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Londrina

Londrina, Paraná, Brazil
Municipality
The Municipality of Londrina
Londrina in the afternoon
Londrina in the afternoon
Flag of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil
Flag
Official seal of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil
Seal
Nickname(s): Pequena Londres ("Little London")
Location in Paraná
Location in Paraná
Londrina, Paraná, Brazil is located in Brazil
Londrina, Paraná, Brazil
Londrina, Paraná, Brazil
Location in Brazil.
Coordinates:
Country Brazil
State Paraná
Mesoregion Norte Central Paranaense
Microregion Londrina
Founded December 10, 1934
Government
 • Mayor Alexandre Kireeff (PSD)
Area
 • Total 1,650.809 km2 (637 sq mi)
Elevation 610 m (2,000 ft)
Population (2013)
 • Total 537,566
 • Density 330/km2 (840/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Londrinenses
Time zone BRT (UTC-3)
 • Summer (DST) BRST (UTC-2)
Postal Code 86000-000
Area code(s) +55 43
Website Official website

Londrina (Portuguese pronunciation: , literally Londonese) is a city located in the north of the state of Paraná, South Region, Brazil, and is 369 km away from the capital, Curitiba. Londrina was originally explored by British settlers, and then officially established in 1930 by a small group of Japanese and German settlers. It rapidly became the commercial, political, and cultural centre of the state’s northern pioneer zone.[1] The city exerts great influence on Paraná and Brazil's south region. Londrina has approximately 500,000 inhabitants, being the second largest city in Paraná and the fourth largest city in the Southern Region of Brazil (after Curitiba, Porto Alegre and Joinville).

The city has an estimated population of 543,003 (IBGE, Sala de imprensa[2]) and 818.300 in its metropolitan area.(IBGE, Sala de imprensa[2]) It is a regional centre and is made up of commerce, services, agro-industries, and universities, including the State University of Londrina and the Federal Technological University of Paraná.

Contents

  • Demography 1
  • Climate 2
  • Economy 3
    • Soil 3.1
  • Education 4
    • Colleges and universities 4.1
  • Metropolitan region of Londrina 5
  • Religion 6
  • Sports 7
  • People 8
  • Twin towns 9
  • References 10
  • External links 11

Demography

The city was named after British entrepreneurs who launched railroad stations in the region to ease the transportation of coffee grains from northern Paraná and southern São Paulo states to the port of Santos. The word Londrina, literally meaning "Londoner" or perhaps "Little London", pays homage to the British capital (Londres in Portuguese), since a Londoner cotton company, Paraná Plantations Limited, made the original investment to settle in this area. The city's population consists of descendants of those settlers, mainly from England and Scotland, plus Portuguese, Japanese, Italian, German, Polish, African, Spanish, Native, Lebanese, Ukrainian and Bulgarian Brazilians, as well as some Brazilians from other cities or states.

Color/Race Percentage
White 74.2%
Pardo (Brown/Mixed race) 18.3%
Asian 3.6%
Black 3.4%
Indian (Native American) 0.3%

Fonte: Censo 2000

Climate

According [3] Average annual precipitation is 1,622.6 mm (63.9 in). Mean average annual temperature is 20.62 °C (69 °F).

Climate data for Londrina (1961–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 37.3
(99.1)
37.5
(99.5)
36.7
(98.1)
34.9
(94.8)
32.0
(89.6)
31.0
(87.8)
31.3
(88.3)
33.3
(91.9)
37.6
(99.7)
36.5
(97.7)
39.0
(102.2)
39.3
(102.7)
39.3
(102.7)
Average high °C (°F) 30.0
(86)
30.1
(86.2)
29.8
(85.6)
28.0
(82.4)
25.1
(77.2)
23.5
(74.3)
23.8
(74.8)
25.8
(78.4)
26.9
(80.4)
28.1
(82.6)
29.4
(84.9)
29.3
(84.7)
27.5
(81.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 23.9
(75)
24.1
(75.4)
23.4
(74.1)
21.3
(70.3)
18.3
(64.9)
16.7
(62.1)
16.7
(62.1)
18.4
(65.1)
20.0
(68)
21.5
(70.7)
22.9
(73.2)
23.4
(74.1)
20.9
(69.6)
Average low °C (°F) 19.4
(66.9)
19.5
(67.1)
18.6
(65.5)
16.0
(60.8)
13.1
(55.6)
11.5
(52.7)
11.1
(52)
12.4
(54.3)
14.2
(57.6)
16.0
(60.8)
17.4
(63.3)
18.6
(65.5)
15.6
(60.1)
Record low °C (°F) 12.0
(53.6)
13.0
(55.4)
8.2
(46.8)
4.8
(40.6)
0.0
(32)
−2.8
(27)
−0.5
(31.1)
0.3
(32.5)
3.0
(37.4)
7.6
(45.7)
8.8
(47.8)
11.3
(52.3)
−2.8
(27)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 235.6
(9.276)
173.5
(6.831)
137.4
(5.409)
107.8
(4.244)
106.9
(4.209)
96.5
(3.799)
69.1
(2.72)
60.0
(2.362)
104.3
(4.106)
177.1
(6.972)
134.4
(5.291)
230.3
(9.067)
1,633
(64.291)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 14 12 11 7 7 6 5 5 7 10 9 13 106
Average relative humidity (%) 73 76 75 72 74 73 72 67 67 67 69 68 71.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 193.1 190.0 216.2 229.8 217.4 209.0 232.5 223.7 176.6 183.8 194.5 197.9 2,464.5
Source: INMET[4]

Economy

Reproduction in scale 2:3 of the first Anglican chapel of the city, today on the campus of the State University of Londrina.

Agriculture continues to be Londrina's major economic activity, although its importance has diminished in recent years. Agricultural activity was diversified beyond coffee, and today corn, wheat, cotton, horticulture, beans, peanuts, rice, sugar cane, soy bean, and fruit plantations thrive due to the rich Northern Paraná/South Western São Paulo State "terra roxa" crimson soil. Although the city has increased its industrial park by adding weaving, textiles and agricultural factories, Londrina's main wealth continues to be agricultural production. Today, Londrina is also known for its commerce and service sectors. Moreover, real estate is another growing sector that has generated jobs and boosted even more the size of this city in Paraná.

It possesses one of the largest universities in the country, the State University of Londrina, as well as several private colleges.

The city is served by Londrina – Governador José Richa Airport.

Once a year, the city hosts the largest agricultural fair in Latin America, the Expo Londrina.

Soil

The fertile land of the region, "terra roxa" ("purple soil"), has this name due to a corruption and attempt to translate into Portuguese the term "terra rossa" ("red soil", in Italian), which Italian immigrants used to call it. The inhabitants of Northern Paraná state are often called "pé vermelho" ("red foot") because of their dust bowl-like region. The fertility of the soil is said to have originated in the biggest volcanic lava spill of the planet, known as The Spill of Trapp, that to a large extent occurred in the Center-South region of Brazil. During its golden era, (1920 to 1970), Londrina region accounted for 60% of all the coffee produced in the world, together with the west bank of the Paraná River,

Education

Academical Restaurant of State University of Londrina (UEL).

Portuguese is the official national language, and thus the primary language taught in schools. But English and Spanish are part of the official high school curriculum.

Colleges and universities

Metropolitan region of Londrina

Instituted by State Complementary Law 81 on 17 June 1998, the Metropolitan Region of Londrina includes the cities of Londrina, Cambé, Ibiporã, Sertanópolis, Bela Vista do Paraíso, Jataizinho, Rolândia, Tamarana and Arapongas totaling 750 thousand inhabitants.

Religion

The city is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Londrina.

Sports

The city's football clubs include Londrina Esporte Clube, founded in 1956, and the Associação Portuguesa Londrinense founded in 1950. They play at Café stadium, a 45,000 spectator capacity stadium.

Inesul/Londrina, owned by INESUL - Instituto de Ensino Superior de Londrina, an higher education institution, is a city's major basketball club and competes in the Campeonato Brasileiro de Basquete. Evangélica, membro da Igreja Presbiteriana Independente do Brasil.

People

Twin towns

References

  1. ^ [1] Encyclopædia Britannica、8-22-2013
  2. ^ a b http://saladeimprensa.ibge.gov.br/noticias?view=noticia&id=1&busca=1&idnoticia=2704
  3. ^
  4. ^

External links

  • Official website (Portuguese)
  • Official homepage (English)


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