufflavus Yellowback stingaree decreasing Vulnerable[228] [229]
Stingray Urolophus viridis Greenback stingaree decreasing Vulnerable[230] [231]
Stingray Urotrygon reticulata Reticulate round stingray unknown Vulnerable[232] [233]
Stingray Urotrygon simulatrix Fake round ray unknown Vulnerable[234] [235]
Skate Zapteryx brevirostris Shortnose guitarfish decreasing Vulnerable[236] [237]
Skate Zearaja chilensis Yellownose skate decreasing Vulnerable[238] [239]
Skate Zearaja maugeana Maugean skate unknown Endangered[240] [241]

See also

References

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  2. ^ a b MantaProposal 46: Genus CITES, Sixteenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties Bangkok (Thailand), 3–14 March 2013.
  3. ^ The fight to save threatened sharks and rays WWF, 6 March 2013.
  4. ^ International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
  5. ^ a b
  6. ^
  7. ^ Third of Shark and Ray Species Are Threatened, Study Suggests Science News, 27 October 2010.
  8. ^ Hoffmann M, C Hilton-Taylor and 173 others (2010) "The impact of conservation on the status of the world's vertebrates" Science, 330: 1503–1509. doi:10.1126/science.1194442
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  10. ^
  11. ^ The Future of Sharks: A Review of Action and Inaction CITES AC25 Inf. 6, 2011.
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  13. ^ a b Glider of the sea threatened by 'traditional' medicine New Scientist, 25 March 2013.
  14. ^
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  18. ^
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  21. ^ CITES conference takes decisive action to halt decline of tropical timber, sharks, manta rays and a wide range of other plants and animals
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  25. ^ Sawfish Is First Sea Fish on U.S. Endangered List National Geographic News, 4 June 2003.
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  27. ^
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  66. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Diplobatis guamachensis in FishBase. March 2013 version.
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  115. ^
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  117. ^
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  119. ^
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  121. ^
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  123. ^
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  125. ^
  126. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Leucoraja circularis in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  127. ^
  128. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Leucoraja melitensis in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  129. ^
  130. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Leucoraja ocellata in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  131. ^
  132. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Myliobatis hamlyni in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  133. ^
  134. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Malacoraja senta in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  135. ^
  136. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Manta alfredi in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  137. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Manta birostris in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  138. ^
  139. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Mobula mobular in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  140. ^
  141. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Mobula rochebrunei in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  142. ^
  143. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Narcine bancroftii in FishBase. March 2013 version.
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  153. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Platyrhina sinensis in FishBase. March 2013 version.
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  177. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Rhinobatos irvinei in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  178. ^
  179. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Rhinobatos jimbaranensis in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  180. ^
  181. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Rhinobatos obtusus in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  182. ^
  183. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Rhinobatos penggali in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  184. ^
  185. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Rhinobatos rhinobatos in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  186. ^
  187. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Rhinoptera brasiliensis in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  188. ^
  189. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Rhinoptera javanica in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  190. ^
  191. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Rhinoraja albomaculata in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  192. ^
  193. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Rhynchobatus australiae in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  194. ^
  195. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Rhynchobatus djiddensis in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  196. ^
  197. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Rhynchobatus laevis in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  198. ^
  199. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Rhynchobatus luebberti in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  200. ^
  201. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Rhynchobatus palpebratus in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  202. ^
  203. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Rhynchobatus springeri in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  204. ^
  205. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Rioraja agassizii in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  206. ^
  207. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Rostroraja alba in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  208. ^
  209. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Spiniraja whitleyi in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  210. ^
  211. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Sympterygia acuta in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  212. ^
  213. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Taeniurops meyeni in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  214. ^
  215. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Temera hardwickii in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  216. ^
  217. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Trygonorrhina melaleuca in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  218. ^
  219. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Urogymnus asperrimus in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  220. ^
  221. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Urogymnus ukpam in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  222. ^
  223. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Urolophus bucculentus in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  224. ^
  225. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Urolophus javanicus in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  226. ^
  227. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Urolophus orarius in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  228. ^
  229. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Urolophus sufflavus in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  230. ^
  231. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Urolophus viridis in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  232. ^
  233. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Urotrygon reticulata in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  234. ^
  235. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Urotrygon simulatrix in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  236. ^
  237. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Zapteryx brevirostris in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  238. ^
  239. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Zearaja chilensis in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  240. ^
  241. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Zearaja maugeana in FishBase. March 2013 version.

Further reading

  • Dulvy, N.K., Baum, J.K., Clarke, S., Compagno, L.J.V., Cortés, E., Domingo, A., Fordham, S., Fowler, S., Francis, M.P., Gibson, C., Martínez, J., Musick, J.A., Soldo, A., Stevens, J.D. and Valenti, S. (2008) "You can swim but you can’t hide: The global status and conservation of oceanic pelagic sharks and rays" Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 18 (5): 459–482.
  • FAO (2000) Conservation and Management of Sharks Technical Guidelines for Responsible Fisheries, Rome. ISBN 92-5-104514-3.
  • Faria VV, McDavitt MT, Charvet P, Wiley TR, Simpfendorfer CA and Naylor GJP (2013) "Species delineation and global population structure of Critically Endangered sawfishes (Pristidae)" Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 167 (1): 136–164. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2012.00872.x
  • Fowler SL, Cavanagh RD, Camhi M, Burgess GH, Cailliet GM, Fordham SV, Simpfendorfer CA and Musick JA (comp. and ed.) (2005) Sharks, Rays and Chimaeras: The Status of the Chondrichthyan Fishes IUCN Shark Specialist Group, Status Survey. ISBN 2-8317-0700-5.
  • Musick, John A and Bonfil, Ramón (2005) Management techniques for elasmobranch fisheries Fisheries Technical Paper 474, FAO, Rome.
  • Teutscher, Frans (2004) "Sharks (Chondrichthyes)" In: World markets and industry of selected commercially-exploited aquatic species with an international conservation profile, Camillo Catarci. Fisheries Circular 990, FAO
  • Endangered and Threatened Species Under NMFS’ Jurisdiction National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA. Updated: 28 February 28, 2013.

External links

  • Protecting the fragile manta rays of the Maldives BBC, 5 March 2012.
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