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Living Interplanetary Flight Experiment

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Living Interplanetary Flight Experiment

Living Interplanetary Flight Experiment
'LIFE' Bio-Module
Operator The Planetary Society
Major contractors Roskosmos and
NPO Lavochkin
Mission type Astrobiological experiment on board the Fobos-Grunt spacecraft.
Launch date November 8, 2011,[1] launch failure, destroyed
Launch vehicle Zenit rocket
Mission duration 3 years round trip.
Homepage www.planetary.org
Mass 100 grams or less

The Living Interplanetary Flight Experiment[2] (LIFE or Phobos LIFE[3]) was an Fobos-Grunt spacecraft in 2011, which was a failed sample-return mission to the Martian moon Phobos. The Fobos-Grunt mission failed to leave Earth orbit,[4][5] and was destroyed.

The goal was to test whether selected deep space by flying them through interplanetary space. The experiment would have tested one aspect of transpermia, the hypothesis that life could survive space travel, if protected inside rocks blasted by impact off one planet to land on another.[6][7][8]

Precursor

Prior to the Phobos LIFE experiment, a precursor LIFE prototype was successfully flown in 2011 aboard the final flight of Space Shuttle Endeavour, STS-134. Known as the Shuttle-LIFE (also LIFE[9]) experiment.[10][11]

The experiment

The project includes representatives of all [12] The Phobos-Soil sample return mission was the only attempted biological science mission that would have returned to Earth from deep space, far beyond the protection of Earth’s magnetic field; sending biological samples through deep space is therefore a much better test of interplanetary survivability than sending the samples on a typical Earth-orbiting flight.[12]

The project was being done in collaboration with the Russian Space Research Institute, the Institute for Biomedical Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Moscow State University, the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC), and the Institute for Aerospace Medicine in Germany.

Specimens

Three fundamental guidelines governed the selection of the organisms:[13] First, the organisms selected represent the extremophiles, organisms that thrive in conditions that would kill the vast majority of Earthly creatures.

The 10 'passenger' organisms selected are listed below:[13]

Bacteria[14]

Archaea[16]

  • Haloarcula marismortui
    • If Mars had an ocean, it would have been very salty. H. marismortui is halophilic.
  • Methanothermobacter wolfeii
    • Mars Express has discovered methane in the Martian atmosphere. M. wolfeii is a methane-producing organism.
  • Pyrococcus furiosus
    • P. furiosus thrives at about 100°C, it was supposed to act as a maximum temperature indicator.

Eukaryote[17]

Capsule design

The mass of the Bio-Module on board the Fobos-Grunt spacecraft was 100 grams or less. The design is a short cylinder. The bio-module provided 30 small tubes (3 milimeter in diameter) for individual microbe samples. It also accommodated a native sample of bacteria—derived from a permafrost region on Earth – within a cavity 26mm in diameter.[12]

Mission failure

The module passed stress tests including a shake test with vibrations at frequencies to 1,100 Hz and an impact test of 4,000 g, designed to simulate the potential impact of the capsule on Earth.[19] The LIFE experiment was launched on November 8, 2011 on board the Fobos-Grunt, however, the spacecraft failed to depart Earth orbit due to a programming error,[20][21] and fell back to Earth in the Pacific Ocean.[4] The module was not recovered.[22] The team is seeking out future exploratory opportunities.[23]

Criticism

Barry E. DiGregorio, the director of the International Committee Against Mars Sample Return, criticised the LIFE experiment on the Fobos-Grunt mission as a violation of the Outer Space Treaty of 1967 due to its risk of contaminating Phobos or Mars with the microbial spores and live bacteria it contains. While the mission was supposed to land and return from Phobos, a moon of Mars, the risk to Mars itself would have been from the possibility of Fobos-Grunt losing control and crash landing on the planet.[24] It was speculated that the heat-resistant extremophile bacteria would have been particularly able to survive such a crash, on the basis that heat resistant bacteria Microbispora survived the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster.[25]

See also

References

  1. ^ Запуск станции "Фобос-Грунт" к спутнику Марса отложен до 2011 года (in Russian).  
  2. ^ Asian Scientist, "Phobos-Grunt Mission Carrying Yinghuo-1 Space Probe Suffers Technical Glitch", Srinivas Laxman, 9 November 2011
  3. ^ The Planetary Society, "Phobos LIFE Ready to Launch", Bruce Betts, September 2011 (accessed 11-11-11)
  4. ^ a b RIA Novosti, "Phobos-Grunt mission ‘impossible,’ says chief designer", 13 December 2011
  5. ^ Universe Today, "Russian Space Program Prepares for Phobos-Grunt Re-Entry", David Warmflash, 13 December 2011
  6. ^ "Projects: LIFE Experiment: Phobos".  
  7. ^ Warmflash, David; Ciftcioglu, Neva; Fox, George; McKay, David S.; Friedman, Louis; Betts, Bruce; Kirschvink, Joseph (November 5–7, 2007). "Living interplanetary flight experiment (LIFE): An experiment on the survivalability of microorganisms during interplanetary travel". Workshop on the Exploration of Phobos and Deimos.  
  8. ^ Zak, Anatoly (1 September 2008). "Mission Possible".  
  9. ^ Astrobiology.com, "LIFE Launches Aboard Endeavour's Last Flight", The Planetary Society, 27 April 2011 (accessed 11-11-2011)
  10. ^ SPACE.com, "Salvaging Science from Stricken Mars Moon Probe: A Scientist's View", David Warmflash, 11 November 2011
  11. ^ Astrobiology.com, "LIFE Ready to Launch on Endeavour's Last Flight", The Planetary Society, 16 May 2011 (accessed 11-11-11)
  12. ^ a b c "Frequently Asked Questions".  
  13. ^ a b "Ten Hardy Organisms Selected for the LIFE Experiment: Who will Survive the 3-Year Space Odyssey?".  
  14. ^ Alexander, Amir. "The LIFE Organisms: Bacteria".  
  15. ^ a b c d e The Planetary Report, Volume XXIX, number 2, March/April 2009, "We make it happen! Who will survive? Ten hardy organisms selected for the LIFE project, by Amir Alexander
  16. ^ Alexander, Amir. "The LIFE Organisms: Archaea".  
  17. ^ Alexander, Amir. "The LIFE Organisms: Eukaryotea".  
  18. ^ Jönsson, K. Ingemar Jönsson; Elke Rabbow, Ralph O. Schill, Mats Harms-Ringdahl and Petra Rettberg (9 September 2008). "Tardigrades survive exposure to space in low Earth orbit". Current Biology 18 (17): R729–R731.  
  19. ^ Gelfand, Mark (15 October 2008). "LIFE Experiment Module Passes Vibration and Impact Tests".  
  20. ^ Clark, Stephen (6 February 2012). "Russia: Computer crash doomed Phobos-Grunt". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 29 February 2012. 
  21. ^ "Programmers are to be blamed for the failure of Phobos mission". ITAR-TASS News Agency. 31 January 2012. Retrieved 29 February 2012. 
  22. ^ Emily Lakdawalla (January 13, 2012). "Bruce Betts: Reflections on Phobos LIFE". The Planetary Society Blog. Retrieved March 17, 2012. 
  23. ^ "Update on Phobos – Where’s a shuttle when you need it?" Victor Grippi – The Atomic Writer. Retrieved 04-10-2012.
  24. ^ DiGregorio, Barry E. (2010-12-28). "Don't send bugs to Mars".  
  25. ^ McLean, R; Welsh, A; Casasanto, V (2006). "Microbial survival in space shuttle crash". Icarus 181 (1): 323–325.  

External links

  • The Planetary Society: Shuttle LIFE
  • The Planetary Society: Phobos LIFE
  • The Planetary Society: LIFE
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